Browsing by Author "Wohlrab, Sebastian"
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- ItemCombination of chemo- and biocatalysis: Conversion of biomethane to methanol and formic acid(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Kunkel, Benny; Seeburg, Dominik; Peppel, Tim; Stier, Matthias; Wohlrab, SebastianIn the present day, methanol is mainly produced from methane via reforming processes, but research focuses on alternative production routes. Herein, we present a chemo-/biocatalytic oxidation cascade as a novel process to currently available methods. Starting from synthetic biogas, in the first step methane was oxidized to formaldehyde over a mesoporous VOx/SBA-15 catalyst. In the second step, the produced formaldehyde was disproportionated enzymatically towards methanol and formic acid in equimolar ratio by formaldehyde dismutase (FDM) obtained from Pseudomonas putida. Two processing routes were demonstrated: (a) batch wise operation using free formaldehyde dismutase after accumulating formaldehyde from the first step and (b) continuous operation with immobilized enzymes. Remarkably, the chemo-/biocatalytic oxidation cascades generate methanol in much higher productivity compared to methane monooxygenase (MMO) which, however, directly converts methane. Moreover, production steps for the generation of formic acid were reduced from four to two stages. © 2019 by the authors.
- ItemContinuous synthesis of diethyl carbonate from ethanol and CO2 over Ce–Zr–O catalysts(London : RSC Publ., 2015) Prymak, Iuliia; Kalevaru, Venkata Narayana; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Martin, AndreasCexZr1−xO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0) solids were prepared by a citrate method and characterized by various techniques such as N2-adsorption (BET-SA), XRD, XPS, TEM, H2-TPR, NH3- and CO2-TPD. The catalytic performance of these solids was evaluated for the direct synthesis of diethyl carbonate (DEC) from ethanol and CO2 in continuous mode using a plug-flow reactor (PFR). According to thermodynamic data, the reaction is favourable at low reaction temperatures and high reaction pressures. Thus, the catalytic experiments were carried out at reaction temperatures ranging from 80 to 180 °C and at reaction pressures from 80 to 180 bar. The CexZr1−xO2 catalysts exhibited significant differences in their performance mainly depending on (i) their Ce : Zr ratio and (ii) the different acid–base characteristics. Among the series Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 (C80Z) and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 (C50Z) catalysts displayed the most efficient performance. Moreover, C80Z, pretreated at 700 °C, yielded DEC at the equilibrium conversion level of YDEC ~ 0.7% at 140 °C and 140 bar at a CO2 : ethanol ratio of 6 : 1 at a LHSV of 42 Lliq kgcat−1 h−1.
- ItemCrystal structure of (E)-dodec-2-enoic acid(Chester : International Union of Crystallography, 2015) Sonneck, Marcel; Peppel, Tim; Spannenberg, Anke; Wohlrab, SebastianThe crystal structure of (E)-dodec-2-enoic acid, C12H22O2, an [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated carboxylic acid with a melting point (295 K) near room temperature, is characterized by carboxylic acid inversion dimers linked by pairs of O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The carboxylic acid group and the following three carbon atoms of the chain of the (E)-dodec-2-enoic acid molecule lie almost in one plane (r.m.s. deviation for the four C atoms and two O atoms = 0.012 Å), whereas the remaining carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain adopt a nearly fully staggered conformation [moduli of torsion angles vary from 174.01 (13) to 179.97 (13)°].
- ItemCrystal structure of (E)-hex-2-enoic acid(Chester : International Union of Crystallography, 2015) Peppel, Tim; Sonneck, Marcel; Spannenberg, Anke; Wohlrab, SebastianThe crystal structure of the title compound, C6H10O2, an [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated carboxylic acid, displays carboxylic acid inversion dimers linked by pairs of O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The packing is characterized by layers of acid dimers. All the non-H atoms of the (E)-hex-2-enoic acid molecule lie almost in the same plane (r.m.s. deviation for the non-H atoms = 0.018 Å).
- ItemCrystal structure of (E)-pent-2-enoic acid(Chester : International Union of Crystallography, 2015) Peppel, Tim; Sonneck, Marcel; Spannenberg, Anke; Wohlrab, SebastianThe molecule of the title compound, C5H8O2, a low-melting [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated carboxylic acid, is essentially planar [maximum displacement = 0.0239 (13) Å]. In the crystal, molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of O-H...O hydrogen bonds.
- ItemCrystal structure of (E)-undec-2-enoic acid(Chester : International Union of Crystallography, 2015) Sonneck, Marcel; Peppel, Tim; Spannenberg, Anke; Wohlrab, SebastianIn the molecule of the title low-melting [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated carboxylic acid, C11H20O2, the least-squares mean line through the octyl chain forms an angle of 60.10 (13)° with the normal to plane of the acrylic acid fragment (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related molecules are linked by pairs of O-H...O hydrogen bonds into dimers, forming layers parallel to the (041) plane.
- ItemDevelopment of Highly Stable Low Ni Content Catalyst for Dry Reforming of CH4-Rich Feedstocks(Weinheim : WILEY-VCH Verlag, 2020) Ha, Quan Luu Manh; Lund, Henrik; Kreyenschulte, Carsten; Bartling, Stephan; Atia, Hanan; Vuong, Than Huyen; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Armbruster, UdoHighly active and coking-resistant Ni catalysts suited for the dry reforming of CH4-rich gases (70 vol %, e. g. biogas or sour natural gas) were prepared starting from a Mg-rich Mg−Al hydrotalcite support precursor. Calcination at 1000 °C yields two phases, MgO and MgAl2O4 spinel. Complexation-deposition of Ni with citric acid on the preformed support as well as lanthanum addition yields a catalyst with remarkably low carbon accumulation over 100 h on stream attributed to both high Ni dispersion and preferred interactions of Ni with MgO on MgAl2O4. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemEnhancement and limits of the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde over V-SBA-15: Influence of water cofeed and product decomposition(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2021) Kunkel, Benny; Wohlrab, SebastianThe possibility of a selective catalytic oxidation of methane to formaldehyde has been known for decades, and positive influences of water added to the reaction mixture and ultra-short contact times have been reported. In the present work, the complexity of interdependencies has been revealed. Specific parameter variations can increase conversion and selectivity of the target product. Surprisingly, formaldehyde formation over VOx species and its decomposition in gas phase were equally dependent on the partial pressure of the added water, so that the sweet spot can only be found by varying the residence time. © 2021 The Author(s)
- ItemIn situ grown palladium nanoparticles on polyester fabric as easy-separable and recyclable catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reaction(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2021) Xu, Tiefeng; Lu, Panting; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Chen, Wenxing; Springer, Armin; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Lu, WangyangPalladium nanoparticles supported on low-melting polyester (Pd/LMPET) fabric were prepared through a microwave irradiation assisted method. In this way, in situ growth of Pd nanoparticles onto an easy to handle material was initiated and proceeded. The results of the characterization revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well-dispersed on the surfaces of the polyester fibers. The Pd/LMPET fabrics were then employed in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. They exhibited excellent catalytic activity in ethanol/water under air atmosphere at 50 °C. Importantly, the Pd/LMPET fabrics could be separated from reaction mixture conveniently and they can still maintain good activity after 8 cycles without Pd leaching. © 2021 The Authors
- ItemIncreasing the efficiency of optimized v-sba-15 catalysts in the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde by artificial neural network modelling(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Kunkel, Benny; Kabelitz, Anke; Buzanich, Ana Guilherme; Wohlrab, SebastianThe present study investigates the possibility of improving the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde over V-SBA-15 catalysts in two different ways. In a classical approach of catalyst optimization, the in situ synthesis of V-SBA-15 catalysts was optimized with regard to the applied pH value. Among the set of catalysts synthesized, a higher amount of incorporated vanadium, a higher content of polymeric VOx species as well as a less ordered structure of the support material were observed by increasing the pH values from 2.0 to 3.0. An optimum in performance during the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde with respect to activity and selectivity was found over V-SBA-15 prepared at a pH value of 2.5. With this knowledge, we have now evaluated the possibilities of reaction control using this catalyst. Specifically, artificial neural network modelling was applied after the collection of 232 training samples for obtaining insight into the influence of different reaction parameters (temperature; gas hourly space velocity (GHSV); and concentration of O2, N2 and H2O) onto methane conversion and selectivity towards formaldehyde. This optimization of reaction conditions resulted in an outstanding high space-time yield of 13.6 kgCH2O·kgcat·h−1. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemLow-Temperature Steam Reforming of Natural Gas after LPG-Enrichment with MFI Membranes(Basel : MDPI, 2018-12-12) Seeburg, Dominik; Liu, Dongjing; Dragomirova, Radostina; Atia, Hanan; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Amani, Hadis; Georgi, Gabriele; Kreft, Stefanie; Wohlrab, SebastianLow-temperature hydrogen production from natural gas via steam reforming requires novel processing concepts as well as stable catalysts. A process using zeolite membranes of the type MFI (Mobile FIve) was used to enrich natural gas with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) alkanes (in particular, propane and n-butane), in order to improve the hydrogen production from this mixture at a reduced temperature. For this purpose, a catalyst precursor based on Rh single-sites (1 mol% Rh) on alumina was transformed in situ to a Rh1/Al2O3 catalyst possessing better performance capabilities compared with commercial catalysts. A wet raw natural gas (57.6 vol% CH4) was fully reformed at 650 °C, with 1 bar absolute pressure over the Rh1/Al2O3 at a steam to carbon ratio S/C = 4, yielding 74.7% H2. However, at 350 °C only 21 vol% H2 was obtained under these conditions. The second mixture, enriched with LPG, was obtained from the raw gas after the membrane process and contained only 25.2 vol% CH4. From this second mixture, 47 vol% H2 was generated at 350 °C after steam reforming over the Rh1/Al2O3 catalyst at S/C = 4. At S/C = 1 conversion was suppressed for both gas mixtures. Single alkane reforming of C2–C4 showed different sensitivity for side reactions, e.g., methanation between 350 and 650 °C. These results contribute to ongoing research in the field of low-temperature hydrogen release from natural gas alkanes for fuel cell applications as well as for pre-reforming processes.
- ItemRice husk derived porous silica as support for pd and CeO2 for low temperature catalytic methane combustion(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Liu, Dongjing; Seeburg, Dominik; Kreft, Stefanie; Bindig, René; Hartmann, Ingo; Schneider, Denise; Enke, Dirk; Wohlrab, SebastianThe separation of Pd and CeO2 on the inner surface of controlled porous glass (CPG, obtained from phase-separated borosilicate glass after extraction) yields long-term stable and highly active methane combustion catalysts. However, the limited availability of the CPG makes such catalysts highly expensive and limits their applicability. In this work, porous silica obtained from acid leached rice husks after calcination (RHS) was used as a sustainable, cheap and broadly available substitute for the above mentioned CPG. RHS-supported Pd-CeO2 with separated CeO2 clusters and Pd nanoparticles was fabricated via subsequent impregnation/calcination of molten cerium nitrate and different amounts of palladium nitrate solution. The Pd/CeO2/RHS catalysts were employed for the catalytic methane combustion in the temperature range of 150–500◦C under methane lean conditions (1000 ppm) in a simulated off-gas consisting of 9.0 vol% O2, and 5.5 vol% CO2 balanced with N2. Additionally, tests with 10.5 vol% H2O as co-feed were carried out. The results revealed that the RHS-supported catalysts reached the performance of the cost intensive benchmark catalyst based on CPG. The incorporation of Pd-CeO2 into RHS additionally improved water-resistance compared to solely Pd/CeO2 lowering the required temperature for methane combustion in presence of 10.5 vol% H2O to values significantly below 500◦C (T90 = 425◦C). © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemSeparation of H2O/CO2 Mixtures by MFI Membranes: Experiment and Monte Carlo Study(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Wotzka, Alexander; Jorabchi, Majid Namayandeh; Wohlrab, SebastianThe separation of CO2 from gas streams is a central process to close the carbon cycle. Established amine scrubbing methods often require hot water vapour to desorb the previously stored CO2. In this work, the applicability of MFI membranes for H2O/CO2 separation is principally demonstrated by means of realistic adsorption isotherms computed by configurational-biased Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations, then parameters such as temperatures, pressures and compositions were identified at which inorganic membranes with high selectivity can separate hot water vapour and thus make it available for recycling. Capillary condensation/adsorption by water in the microporous membranes used drastically reduces the transport and thus the CO2 permeance. Thus, separation factors of αH2O/CO2 = 6970 could be achieved at 70 °C and 1.8 bar feed pressure. Furthermore, the membranes were tested for stability against typical amines used in gas scrubbing processes. The preferred MFI membrane showed particularly high stability under application conditions.
- ItemA simple guiding principle for the temperature dependence of the solubility of light gases in imidazolium-based ionic liquids derived from molecular simulations(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2016) Kerlé, Daniela; Namayandeh Jorabchi, Majid; Ludwig, Ralf; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Paschek, DietmarWe have determined the temperature dependence of the solvation behavior of a large collection of important light gases in imidazolium-based ionic liquids with the help of extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The motivation of our study is to unravel common features of the temperature dependent solvation under well controlled conditions, and to provide a guidance for cases, where experimental data from different sources disagree significantly. The solubility of molecular hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, krypton, argon, neon and carbon dioxide in the imidazolium based ionic liquids of type 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][NTf2]) with varying alkyl side chain lengths n = 2, 4, 6, 8 is computed for a temperature range between 300 K and 500 K at 1 bar. By applying Widom's particle insertion technique and Bennet's overlapping distribution method, we are able to determine the temperature dependent solvation free energies of those selected light gases in simulated imidazolium based ionic liquids with high statistical accuracy. Our simulations demonstrate that the magnitude of the solvation free energy of a gas molecule at a chosen reference temperature and that of its temperature-derivatives are intimately related to one another. We conclude that this "universal" behavior is rooted in a solvation entropy-enthalpy compensation effect, which seems to be a defining feature of the solvation of small molecules in ionic liquids. The observations lead to simple analytical relations, determining the temperature dependence of the solubility data based on the absolute solubility at a certain reference temperature. By comparing our results with available experimental data from many sources, we can show that our approach is particularly helpful for providing reliable estimates for the solvation behavior of very light gases, such as hydrogen, where conflicting experimental data exist.
- ItemSynthesis and molecular structures of the lowest melting odd- and even-numbered a,b-unsaturated carboxylic acids—(E)-hept-2-enoic acid and (E)-oct-2-enoic acid(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Sonneck, Marcel; Spannenberg, Anke; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Peppel, TimThe molecular structures of the two lowest melting odd- and even-numbered α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids—(E)-hept-2-enoic acid (C7) and (E)-oct-2-enoic acid (C8)—are herein reported. The title compounds were crystallized by slow evaporation of ethanolic solutions at −30 °C. C7 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1¯ with two molecules in the unit cell and C8 in the monoclinic space group C2/c with eight molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters for C7 are: a = 5.3049(2) Å, b = 6.6322(3) Å, c = 11.1428(5) Å, α = 103.972(3)°, β = 97.542(3)°, γ = 90.104(3)°, and V = 376.92(3) Å3 (T = 150(2) K). The unit cell parameters for C8 are: a = 19.032(10) Å, b = 9.368(5) Å, c = 11.520(6) Å, β = 123.033(11)°, and V = 1721.80(16) Å3 (T = 200(2) K).
- ItemSynthesis of Single Atom Based Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts: High Selectivity and Activity for Hydrosilylation Reactions(Washington, DC : ACS Publ., 2017) Cui, Xinjiang; Junge, Kathrin; Dai, Xingchao; Kreyenschulte, Carsten; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Shi, Feng; Brückner, Angelika; Beller, MatthiasCatalytic hydrosilylation represents a straightforward and atom-efficient methodology for the creation of C-Si bonds. In general, the application of homogeneous platinum complexes prevails in industry and academia. Herein, we describe the first heterogeneous single atom catalysts (SACs), which are conveniently prepared by decorating alumina nanorods with platinum atoms. The resulting stable material efficiently catalyzes hydrosilylation of industrially relevant olefins with high TON (≈105). A variety of substrates is selectively hydrosilylated including compounds with sensitive reducible and other functional groups (N, B, F, Cl). The single atom based catalyst shows significantly higher activity compared to related Pt nanoparticles.
- ItemVerbundvorhaben NAWAROs: Energetisch-stoffliche Verwertung von Kulturpflanzen - Ligninabtrennung, Fermentation und partielle Oxidation, Teilvorhaben: Oxidation von Methan und Methan/Kohlendioxid-Gemischen zu Oxygenaten : Abschlussbericht ; Laufzeit des Vorhabens: 01.06.2010 - 31.05.2013 (kostenneutrale Verlängerung bis 31.12.2013)(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2014) Martin, Andreas; Wohlrab, Sebastian[no abstract available]