Browsing by Author "Zhandarov, Serge"
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- ItemCoating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers: Variation of Tensile Properties, Failure Behavior, and Adhesion Strength(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2015) Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jianwen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-WeiAn experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test. In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous-based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous-based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved, leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis. The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this, shear sliding along the interface between the matrix and the outer fiber layer impregnated with the resin was observed for epoxy resin-coated fibers. These fibers have been successfully pulled out of the matrix droplets and shown that the average local interfacial shear stress value was 63 MPa (with apparent IFSS values 33–60 MPa). The interfacial frictional stress between the fiber and the matrix was rather high (9.5 MPa), which can be attributed to the complex structure of the interface and the fiber twisting.
- ItemEnhanced Interfacial Shear Strength and Critical Energy Release Rate in Single Glass Fiber-Crosslinked Polypropylene Model Microcomposites(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Gohs, Uwe; Mueller, Michael Thomas; Zschech, Carsten; Zhandarov, SergeContinuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites produced by using hybrid yarns show reduced fiber-to-matrix adhesion in comparison to their thermosetting counterparts. Their consolidation involves no curing, and the chemical reactions are limited to the glass fiber surface, the silane coupling agent, and the maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene. This paper investigates the impact of electron beam crosslinkable toughened polypropylene, alkylene-functionalized single glass fibers, and electron-induced grafting and crosslinking on the local interfacial shear strength and critical energy release rate in single glass fiber polypropylene model microcomposites. A systematic comparison of non-, amino-, alkyl-, and alkylene-functionalized single fibers in virgin, crosslinkable toughened and electron beam crosslinked toughened polypropylene was done in order to study their influence on the local interfacial strength parameters. In comparison to amino-functionalized single glass fibers in polypropylene/maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, an enhanced local interfacial shear strength (+20%) and critical energy release rate (+80%) were observed for alkylene-functionalized single glass fibers in electron beam crosslinked toughened polypropylene.
- ItemLaccase-Enzyme Treated Flax Fibre for Use in Natural Fibre Epoxy Composites(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Brodowsky, Hanna M.; Hennig, Anne; Müller, Michael Thomas; Werner, Anett; Zhandarov, Serge; Gohs, UweNatural fibres have a high potential as reinforcement of polymer matrices, as they combine a high specific strength and modulus with sustainable production and reasonable prices. Modifying the fibre surface is a common method to increase the adhesion and thereby enhance the mechanical properties of composites. In this study, a novel sustainable surface treatment is presented: the fungal enzyme laccase was utilised with the aim of covalently binding the coupling agent dopamine to flax fibre surfaces. The goal is to improve the interfacial strength towards an epoxy matrix. SEM and AFM micrographs showed that the modification changes the surface morphology, indicating a deposition of dopamine on the surface. Fibre tensile tests, which were performed to check whether the fibre structure was damaged during the treatment, showed that no decrease in tensile strength or modulus occurred. Single fibre pullout tests showed a 30% increase in interfacial shear strength (IFSS) due to the laccase-mediated bonding of the coupling agent dopamine. These results demonstrate that a laccase + dopamine treatment modifies flax fibres sustainably and increases the interfacial strength towards epoxy.
- ItemWhy Should the “Alternative” Method of Estimating Local Interfacial Shear Strength in a Pull-Out Test Be Preferred to Other Methods?(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Zhandarov, Serge; Mäder, Edith; Gohs, UweOne of the most popular micromechanical techniques of determining the local interfacial shear strength (local IFSS, τd) between a fiber and a matrix is the single fiber pull-out test. The τd values are calculated from the characteristic forces determined from the experimental force–displacement curves using a model which relates their values to local interfacial strength parameters. Traditionally, the local IFSS is estimated from the debond force, Fd, which corresponds to the crack initiation and manifests itself by a “kink” in the force–displacement curve. However, for some specimens the kink point is hardly discernible, and the “alternative” method based on the post-debonding force, Fb, and the maximum force reached in the test, Fmax, has been proposed. Since the experimental force–displacement curve includes three characteristic points in which the relationship between the current values of the applied load and the crack length is reliably established, and, at the same time, it is fully determined by only two interfacial parameters, τd and the interfacial frictional stress, τf, several methods for the determination of τd and τf can be proposed. In this paper, we analyzed several theoretical and experimental force–displacement curves for different fiber-reinforced materials (thermoset, thermoplastic and concrete) and compared all seven possible methods of τd and τf calculation. It was shown that the “alternative” method was the most accurate and reliable one, while the traditional approach often yielded the worst results. Therefore, we proposed that the “alternative” method should be preferred for the experimental force–displacement curves analysis.