High-performance electronics and optoelectronics of monolayer tungsten diselenide full film from pre-seeding strategy
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Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) possesses extraordinary electronic properties for applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and emerging exciton physics. The synthesis of monolayer WSe2 film is of topmost for device arrays and integrated circuits. The monolayer WSe2 film has yet been reported by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach, and the nucleation mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report a pre-seeding strategy for finely regulating the nuclei density at an early stage and achieving a fully covered film after chemical vapor deposition growth. The underlying mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation from the pre-seeding tungsten oxide nanoparticles. At first, we optimized the precursor concentration for pre-seeding. Besides, we confirmed the superiority of the pre-seeding method, compared with three types of substrate pretreatments, including nontreatment, sonication in an organic solvent, and oxygen plasma. Eventually, the high-quality synthetic WSe2 monolayer film exhibits excellent device performance in field-effect transistors and photodetectors. We extracted thermodynamic activation energy from the nucleation and growth data. Our results may shed light on the wafer-scale production of homogeneous monolayer films of WSe2, other 2D materials, and their van der Waals heterostructures.