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An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: An emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling

2016, Baars, Holger, Kanitz, Thomas, Engelmann, Ronny, Althausen, Dietrich, Heese, Birgit, Komppula, Mika, Preißler, Jana, Tesche, Matthias, Ansmann, Albert, Wandinger, Ulla, Lim, Jae-Hyun, Ahn, Joon Young, Stachlewska, Iwona S., Amiridis, Vassilis, Marinou, Eleni, Seifert, Patric, Hofer, Julian, Skupin, Annett, Schneider, Florian, Bohlmann, Stephanie, Foth, Andreas, Bley, Sebastian, Pfüller, Anne, Giannakaki, Eleni, Lihavainen, Heikki, Viisanen, Yrjö, Hooda, Rakesh Kumar, Pereira, Sérgio Nepomuceno, Bortol, Daniele, Wagner, Frank, Mattis, Ina, Janicka, Lucja, Markowicz, Krzysztof M., Achtert, Peggy, Artaxo, Paulo, Pauliquevis, Theotonio, Souza, Rodrigo A.F., Sharma, Ved Prakesh, van Zyl, Pieter Gideon, Beukes, Johan Paul, Sun, Junying, Rohwer, Erich G., Deng, Ruru, Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet, Zamorano, Felix

A global vertically resolved aerosol data set covering more than 10 years of observations at more than 20 measurement sites distributed from 63° N to 52° S and 72° W to 124° E has been achieved within the Raman and polarization lidar network PollyNET. This network consists of portable, remote-controlled multiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidars (Polly) for automated and continuous 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. PollyNET is an independent, voluntary, and scientific network. All Polly lidars feature a standardized instrument design with different capabilities ranging from single wavelength to multiwavelength systems, and now apply unified calibration, quality control, and data analysis. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at http://polly.tropos.de/. The paper gives an overview of the observations on four continents and two research vessels obtained with eight Polly systems. The specific aerosol types at these locations (mineral dust, smoke, dust-smoke and other dusty mixtures, urban haze, and volcanic ash) are identified by their Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, and depolarization ratio. The vertical aerosol distribution at the PollyNET locations is discussed on the basis of more than 55 000 automatically retrieved 30 min particle backscatter coefficient profiles at 532 nm as this operating wavelength is available for all Polly lidar systems. A seasonal analysis of measurements at selected sites revealed typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences. These studies show the potential of PollyNET to support the establishment of a global aerosol climatology that covers the entire troposphere.

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Application of the Garrlic algorithm for the characterization of dust and marine particles utilizing the lidar-sunphotometer synergy

2016, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Amiridis, Vassilis, Lopatin, Anton, Marinou, Eleni, Kokkalis, Panos, Solomos, Stavros, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Wandinger, Ulla, Ansmann, Albert, Schüttemeyer, Dirk, Dubovik, Oleg

The importance of studying the vertical distribution of aerosol plumes is prominent in regional and climate studies. The new Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) provides this opportunity combining active and passive ground-based remote sensing from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Here, we utilize GARRLiC capabilities for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles at the Eastern Mediterranean region during the Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp). Two different case studies are presented, a dust-dominated case which we managed to characterize successfully in terms of the particle microphysical properties and their vertical distribution and a case of two separate layers of marine and dust particles for which the characterization proved to be more challenging.

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Observation of Arabian and Saharan dust in Cyprus with a new generation of the smart Raman lidar Polly

2016, Engelmann, Ronny, Ansmann, Albert, Bühl, Johannes, Heese, Birgit, Baars, Holger, Althausen, Dietrich, Marinou, Eleni, Amiridis, Vassilis, Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet, Vrekoussis, Mihalis

The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the “3+2” measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].

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The automated multiwavelength Raman polarization and water-vapor lidar PollyXT: The neXT generation

2016, Engelmann, Ronny, Kanitz, Thomas, Baars, Holger, Heese, Birgit, Althausen, Dietrich, Skupin, Annett, Wandinger, Ulla, Komppula, Mika, Stachlewska, Iwona S., Amiridis, Vassilis, Marinou, Eleni, Mattis, Ina, Linné, Holger, Ansmann, Albert

The atmospheric science community demands autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. For this purpose, a portable lidar called Polly was developed at TROPOS in 2003. The lidar system was continuously improved with gained experience from the EARLINET community, involvement in worldwide field campaigns, and international institute collaborations within the last 10 years. Here we present recent changes of the setup of the portable multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar PollyXT and discuss the improved capabilities of the system by means of a case study. The latest system developments include an additional near-range receiver unit for Raman measurements of the backscatter and extinction coefficient down to 120 m above ground, a water-vapor channel, and channels for simultaneous measurements of the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm. Quality improvements were achieved by systematically following the EARLINET guidelines and the international PollyNET quality assurance developments. A modified ship radar ensures measurements in agreement with air-traffic safety regulations and allows for 24∕7 monitoring of the atmospheric state with PollyXT.