Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Item
    Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Chondrosarcoma Cells Affects Proliferation and Cell Membrane Permeability
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International, 2020) Haralambiev, Lyubomir; Nitsch, Andreas; Jacoby, Josephine M.; Strakeljahn, Silas; Bekeschus, Sander; Mustea, Alexander; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B.
    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common malign bone tumor in adults. Surgical resection of the tumor is recommended because of its resistance to clinical treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Thus, the prognosis for patients mainly depends on sufficient surgical resection. Due to this, research on alternative therapies is needed. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas that contains various reactive species. Previous studies have shown an anti-oncogenic potential of CAP on different cancer cell types. The current study examined the effects of treatment with CAP on two chondrosarcoma cell lines (CAL-78, SW1353). Through proliferation assay, the cell growth after CAP-treatment was determined. A strong antiproliferative effect for both cell lines was detected. By fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay and ATP release assay, alterations in the cell membrane and associated translocation of low molecular weight particles through the cytoplasmic membrane were observed. In supernatant, the non-membrane-permeable FDA and endogenously synthesized ATP detected suggest an increased membrane permeability after CAP treatment. Similar results were shown by the dextran-uptake assay. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopic G-/F-actin assay was performed. G-and F-actin were selectively dyed, and the ratio was measured. The presented results indicate CAP-induced changes in cell membrane function and possible alterations in actin-cytoskeleton, which may contribute to the antiproliferative effects of CAP. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Item
    An Innovative Therapeutic Option for the Treatment of Skeletal Sarcomas: Elimination of Osteo- and Ewing’s Sarcoma Cells Using Physical Gas Plasma
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International, 2020) Jacoby, Josephine M.; Strakeljahn, Silas; Nitsch, Andreas; Bekeschus, Sander; Hinz, Peter; Mustea, Alexander; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Tzvetkov, Mladen V.; Haralambiev, Lyubomir; Stope, Matthias B.
    Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma are the most common malignant bone tumors. Conventional therapies such as polychemotherapy, local surgery, and radiotherapy improve the clinical outcome for patients. However, they are accompanied by acute and chronic side effects that affect the quality of life of patients, motivating novel research lines on therapeutic options for the treatment of sarcomas. Previous experimental work with physical plasma operated at body temperature (cold atmospheric plasma, CAP) demonstrated anti-oncogenic effects on different cancer cell types. This study investigated the anti-cancer effect of CAP on two bone sarcoma entities, osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma, which were represented by four cell lines (U2-OS, MNNG/HOS, A673, and RD-ES). A time-dependent anti-proliferative effect of CAP on all cell lines was observed. CAP-induced alterations in cell membrane functionality were detected by performing a fluorescein diacetate (FDA) release assay and an ATP release assay. Additionally, modifications of the cell membrane and modifications in the actin cytoskeleton composition were examined using fluorescence microscopy monitoring dextran-uptake assay and G-/F-actin distribution. Furthermore, the CAP-induced induction of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and active caspases assays. The observations suggest that a single CAP treatment of bone sarcoma cells may have significant anti-oncogenic effects and thus may be a promising extension to existing applications. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Item
    Inhibition of Angiogenesis by Treatment with Cold Atmospheric Plasma as a Promising Therapeutic Approach in Oncology
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International, 2020) Haralambiev, Lyubomir; Neuffer, Ole; Nitsch, Andreas; Kross, Nele C.; Bekeschus, Sander; Hinz, Peter; Mustea, Alexander; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Gümbel, Denis; Stope, Matthias B.
    Background: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is increasingly used in the field of oncology. Many of the mechanisms of action of CAP, such as inhibiting proliferation, DNA breakage, or the destruction of cell membrane integrity, have been investigated in many different types of tumors. In this regard, data are available from both in vivo and in vitro studies. Not only the direct treatment of a tumor but also the influence on its blood supply play a decisive role in the success of the therapy and the patient’s further prognosis. Whether the CAP influences this process is unknown, and the first indications in this regard are addressed in this study. Methods: Two different devices, kINPen and MiniJet, were used as CAP sources. Human endothelial cell line HDMEC were treated directly and indirectly with CAP, and growth kinetics were performed. To indicate apoptotic processes, caspase-3/7 assay and TUNEL assay were used. The influence of CAP on cellular metabolism was examined using the MTT and glucose assay. After CAP exposure, tube formation assay was performed to examine the capillary tube formation abilities of HDMEC and their migration was messured in separate assays. To investigate in a possible mutagenic effect of CAP treatment, a hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase assay with non malignant cell (CCL-93) line was performed. Results: The direct CAP treatment of the HDMEC showed a robust growth-inhibiting effect, but the indirect one did not. The MMT assay showed an apparent reduction in cell metabolism in the first 24 h after CAP treatment, which appeared to normalize 48 h and 72 h after CAP application. These results were also confirmed by the glucose assay. The caspase 3/7 assay and TUNEL assay showed a significant increase in apoptotic processes in the HDMEC after CAP treatment. These results were independent of the CAP device. Both the migration and tube formation of HDMEC were significant inhibited after CAP-treatment. No malignant effects could be demonstrated by the CAP treatment on a non-malignant cell line. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Item
    H2A.X Phosphorylation in Oxidative Stress and Risk Assessment in Plasma Medicine
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Schütz, Clarissa S.; Stope, Matthias B.; Bekeschus, Sander
    At serine139-phosphorylated gamma histone H2A.X (γH2A.X) has been established over the decades as sensitive evidence of radiation-induced DNA damage, especially DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in radiation biology. Therefore, γH2A.X has been considered a suitable marker for biomedical applications and a general indicator of direct DNA damage with other therapeutic agents, such as cold physical plasma. Medical plasma technology generates a partially ionized gas releasing a plethora of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS) simultaneously that have been used for therapeutic purposes such as wound healing and cancer treatment. The quantification of γH2A.X as a surrogate parameter of direct DNA damage has often been used to assess genotoxicity in plasma-treated cells, whereas no sustainable mutagenic potential of the medical plasma treatment could be identified despite H2A.X phosphorylation. However, phosphorylated H2A.X occurs during apoptosis, which is associated with exposure to cold plasma and ROS. This review summarizes the current understanding of γH2A.X induction and function in oxidative stress in general and plasma medicine in particular. Due to the progress towards understanding the mechanisms of H2A.X phosphorylation in the absence of DSB and ROS, observations of γH2A.X in medical fields should be carefully interpreted.
  • Item
    BK virus-induced nephritis and cystitis after matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantation: A case report
    (Chichester : Wiley, 2020) Gelbrich, Nadine; Stope, Matthias B.; Bekeschus, Sander; Weigel, Martin; Burchardt, Martin; Zimmermann, Uwe
    Currently, there is no standard therapy for a BK virus infection of the urogenital tract in immunocompromised, stem cell transplanted patients, so that early diagnosis and introduction of supportive measures have the highest response rates to date. © 2020 The Authors. Clinical Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Item
    Modulation of the Tumor-Associated Immuno-Environment by Non-Invasive Physical Plasma
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Förster, Sarah; Niu, Yuequn; Eggers, Benedikt; Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Bekeschus, Sander; Mustea, Alexander; Stope, Matthias B.
    Over the past 15 years, investigating the efficacy of non-invasive physical plasma (NIPP) in cancer treatment as a safe oxidative stress inducer has become an active area of research. So far, most studies focused on the NIPP-induced apoptotic death of tumor cells. However, whether NIPP plays a role in the anti-tumor immune responses need to be deciphered in detail. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of the potential effects of NIPP on immune cells, tumor–immune interactions, and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In general, relying on their inherent anti-oxidative defense systems, immune cells show a more resistant character than cancer cells in the NIPP-induced apoptosis, which is an important reason why NIPP is considered promising in cancer management. Moreover, NIPP treatment induces immunogenic cell death of cancer cells, leading to maturation of dendritic cells and activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells to further eliminate the cancer cells. Some studies also suggest that NIPP treatment may promote anti-tumor immune responses via other mechanisms such as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and the desmoplasia of tumor stroma. Though more evidence is required, we expect a bright future for applying NIPP in clinical cancer management.
  • Item
    Gas Plasma Exposure of Glioblastoma Is Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory in Patient-Derived GBM Tissue
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Ispirjan, Mikael; Freund, Eric; Kinnen, Frederik; Moritz, Juliane; Saadati, Fariba; Eckroth, Jacqueline; Singer, Debora; Stope, Matthias B.; Wende, Kristian; Ritter, Christoph A.; Schroeder, Henry W. S.; Marx, Sascha
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Therapeutic options for glioblastoma are maximal surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Therapy resistance and tumor recurrence demand, however, new strategies. Several experimental studies have suggested gas plasma technology, a partially ionized gas that generates a potent mixture of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as a future complement to the existing treatment arsenal. However, aspects such as immunomodulation, inflammatory consequences, and feasibility studies using GBM tissue have not been addressed so far. In vitro, gas plasma generated ROS that oxidized cells and led to a treatment time-dependent metabolic activity decline and G2 cell cycle arrest. In addition, peripheral blood-derived monocytes were co-cultured with glioblastoma cells, and immunomodulatory surface expression markers and cytokine release were screened. Gas plasma treatment of either cell type, for instance, decreased the expression of the M2-macrophage marker CD163 and the tolerogenic molecule SIGLEC1 (CD169). In patient-derived GBM tissue samples exposed to the plasma jet kINPen ex vivo, apoptosis was significantly increased. Quantitative chemokine/cytokine release screening revealed gas plasma exposure to significantly decrease 5 out of 11 tested chemokines and cytokines, namely IL-6, TGF-β, sTREM-2, b-NGF, and TNF-α involved in GBM apoptosis and immunomodulation. In summary, the immuno-modulatory and proapoptotic action shown in this study might be an important step forward to first clinical observational studies on the future discovery of gas plasma technology’s potential in neurosurgery and neuro-oncology especially in putative adjuvant or combinatory GBM treatment settings.
  • Item
    Devitalization of Glioblastoma Cancer Cells by Non-invasive Physical Plasma: Modulation of Proliferative Signalling Cascades
    (Attiki : [Verlag nicht ermittelbar], 2022) Lehmann, Sebastian; Bien-Möller, Sandra; Marx, Sascha; Bekeschus, Sander; Schroeder, Henry W.S.; Mustea, Alexander; Stope, Matthias B.
    Background/Aim: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most lethal type of cancer of the central nervous system in adults. Despite aggressive treatment, which is based on surgical resection, if possible, followed by radiation and chemotherapy, a high recurrence rate and therapy resistance is observed. Thus, additional innovative therapies are urgently needed to improve the poor median survival of only 15 months. Treatment of solid tumours with non-invasive physical plasma (NIPP) represents such a novel and innovative anticancer procedure. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the effect of NIPP, an ionized argon gas, on the in vitro growth of human GBM cell lines, LN-18 and U-87 MG. Proliferation was measured by live cell count. Subsequently, proliferative factors were analysed at the level of nucleic acids (polymerase chain reaction) and proteins (western blotting). Results: For both GBM lines, a treatment time-dependent decrease in growth was observed compared to controls. Additionally, NIPP treatment resulted in reduced rates of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 ERK1/2 expression, whereas expression of p21, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and heat-shock proteins 90α and 90β was not affected. In both cell lines, a strong increase in expression of tumour-suppressive microRNA-1 (miR-1) was detected after exposure to NIPP. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that NIPP is able to efficiently attenuate growth of GBM cells and suggest AKT1, ERK1/2 and miR-1 to be pivotal factors of NIPP-modulated cellular signalling. Translated into the clinical setting, NIPP may represent a promising option for the treatment of GBM.
  • Item
    Gas plasma-treated prostate cancer cells augment myeloid cell activity and cytotoxicity
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Bekeschus, Sander; Ressel, Verena; Freund, Eric; Gelbrich, Nadine; Mustea, Alexander; Stope, Matthias B.
    Despite recent improvements in cancer treatment, with many of them being related to foster antitumor immunity, tumor-related deaths continue to be high. Novel avenues are needed to complement existing therapeutic strategies in oncology. Medical gas plasma technology recently gained attention due to its antitumor activity. Gas plasmas act via the local deposition of a plethora of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote the oxidative cancer cell death. The immunological consequences of plasma-mediated tumor cell death are only poorly understood, however. To this end, we exposed two prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3) to gas plasma in vitro, and investigated the immunomodulatory effects of the supernatants in as well as of direct co-culturing with two human myeloid cell lines (THP-1, HL-60). After identifying the cytotoxic action of the kINPen plasma jet, the supernatants of plasma-treated prostate cancer cells modulated myeloid cell-related mitochondrial ROS production and their metabolic activity, proliferation, surface marker expression, and cytokine release. Direct co-culture amplified differentiation-like surface marker expression in myeloid cells and promoted their antitumor-toxicity in the gas plasma over the untreated control conditions. The results suggest that gas plasma-derived ROS not only promote prostate cancer cell death but also augment myeloid cell activity and cytotoxicity. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Item
    New Approach against Chondrosoma Cells—Cold Plasma Treatment Inhibits Cell Motility and Metabolism, and Leads to Apoptosis
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Nitsch, Andreas; Strakeljahn, Silas; Jacoby, Josephine M.; Sieb, Konrad F.; Mustea, Alexander; Bekeschus, Sander; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B.; Haralambiev, Lyubomir
    (1) Background: Chondrosarcoma (CS) is a malignant primary bone tumor with a carti-laginous origin. Its slow cell division and severely restricted vascularization are responsible for its poor responsiveness to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The decisive factor for the prognosis of CS patients is the only adequate therapy—surgical resection. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is emerging as a new option in anti-cancer therapy. Its effect on chondrosarcomas has been poorly investigated. (2) Methods: Two CS cell lines—SW 1353 and CAL 78—were used. Various assays, such as cell growth kinetics, glucose uptake, and metabolic activity assay, along with two different apoptosis assays were performed after CAP treatment. A radius cell migration assay was used to examine cell motility. (3) Results: Both cell lines showed different growth behavior, which was taken into account when using the assays. After CAP treatment, a reduction in metabolic activity was observed in both cell lines. The immediate effect of CAP showed a reduction in cell numbers and in influence on this cell line’s growth rate. The measurement of the glucose concentration in the cell culture medium showed an increase after CAP treatment. Live-dead cell imaging shows an increase in the proportion of dead cells over the incubation time for both cell lines. There was a significant increase in apoptotic signals after 48 h and 72 h for both cell lines in both assays. The migration assay showed that CAP treatment inhibited the motility of chondrosarcoma cells. The effects in all experiments were related to the duration of CAP exposure. (4) Conclusions: The CAP treatment of CS cells inhibits their growth, motility, and metabolism by initiating apoptotic processes.