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    In situ measurements of optical properties at Tinfou (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Kaaden, N.; Massling, A.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Deutscher, C.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In situ measurements of optical and physical properties of mineral dust were performed at the outskirts of the Saharan Desert in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment part 1 (SAMUM-1). Goals of the field study were to achieve information on the extent and composition of the dust particle size distribution and the optical properties of dust at the ground. For the particle number size distribution, measured with a DMPS/APS, a size dependent dynamic shape factor was considered. The mean refractive index of the particles in this field study is 1.53–4.1 × 10-3i at 537 nm wavelength and 1.53–3.1 × 10-3i at 637 nm wavelength derived from measurements of scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the particle size distribution. Whereas the real part of the refractive index is rather constant, the imaginary part varies depending on the mineral dust concentrations. For high dust concentration the single scattering albedo is primarily influenced by iron oxide and is 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.01 at 537 nm and 637 nm wavelength, respectively. During low dust concentration the single scattering albedo is more influenced by a soot-type absorber and is 0.89 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.01 for the same wavelengths.
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    Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a primary forest site in Amazonia
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2013) Rizzo, L.V.; Artaxo, P.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Paixão, M.; Cirino, G.G.; Arana, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Fors, E.O.; Wiedemann, K.T.; Leal, L.S.M.; Kulmala, M.
    A long term experiment was conducted in a primary forest area in Amazonia, with continuous in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in the Amazon Basin. Two major classes of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January–June), naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July–December), transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm−1 to 22 Mm−1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm−1 to 2.8 Mm−1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode (PM2) particles (40–80% of PM10 mass), while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA) did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry aerosols. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this primary forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency absolute values were below −3.5 W m−2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of out-of-Basin aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected, characterized by a consistent increase on particle scattering (factor 2.5) and absorption coefficients (factor 5). Episodes of biomass burning and mineral dust particles advected from Africa were observed between January and April, characterized by enhanced concentrations of crustal elements (Al, Si, Ti, Fe) and potassium in the fine mode. During these episodes, median particle absorption coefficients increased by a factor of 2, whereas median SSA values decreased by 7%, in comparison to wet season conditions.
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    Aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain during HaChi campaign: An in-situ optical closure study
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Ma, N.; Zhao, C.S.; Nowak, A.; Müller, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Cheng, Y.F.; Deng, Z.Z.; Liu, P.F.; Xu, W.Y.; Ran, L.; Yan, P.; Göbel, T.; Hallbauer, E.; Mildenberger, K.; Henning, S.; Yu, J.; Chen, L.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Stratmann, F.; Wiedensohler, A.
    The largest uncertainty in the estimation of climate forcing stems from atmospheric aerosols. In early spring and summer of 2009, two periods of in-situ measurements on aerosol physical and chemical properties were conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China) project at Wuqing, a town between Beijing and Tianjin in the North China Plain (NCP). Aerosol optical properties, including the scattering coefficient (σsp), the hemispheric back scattering coefficient (σbsp), the absorption coefficient (σap), as well as the single scattering albedo (ω), are presented. The diurnal and seasonal variations are analyzed together with meteorology and satellite data. The mean values of σsp, 550 nm of the dry aerosol in spring and summer are 280±253 and 379±251 Mm−1, respectively. The average σap for the two periods is respectively 47±38 and 43±27 Mm−1. The mean values of ω at the wavelength of 637 nm are 0.82±0.05 and 0.86±0.05 for spring and summer, respectively. The relative high levels of σsp and σbsp are representative of the regional aerosol pollution in the NCP. Pronounced diurnal cycle of $σsp, σap and ω are found, mainly influenced by the evolution of boundary layer and the accumulation of local emissions during nighttime. The pollutants transported from the southwest of the NCP are more significant than that from the two megacities, Beijing and Tianjin, in both spring and summer. An optical closure experiment is conducted to better understand the uncertainties of the measurements. Good correlations (R>0.98) are found between the values measured by the nephelometer and the values calculated with a modified Mie model. The Monte Carlo simulation shows an uncertainty of about 30 % for the calculations. Considering all possible uncertainties of measurements, calculated σsp and σbsp agree well with the measured values, indicating a stable performance of instruments and thus reliable aerosol optical data.
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    Tropospheric aerosol scattering and absorption over central Europe: A closure study for the dry particle state
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Ma, N.; Birmili, W.; Müller, T.; Tuch, T.; Cheng, Y.F.; Xu, W.Y.; Zhao, C.S.; Wiedensohler, A.
    This work analyses optical properties of the dry tropospheric aerosol measured at the regional Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) observation site Melpitz in East Germany. For a continuous observation period between 2007 and 2010, we provide representative values of the dry-state scattering coefficient, hemispheric backscattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, single scattering albedo, and scattering Ångström exponent. Besides the direct measurement, the aerosol scattering coefficient was alternatively computed from experimental particle number size distributions using a Mie model. Within pre-defined limits, a closure could be achieved with the direct measurement. The achievement of closure implies that such calculations can be used as a high-level quality control measure for data sets involving multiple instrumentation. All dry-state optical properties show pronounced annual and diurnal variations, which are attributed to the corresponding variations in the regional emission fluxes, the intensity of secondary particle formation, and the mixing layer height. Air mass classification shows that atmospheric stability is a major factor influencing the dry aerosol properties at the GAW station. In the cold season, temperature inversions limit the volume available for atmospheric mixing, so that the dry-state aerosol optical properties near the ground proved quite sensitive to the geographical origin of the air mass. In the warm season, when the atmosphere is usually well-mixed during daytime, considerably less variability was observed for the optical properties between different air masses. This work provides, on the basis of quality-checked in situ measurements, a first step towards a climatological assessment of direct aerosol radiative forcing in the region under study.