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    Comparison of particle number size distribution trends in ground measurements and climate models
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Leinonen, Ville; Kokkola, Harri; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Mielonen, Tero; Kühn, Thomas; Nieminen, Tuomo; Heikkinen, Simo; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Bergman, Tommi; Carslaw, Ken; Decesari, Stefano; Fiebig, Markus; Hussein, Tareq; Kivekäs, Niku; Krejci, Radovan; Kulmala, Markku; Leskinen, Ari; Massling, Andreas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Mulcahy, Jane P.; Noe, Steffen M.; van Noije, Twan; O'Connor, Fiona M.; O'Dowd, Colin; Olivie, Dirk; Pernov, Jakob B.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Seland, Øyvind; Schulz, Michael; Scott, Catherine E.; Skov, Henrik; Swietlicki, Erik; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Virtanen, Annele; Mikkonen, Santtu
    Despite a large number of studies, out of all drivers of radiative forcing, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of particle number concentrations in nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes at 21 measurement sites in Europe and the Arctic. For 13 of those sites, with longer measurement time series, we compared the field observations with the results from five climate models, namely EC-Earth3, ECHAM-M7, ECHAM-SALSA, NorESM1.2, and UKESM1. This is the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in situ observations from Europe and five earth system models (ESMs). We found that the trends of particle number concentrations were mostly consistent and decreasing in both measurements and models. However, for many sites, climate models showed weaker decreasing trends than the measurements. Seasonal variability in measured number concentrations, quantified by the ratio between maximum and minimum monthly number concentration, was typically stronger at northern measurement sites compared to other locations. Models had large differences in their seasonal representation, and they can be roughly divided into two categories: for EC-Earth and NorESM, the seasonal cycle was relatively similar for all sites, and for other models the pattern of seasonality varied between northern and southern sites. In addition, the variability in concentrations across sites varied between models, some having relatively similar concentrations for all sites, whereas others showed clear differences in concentrations between remote and urban sites. To conclude, although all of the model simulations had identical input data to describe anthropogenic mass emissions, trends in differently sized particles vary among the models due to assumptions in emission sizes and differences in how models treat size-dependent aerosol processes. The inter-model variability was largest in the accumulation mode, i.e. sizes which have implications for aerosol-cloud interactions. Our analysis also indicates that between models there is a large variation in efficiency of long-range transportation of aerosols to remote locations. The differences in model results are most likely due to the more complex effect of different processes instead of one specific feature (e.g. the representation of aerosol or emission size distributions). Hence, a more detailed characterization of microphysical processes and deposition processes affecting the long-range transport is needed to understand the model variability.
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    An optical particle size spectrometer for aircraft-borne measurements in IAGOS-CARIBIC
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Hermann, Markus; Weigelt, Andreas; Assmann, Denise; Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Conrath, Thomas; Voigtländer, Jens; Heintzenberg, Jost; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Deshler, Terry; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A.M.; Zahn, Andreas
    The particle number size distribution is an important parameter to characterize the atmospheric aerosol and its influence on the Earth's climate. Here we describe a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for measurements of the accumulation mode particle number size distribution in the tropopause region on board a passenger aircraft (IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System – Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A modified KS93 particle sensor from RION Co., Ltd., together with a new airflow system and a dedicated data acquisition system, is the key component of the CARIBIC OPSS. The instrument records individual particle pulse signal curves in the particle size range 130–1110 nm diameter (for a particle refractive index of 1.47-i0.006) together with a time stamp and thus allows the post-flight choice of the time resolution and the size distribution bin width. The CARIBIC OPSS has a 50 % particle detection diameter of 152 nm and a maximum asymptotic counting efficiency of 98 %. The instrument's measurement performance shows no pressure dependency and no particle coincidence for free tropospheric conditions. The size response function of the CARIBIC OPSS was obtained by a polystyrene latex calibration in combination with model calculations. Particle number size distributions measured with the new OPSS in the lowermost stratosphere agreed within a factor of 2 in concentration with balloon-borne measurements over western North America. Since June 2010 the CARIBIC OPSS is deployed once per month in the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory.
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    A phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sites
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Bousiotis, Dimitrios; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C. S.; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jakob Klenø; Nordstrøm, Claus; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Portin, Harri; Petäjä, Tuukka; Perez, Noemi; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Tuch, Thomas; Harrison, Roy M.
    New particle formation (NPF) events occur almost everywhere in the world and can play an important role as a particle source. The frequency and characteristics of NPF events vary spatially, and this variability is yet to be fully understood. In the present study, long-term particle size distribution datasets (minimum of 3 years) from 13 sites of various land uses and climates from across Europe were studied, and NPF events, deriving from secondary formation and not traffic-related nucleation, were extracted and analysed. The frequency of NPF events was consistently found to be higher at rural background sites, while the growth and formation rates of newly formed particles were higher at roadsides (though in many cases differences between the sites were small), underlining the importance of the abundance of condensable compounds of anthropogenic origin found there. The growth rate was higher in summer at all rural background sites studied. The urban background sites presented the highest uncertainty due to greater variability compared to the other two types of site. The origin of incoming air masses and the specific conditions associated with them greatly affect the characteristics of NPF events. In general, cleaner air masses present higher probability for NPF events, while the more polluted ones show higher growth rates. However, different patterns of NPF events were found, even at sites in close proximity (<ĝ€¯200ĝ€¯km), due to the different local conditions at each site. Region-wide events were also studied and were found to be associated with the same conditions as local events, although some variability was found which was associated with the different seasonality of the events at two neighbouring sites. NPF events were responsible for an increase in the number concentration of ultrafine particles of more than 400ĝ€¯% at rural background sites on the day of their occurrence. The degree of enhancement was less at urban sites due to the increased contribution of other sources within the urban environment. It is evident that, while some variables (such as solar radiation intensity, relative humidity, or the concentrations of specific pollutants) appear to have a similar influence on NPF events across all sites, it is impossible to predict the characteristics of NPF events at a site using just these variables, due to the crucial role of local conditions. © Author(s) 2021.
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    In situ aerosol characterization at Cape Verde, Part 1: Particle number size distributions, hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of the marine and Saharan dust aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, Alexander; Müller, Thomas; Nowak, Andreas; Kandler, Konrad; Lieke, Kirsten; Massling, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties of marine and Saharan dust aerosol were investigated during the SAMUM-2 field study at Cape Verde in winter 2008. Aitken and accumulation mode particles were mainly assigned to the marine aerosol, whereas coarse mode particles were composed of sea-salt and a variable fraction of Saharan mineral dust. A new methodical approach was used to derive hygroscopic growth and state of mixing for a particle size range (volume equivalent) from dpve = 26 nm to 10 μm. For hygroscopic particles with dpve < 100 nm, the median hygroscopicity parameter κ is 0.35. From 100 nm < dpve < 350 nm, κ increases to 0.65. For larger particles, κ at dpve = 350 nm was used. For nearly hydrophobic particles, κ is between 0 and 0.1 for dpve < 250 nm and decreases to 0 for dpve > 250 nm. The mixing state of Saharan dust in terms of the number fraction of nearly hydrophobic particles showed the highest variation and ranges from 0.3 to almost 1. This study was used to perform a successful mass closure at ambient conditions and demonstrates the important role of hygroscopic growth of large sea-salt particles.
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    A full year of aerosol size distribution data from the central Arctic under an extreme positive Arctic Oscillation: insights from the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2023) Boyer, Matthew; Aliaga, Diego; Pernov, Jakob Boyd; Angot, Hélène; Quéléver, Lauriane L. J.; Dada, Lubna; Heutte, Benjamin; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; Brasseur, Zoé; Beck, Ivo; Bucci, Silvia; Duetsch, Marina; Stohl, Andreas; Laurila, Tiia; Asmi, Eija; Massling, Andreas; Thomas, Daniel Charles; Nøjgaard, Jakob Klenø; Chan, Tak; Sharma, Sangeeta; Tunved, Peter; Krejci, Radovan; Hansson, Hans Christen; Bianchi, Federico; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Schmale, Julia; Jokinen, Tuija
    The Arctic environment is rapidly changing due to accelerated warming in the region. The warming trend is driving a decline in sea ice extent, which thereby enhances feedback loops in the surface energy budget in the Arctic. Arctic aerosols play an important role in the radiative balance and hence the climate response in the region, yet direct observations of aerosols over the Arctic Ocean are limited. In this study, we investigate the annual cycle in the aerosol particle number size distribution (PNSD), particle number concentration (PNC), and black carbon (BC) mass concentration in the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition. This is the first continuous, year-long data set of aerosol PNSD ever collected over the sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean. We use a k-means cluster analysis, FLEXPART simulations, and inverse modeling to evaluate seasonal patterns and the influence of different source regions on the Arctic aerosol population. Furthermore, we compare the aerosol observations to land-based sites across the Arctic, using both long-term measurements and observations during the year of the MOSAiC expedition (2019-2020), to investigate interannual variability and to give context to the aerosol characteristics from within the central Arctic. Our analysis identifies that, overall, the central Arctic exhibits typical seasonal patterns of aerosols, including anthropogenic influence from Arctic haze in winter and secondary aerosol processes in summer. The seasonal pattern corresponds to the global radiation, surface air temperature, and timing of sea ice melting/freezing, which drive changes in transport patterns and secondary aerosol processes. In winter, the Norilsk region in Russia/Siberia was the dominant source of Arctic haze signals in the PNSD and BC observations, which contributed to higher accumulation-mode PNC and BC mass concentrations in the central Arctic than at land-based observatories. We also show that the wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) phenomenon, which was reported to achieve a record-breaking positive phase during January-March 2020, explains the unusual timing and magnitude of Arctic haze across the Arctic region compared to longer-term observations. In summer, the aerosol PNCs of the nucleation and Aitken modes are enhanced; however, concentrations were notably lower in the central Arctic over the ice pack than at land-based sites further south. The analysis presented herein provides a current snapshot of Arctic aerosol processes in an environment that is characterized by rapid changes, which will be crucial for improving climate model predictions, understanding linkages between different environmental processes, and investigating the impacts of climate change in future Arctic aerosol studies.
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    Structure, variability and persistence of the submicrometre marine aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Nowak, Andreas; Tuch, Thomas
    Submicrometre dry number size distributions from four marine and one continental aerosol experiment were evaluatedjointly in the present study. In the marine experiments only data with back trajectories of at least 120 h without landcontact were used to minimize continental contamination. Log-normal functions were fitted to the size distributions.Basic statistics of the marine aerosol indicate a closed character of the size distribution at the lower size limit as opposedto an open character for corresponding continental data. Together with the infrequent occurrences of marine particlesbelow20 nmthis finding supports hypotheses and model results suggesting lowprobabilities of homogeneous nucleationin the marine boundary layer. The variability of submicrometre marine number concentrations was parametrized witha bimodal log-normal function that quantifies the probability of finding different number concentrations about a givenmedian value. Together with a four-modal log-normal approximation of the submicrometre marine size distributionitself, this model allows a statistical representation of the marine aerosol that facilitates comparison of experiments andvalidation of aerosol models. Autocorrelation at the one fixed marine site with a minimum of interruptions in timesseriesrevealed a strong size dependency of persistence in particle number concentration with the shortest persistenceat the smallest sizes. Interestingly, in the marine aerosol (at Cape Grim) persistence exhibits a size dependency thatlargely matches the modes in dg0, i.e. near the most frequent geometric mean diameters number concentrations aremost persistent. Over the continent, persistence of particle numbers is strongly constrained by diurnal meteorologicalprocesses and aerosol dynamics. Thus, no strong modal structure appears in the size-dependent persistence at Melpitz.As with the aerosol variability, marine aerosol processes in models of aerosol dynamics can be tested with these findings.
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    Aerosol number to volume ratios in Southwest Portugal during ACE-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Dusek, Ulrike; Covert, David S.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Neusúss, Christian; Weise, Diana
    Past studies have indicated that long-term averages of the aerosol number to volume ratios (defined as the number of particles larger than a certain diameter divided by the particle volume over some range less than 1 μm) show little variability over the Atlantic. This work presents number to volume ratios (R) measured during the ACE-2 experiment on the land-based Sagres field site located in Southwest Portugal. The values of R measured in Sagres compare reasonably well with previous measurements over the Atlantic. The main emphasis of this work is therefore to investigate more closely possible reasons for the observed stability of the number to volume ratio. Aerosol number size distributions measured in Sagres are parametrized by the sum of two log-normal distributions fitted to the accumulation and to the Aitken mode. The main factor that limits the variability of R is that the parameters of these log-normal distributions are not always independent but show some covariance. In polluted air mass types correlations between parameters of the Aitken and accumulation mode are mostly responsible for stabilizing R. In marine air mass types the variability of R is reduced by an inverse relationship between the accumulation-mode mean diameter and standard deviation, consistent with condensational processes and cloud processing working on the aerosol. However, despite this reduction, the variability of R in marine air mass types is still considerable and R is linearly dependent on the number concentration of particles larger than 90 nm. This partly due to a mil of Aitken-mode particles extending to sizes larger than 90 nm.
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    Aerosol number-size distributions during clear and fog periods in the summer high Arctic: 1991, 1996 and 2001
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Leck, Caroline; Birmili, Wolfram; Wehner, Birgit; Tjernström, Michael; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The present study covers submicrometer aerosol size distribution data taken during three Arctic icebreaker expeditions in the summers of 1991, 1996 and 2001. The size distributions of all expeditions were compared in log-normally fitted form to the statistics of the marine number size distribution provided by Heintzenberg et al. (2004) yielding rather similar log-normal parameters of the modes. Statistics of the modal concentrations revealed strong concentration decreases of large accumulation mode particles with increasing length of time spent over the pack ice. The travel-time dependencies of both Aitken and ultrafine modes strongly indicate, as other studies did before, the occurrence of fine-particle sources in the inner Arctic. With two approaches evidence of fog-related aerosol source processeswas sought for in the data sets of 1996 and 2001 because they included fog drop size distributions. With increasing fog intensity modes in interstitial particle number concentrations appeared in particular in the size range around 80 nm that was nearly mode free in clear air. A second, dynamic approach revealed that Aitken mode concentrations increased strongly above their respective fog-period medians in both years before maximum drop numbers were reached in both years. We interpret the results of both approaches as strong indications of fog-related aerosol source processes as discussed in Leck and Bigg (1999) that need to be elucidated with further data from dedicated fog experiments in future Arctic expeditions in order to understand the life cycle of the aerosol over the high Arctic pack ice area.
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    Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin
    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles 20nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0% supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on -Köhler theory to predict CCN number concentrations. The ratio of predicted to measured CCN concentrations is between 0.87 and 1.4 for five different types of . The temporal variability is also well captured, with Pearson correlation coefficients exceeding 0.87. Information on CCN number concentrations at many locations is important to better characterise ACI and their radiative forcing. But long-term comprehensive aerosol particle characterisations are labour intensive and costly. Hence, we recommend operating migrating-CCNCs to conduct collocated CCN number concentration and particle number size distribution measurements at individual locations throughout one year at least to derive a seasonally resolved hygroscopicity parameter. This way, CCN number concentrations can only be calculated based on continued particle number size distribution information and greater spatial coverage of long-term measurements can be achieved.
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    Contributions of transported Prudhoe Bay oil field emissions to the aerosol population in Utqiaġvik, Alaska
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2017) Gunsch, Matthew J.; Kirpes, Rachel M.; Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Barrett, Tate E.; China, Swarup; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Laskin, Alexander; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Tuch, Thomas; Pratt, Kerri A.
    Loss of sea ice is opening the Arctic to increasing development involving oil and gas extraction and shipping. Given the significant impacts of absorbing aerosol and secondary aerosol precursors emitted within the rapidly warming Arctic region, it is necessary to characterize local anthropogenic aerosol sources and compare to natural conditions. From August to September 2015 in Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, the chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles was measured by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (0.13-4 μm projected area diameter) and real-time single-particle mass spectrometry (0.2-1.5 μm vacuum aerodynamic diameter). During periods influenced by the Arctic Ocean (70 % of the study), our results show that fresh sea spray aerosol contributed ∼ 20 %, by number, of particles between 0.13 and 0.4 μm, 40-70 % between 0.4 and 1 μm, and 80-100 % between 1 and 4 μm particles. In contrast, for periods influenced by emissions from Prudhoe Bay (10 % of the study), the third largest oil field in North America, there was a strong influence from submicron (0.13-1 μm) combustion-derived particles (20-50 % organic carbon, by number; 5-10 % soot by number). While sea spray aerosol still comprised a large fraction of particles (90 % by number from 1 to 4 μm) detected under Prudhoe Bay influence, these particles were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate indicative of aging processes during transport. In addition, the overall mode of the particle size number distribution shifted from 76 nm during Arctic Ocean influence to 27 nm during Prudhoe Bay influence, with particle concentrations increasing from 130 to 920 cm-3 due to transported particle emissions from the oil fields. The increased contributions of carbonaceous combustion products and partially aged sea spray aerosol should be considered in future Arctic atmospheric composition and climate simulations.