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    Comparison of particle number size distribution trends in ground measurements and climate models
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Leinonen, Ville; Kokkola, Harri; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Mielonen, Tero; Kühn, Thomas; Nieminen, Tuomo; Heikkinen, Simo; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Bergman, Tommi; Carslaw, Ken; Decesari, Stefano; Fiebig, Markus; Hussein, Tareq; Kivekäs, Niku; Krejci, Radovan; Kulmala, Markku; Leskinen, Ari; Massling, Andreas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Mulcahy, Jane P.; Noe, Steffen M.; van Noije, Twan; O'Connor, Fiona M.; O'Dowd, Colin; Olivie, Dirk; Pernov, Jakob B.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Seland, Øyvind; Schulz, Michael; Scott, Catherine E.; Skov, Henrik; Swietlicki, Erik; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Virtanen, Annele; Mikkonen, Santtu
    Despite a large number of studies, out of all drivers of radiative forcing, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of particle number concentrations in nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes at 21 measurement sites in Europe and the Arctic. For 13 of those sites, with longer measurement time series, we compared the field observations with the results from five climate models, namely EC-Earth3, ECHAM-M7, ECHAM-SALSA, NorESM1.2, and UKESM1. This is the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in situ observations from Europe and five earth system models (ESMs). We found that the trends of particle number concentrations were mostly consistent and decreasing in both measurements and models. However, for many sites, climate models showed weaker decreasing trends than the measurements. Seasonal variability in measured number concentrations, quantified by the ratio between maximum and minimum monthly number concentration, was typically stronger at northern measurement sites compared to other locations. Models had large differences in their seasonal representation, and they can be roughly divided into two categories: for EC-Earth and NorESM, the seasonal cycle was relatively similar for all sites, and for other models the pattern of seasonality varied between northern and southern sites. In addition, the variability in concentrations across sites varied between models, some having relatively similar concentrations for all sites, whereas others showed clear differences in concentrations between remote and urban sites. To conclude, although all of the model simulations had identical input data to describe anthropogenic mass emissions, trends in differently sized particles vary among the models due to assumptions in emission sizes and differences in how models treat size-dependent aerosol processes. The inter-model variability was largest in the accumulation mode, i.e. sizes which have implications for aerosol-cloud interactions. Our analysis also indicates that between models there is a large variation in efficiency of long-range transportation of aerosols to remote locations. The differences in model results are most likely due to the more complex effect of different processes instead of one specific feature (e.g. the representation of aerosol or emission size distributions). Hence, a more detailed characterization of microphysical processes and deposition processes affecting the long-range transport is needed to understand the model variability.
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    Evidence for ambient dark aqueous SOA formation in the Po Valley, Italy
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Sullivan, Amy P.; Hodas, Natasha; Turpin, Barbara J.; Skog, Kate; Keutsch, Frank N.; Gilardoni, Stefania; Paglione, Marco; Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Poulain, Laurent; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Nemitz, Eiko; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Collett, Jeffrey L. Jr.
    Laboratory experiments suggest that water-soluble products from the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds can partition into atmospheric waters where they are further oxidized to form low volatility products, providing an alternative route for oxidation in addition to further oxidation in the gas phase. These products can remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, forming what is termed as aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). However, few studies have attempted to observe ambient aqSOA. Therefore, a suite of measurements, including near-real-time WSOC (water-soluble organic carbon), inorganic anions/cations, organic acids, and gas-phase glyoxal, were made during the PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study) 2012 campaign in the Po Valley, Italy, to search for evidence of aqSOA. Our analysis focused on four periods: Period A on 19–21 June, Period B on 30 June and 1–2 July, Period C on 3–5 July, and Period D on 6–7 July to represent the first (Period A) and second (Periods B, C, and D) halves of the study. These periods were picked to cover varying levels of WSOC and aerosol liquid water. In addition, back trajectory analysis suggested all sites sampled similar air masses on a given day. The data collected during both periods were divided into times of increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreasing RH, with the aim of diminishing the influence of dilution and mixing on SOA concentrations and other measured variables. Evidence for local aqSOA formation was only observed during Period A. When this occurred, there was a correlation of WSOC with organic aerosol (R2 = 0.84), aerosol liquid water (R2 = 0.65), RH (R2 = 0.39), and aerosol nitrate (R2 = 0.66). Additionally, this was only observed during times of increasing RH, which coincided with dark conditions. Comparisons of WSOC with oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factors, determined from application of positive matrix factorization analysis on the aerosol mass spectrometer observations of the submicron non-refractory organic particle composition, suggested that the WSOC differed in the two halves of the study (Period A WSOC vs. OOA-2 R2 = 0.83 and OOA-4 R2 = 0.04, whereas Period C WSOC vs. OOA-2 R2 = 0.03 and OOA-4 R2 = 0.64). OOA-2 had a high O ∕ C (oxygen ∕ carbon) ratio of 0.77, providing evidence that aqueous processing was occurring during Period A. Key factors of local aqSOA production during Period A appear to include air mass stagnation, which allows aqSOA precursors to accumulate in the region; the formation of substantial local particulate nitrate during the overnight hours, which enhances water uptake by the aerosol; and the presence of significant amounts of ammonia, which may contribute to ammonium nitrate formation and subsequent water uptake and/or play a more direct role in the aqSOA chemistry.
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    Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin
    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles 20nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0% supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on -Köhler theory to predict CCN number concentrations. The ratio of predicted to measured CCN concentrations is between 0.87 and 1.4 for five different types of . The temporal variability is also well captured, with Pearson correlation coefficients exceeding 0.87. Information on CCN number concentrations at many locations is important to better characterise ACI and their radiative forcing. But long-term comprehensive aerosol particle characterisations are labour intensive and costly. Hence, we recommend operating migrating-CCNCs to conduct collocated CCN number concentration and particle number size distribution measurements at individual locations throughout one year at least to derive a seasonally resolved hygroscopicity parameter. This way, CCN number concentrations can only be calculated based on continued particle number size distribution information and greater spatial coverage of long-term measurements can be achieved.