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    Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 collected at the top of Mt. Tai, North China, during the wheat burning season of 2014
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Zhu, Yanhong; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sato, Mamiko; Tilgner, Andreas; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Chen, Ying; Xue, Likun; Wang, Xinfeng; Simpson, Isobel J.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Blake, Donald R.; Wang, Wenxing
    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples collected at Mount (Mt.) Tai in the North China Plain during summer 2014 were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls) (DCRCs). The total concentration of DCRCs was 1050±580 and 1040±490ng m-3 during the day and night, respectively. Although these concentrations were about 2 times lower than similar measurements in 2006, the concentrations reported here were about 1-13 times higher than previous measurements in other major cities in the world. Molecular distributions of DCRCs revealed that oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant species (50%), followed by succinic acid (C4) (12%) and malonic acid (C3) (8%). WRF modeling revealed that Mt. Tai was mostly in the free troposphere during the campaign and long-range transport was a major factor governing the distributions of the measured compounds at Mt. Tai. A majority of the samples (79%) had comparable concentrations during the day and night, with their day-night concentration ratios between 0.9 and 1.1. Multi-day transport was considered an important reason for the similar concentrations. Correlation analyses of DCRCs and their gas precursors and between C2 and sulfate indicated precursor emissions and aqueous-phase oxidations during long-range transport also likely play an important role, especially during the night. Source identification indicated that anthropogenic activities followed by photochemical aging accounted for about 60% of the total variance and were the dominant source at Mt. Tai. However, biomass burning was only important during the first half of the measurement period. Measurements of potassium (K+) and DCRCs were about 2 times higher than those from the second half of the measurement period. The concentration of levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, decreased by about 80% between 2006 and 2014, indicating that biomass burning may have decreased between 2006 and 2014.