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    Ozone depletion in the Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere induced by wildfire smoke
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Ansmann, Albert; Ohneiser, Kevin; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Knopf, Daniel A.; Eloranta, Edwin W.; Villanueva, Diego; Seifert, Patric; Radenz, Martin; Barja, Boris; Zamorano, Félix; Jimenez, Cristofer; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Griesche, Hannes; Hofer, Julian; Althausen, Dietrich; Wandinger, Ulla
    A record-breaking stratospheric ozone loss was observed over the Arctic and Antarctica in 2020. Strong ozone depletion occurred over Antarctica in 2021 as well. The ozone holes developed in smoke-polluted air. In this article, the impact of Siberian and Australian wildfire smoke (dominated by organic aerosol) on the extraordinarily strong ozone reduction is discussed. The study is based on aerosol lidar observations in the North Pole region (October 2019-May 2020) and over Punta Arenas in southern Chile at 53.2°S (January 2020-November 2021) as well as on respective NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) ozone profile observations in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund) and Antarctica (Neumayer and South Pole stations) in 2020 and 2021. We present a conceptual approach on how the smoke may have influenced the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which are of key importance in the ozone-depleting processes. The main results are as follows: (a) the direct impact of wildfire smoke below the PSC height range (at 10-12 km) on ozone reduction seems to be similar to well-known volcanic sulfate aerosol effects. At heights of 10-12 km, smoke particle surface area (SA) concentrations of 5-7 μm2 cm-3 (Antarctica, spring 2021) and 6-10 μm2 cm-3 (Arctic, spring 2020) were correlated with an ozone reduction in terms of ozone partial pressure of 0.4-1.2 mPa (about 30 % further ozone reduction over Antarctica) and of 2-3.5 mPa (Arctic, 20 %-30 % reduction with respect to the long-term springtime mean). (b) Within the PSC height range, we found indications that smoke was able to slightly increase the PSC particle number and surface area concentration. In particular, a smoke-related additional ozone loss of 1-2 mPa (10 %-20 % contribution to the total ozone loss over Antarctica) was observed in the 14-23 km PSC height range in September-October 2020 and 2021. Smoke particle number concentrations ranged from 10 to 100 cm-3 and were about a factor of 10 (in 2020) and 5 (in 2021) above the stratospheric aerosol background level. Satellite observations indicated an additional mean column ozone loss (deviation from the long-term mean) of 26-30 Dobson units (9 %-10 %, September 2020, 2021) and 52-57 Dobson units (17 %-20 %, October 2020, 2021) in the smoke-polluted latitudinal Antarctic belt from 70-80°S. Copyright:
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    Significant continental source of ice-nucleating particles at the tip of Chile's southernmost Patagonia region
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Gong, Xianda; Radenz, Martin; Wex, Heike; Seifert, Patric; Ataei, Farnoush; Henning, Silvia; Baars, Holger; Barja, Boris; Ansmann, Albert; Stratmann, Frank
    The sources and abundance of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that initiate cloud ice formation remain understudied, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we present INP measurements taken close to Punta Arenas, Chile, at the southernmost tip of South America from May 2019 to March 2020, during the Dynamics, Aerosol, Cloud, And Precipitation Observations in the Pristine Environment of the Southern Ocean (DACAPO-PESO) campaign. The highest ice nucleation temperature was observed at −3◦C, and from this temperature down to ∼ −10◦C, a sharp increase of INP number concentration (NINP) was observed. Heating of the samples revealed that roughly 90 % and 80 % of INPs are proteinaceous-based biogenic particles at > −10 and −15◦C, respectively. The NINP at Punta Arenas is much higher than that in the Southern Ocean, but it is comparable with an agricultural area in Argentina and forestry environment in the US. Ice active surface site density (ns) is much higher than that for marine aerosol in the Southern Ocean, but comparable to English fertile soil dust. Parameterization based on particle number concentration in the size range larger than 500 nm (N>500 nm) from the global average (DeMott et al., 2010) overestimates the measured INP, but the parameterization representing biological particles from a forestry environment (Tobo et al., 2013) yields NINP comparable to this study. No clear seasonal variation of NINP was observed. High precipitation is one of the most important meteorological parameters to enhance the NINP in both cold and warm seasons. A comparison of data from in situ and lidar measurements showed good agreement for concentrations of large aerosol particles (> 500 nm) when assuming continental conditions for retrieval of the lidar data, suggesting that these particles were well mixed within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This corroborates the continental origin of these particles, consistent with the results from our INP source analysis. Overall, we suggest that a high NINP of biogenic INPs originated from terrestrial sources and were added to the marine air masses during the overflow of a maximum of roughly 150 km of land before arriving at the measurement station.