## Search Results

#### Distribution of Cracks in a Chain of Atoms at Low Temperature

2021, Jansen, Sabine, König, Wolfgang, Schmidt, Bernd, Theil, Florian

We consider a one-dimensional classical many-body system with interaction potential of Lennard–Jones type in the thermodynamic limit at low temperature 1/β∈(0,∞). The ground state is a periodic lattice. We show that when the density is strictly smaller than the density of the ground state lattice, the system with N particles fills space by alternating approximately crystalline domains (clusters) with empty domains (voids) due to cracked bonds. The number of domains is of the order of Nexp(−βesurf/2) with esurf>0 a surface energy. For the proof, the system is mapped to an effective model, which is a low-density lattice gas of defects. The results require conditions on the interactions between defects. We succeed in verifying these conditions for next-nearest neighbor interactions, applying recently derived uniform estimates of correlations.

#### Local Well-Posedness of Strong Solutions to the Three-Dimensional Compressible Primitive Equations

2021, Liu, Xin, Titi, Edriss S.

This work is devoted to establishing the local-in-time well-posedness of strong solutions to the three-dimensional compressible primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics. It is shown that strong solutions exist, are unique, and depend continuously on the initial data, for a short time in two cases: with gravity but without vacuum, and with vacuum but without gravity. © 2021, The Author(s).

#### Longtime behavior for a generalized Cahn-Hilliard system with fractional operators

2020, Colli, Pierluigi, Gilardi, Gianni, Sprekels, Jürgen

In this contribution, we deal with the longtime behavior of the solutions to the fractional variant of the Cahn-Hilliard system, with possibly singular potentials, that we have recently investigated in the paper Well-posedness and regularity for a generalized fractional Cahn-Hilliard system. More precisely, we study the ω-limit of the phase parameter y and characterize it completely. Our characterization depends on the first eigenvalues λ1≥0 of one of the operators involved: if λ1>0, then the chemical potential μ vanishes at infinity and every element yω of the ω-limit is a stationary solution to the phase equation; if instead λ1=0, then every element yω of the ω-limit satisfies a problem containing a real function μ∞ related to the chemical potential μ. Such a function μ∞ is nonunique and time dependent, in general, as we show by an example. However, we give sufficient conditions for μ∞ to be uniquely determined and constant.

#### A boundary control problem for the pure Cahn–Hilliard equation with dynamic boundary conditions

2015, Colli, Pierluigi, Gilardi, Gianni, Sprekels, Jürgen

A boundary control problem for the pure Cahn–Hilliard equations with possibly singular potentialsand dynamic boundary conditions is studied and rst-order necessary conditions for optimality are proved.

#### Time-Warping Invariants of Multidimensional Time Series

2020, Diehl, Joscha, Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch, Tapia, Nikolas

In data science, one is often confronted with a time series representing measurements of some quantity of interest. Usually, in a first step, features of the time series need to be extracted. These are numerical quantities that aim to succinctly describe the data and to dampen the influence of noise. In some applications, these features are also required to satisfy some invariance properties. In this paper, we concentrate on time-warping invariants. We show that these correspond to a certain family of iterated sums of the increments of the time series, known as quasisymmetric functions in the mathematics literature. We present these invariant features in an algebraic framework, and we develop some of their basic properties. © 2020, The Author(s).

#### Assessment of Stability in Partitional Clustering Using Resampling Techniques

2016, Mucha, Hans-Joachim

The assessment of stability in cluster analysis is strongly related to the main difficult problem of determining the number of clusters present in the data. The latter is subject of many investigations and papers considering different resampling techniques as practical tools. In this paper, we consider non-parametric resampling from the empirical distribution of a given dataset in order to investigate the stability of results of partitional clustering. In detail, we investigate here only the very popular K-means method. The estimation of the sampling distribution of the adjusted Rand index (ARI) and the averaged Jaccard index seems to be the most general way to do this. In addition, we compare bootstrapping with different subsampling schemes (i.e., with different cardinality of the drawn samples) with respect to their performance in finding the true number of clusters for both synthetic and real data.

#### Denoising for Improved Parametric MRI of the Kidney: Protocol for Nonlocal Means Filtering

2021, Starke, Ludger, Tabelow, Karsten, Niendorf, Thoralf, Pohlmann, Andreas, Pohlmann, Andreas, Niendorf, Thoralf

In order to tackle the challenges caused by the variability in estimated MRI parameters (e.g., T2* and T2) due to low SNR a number of strategies can be followed. One approach is postprocessing of the acquired data with a filter. The basic idea is that MR images possess a local spatial structure that is characterized by equal, or at least similar, noise-free signal values in vicinities of a location. Then, local averaging of the signal reduces the noise component of the signal. In contrast, nonlocal means filtering defines the weights for averaging not only within the local vicinity, bur it compares the image intensities between all voxels to define “nonlocal” weights. Furthermore, it generally compares not only single-voxel intensities but small spatial patches of the data to better account for extended similar patterns. Here we describe how to use an open source NLM filter tool to denoise 2D MR image series of the kidney used for parametric mapping of the relaxation times T2* and T2. This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers.

#### Differentiability Properties for Boundary Control of Fluid-Structure Interactions of Linear Elasticity with Navier-Stokes Equations with Mixed-Boundary Conditions in a Channel

2023, Hintermüller, Michael, Kröner, Axel

In this paper we consider a fluid-structure interaction problem given by the steady Navier Stokes equations coupled with linear elasticity taken from (Lasiecka et al. in Nonlinear Anal 44:54–85, 2018). An elastic body surrounded by a liquid in a rectangular domain is deformed by the flow which can be controlled by the Dirichlet boundary condition at the inlet. On the walls along the channel homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and on the outflow boundary do-nothing conditions are prescribed. We recall existence results for the nonlinear system from that reference and analyze the control to state mapping generalizing the results of (Wollner and Wick in J Math Fluid Mech 21:34, 2019) to the setting of the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid and the situation of mixed boundary conditions in a domain with corners.

#### Revealing all states of dewetting of a thin gold layer on a silicon surface by nanosecond laser conditioning

2021, Ernst, Owen C., Uebel, David, Kayser, Stefan, Lange, Felix, Teubner, Thomas, Boeck, Torsten

Dewetting is a ubiquitous phenomenon which can be applied to the laser synthesis of nanoparticles. A classical spinodal dewetting process takes place in four successive states, which differ from each other in their morphology. In this study all states are revealed by interaction of pulsed nanosecond UV laser light with thin gold layers with thicknesses between 1 nm and 10 nm on (100) silicon wafers. The specific morphologies of the dewetting states are discussed with particular emphasis on the state boundaries. The main parameter determining which state is formed is not the duration for which the gold remains liquid, but rather the input energy provided by the laser. This shows that each state transition has a separate measurable activation energy. The temperature during the nanosecond pulses and the duration during which the gold remains liquid was determined by simulation using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software package. Using these calculations, an accurate local temperature profile and its development over time was simulated. An analytical study of the morphologies and formed structures was performed using Minkowski measures. With aid of this tool, the laser induced structures were compared with thermally annealed samples, with perfectly ordered structures and with perfectly random structures. The results show that both, structures of the laser induced and the annealed samples, strongly resemble the perfectly ordered structures. This reveals a close relationship between these structures and suggests that the phenomenon under investigation is indeed a spinodal dewetting generated by an internal material wave function. The purposeful generation of these structures and the elucidation of the underlying mechanism of dewetting by short pulse lasers may assist the realisation of various technical elements such as nanowires in science and industry. © 2020

#### Ultrashort optical pulse propagation in terms of analytic signal

2011, Amiranashvili, Sh., Demircan, A.

We demonstrate that ultrashort optical pulses propagating in a nonlinear dispersive medium are naturally described through incorporation of analytic signal for the electric field. To this end a second-order nonlinear wave equation is first simplified using a unidirectional approximation. Then the analytic signal is introduced, and all nonresonant nonlinear terms are eliminated. The derived propagation equation accounts for arbitrary dispersion, resonant four-wave mixing processes, weak absorption, and arbitrary pulse duration. The model applies to the complex electric field and is independent of the slowly varying envelope approximation. Still the derived propagation equation posses universal structure of the generalized nonlinear Schrdinger equation (NSE). In particular, it can be solved numerically with only small changes of the standard split-step solver or more complicated spectral algorithms for NSE. We present exemplary numerical solutions describing supercontinuum generation with an ultrashort optical pulse.