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    A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Khafaji, Mona; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Börrnert, Felix; Irajizad, Azam
    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatibility and more than six month stability. Alongside earlier nanostructures, the heat generation rate of GIHN is compareable with surfactnat-capped gold nanorods (GNRs). Two reasons are behind this enhancement: Firstly the distance between GNRs and SPIONs is adjusted in a way that the surface plasmon resonance of the new nanostructure is similar to bare GNRs and secondly the fraction of GNRs is raised in the hybrid nanostructure. GIHN is then applied as a photothermal agent using laser irradiation with power as low as 0.5−2 and only 32% of human breast adenocarcinoma cells could survive. The GIHN also acts as a dose-dependent transvers relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agent. The results show that the GINH can be considered as a good candidate for multimodal photothermal therapy and MRI.
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    Mechanics of Materials: Mechanics of Interfaces and Evolving Microstructure
    (Zürich : EMS Publ. House, 2016) McDowell, David L.; Müller, Stefan; Werner, Ewald A.
    Emphasis in modern day efforts in mechanics of materials is increasingly directed towards integration with computational materials science, which itself rests on solid physical and mathematical foundations in thermodynamics and kinetics of processes. Practical applications demand attention to length and time scales which are sufficiently large to preclude direct application of quantum mechanics approaches; accordingly, there are numerous pathways to mathematical modelling of the complexity of material structure during processing and in service. The conventional mathematical machinery of energy minimization provides guidance but has limited direct applicability to material systems evolving away from equilibrium. Material response depends on driving forces, whether arising from mechanical, electromagnetic, or thermal fields. When microstructures evolve, as during plastic deformation, progressive damage and fracture, corrosion, stress-assisted diffusion, migration or chemical/thermal aging, the associated classical mathematical frameworks are often ad hoc and heuristic. Advancing new and improved methods is a major focus of 21st century mechanics of materials of interfaces and evolving microstructure.
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    Effect of Alloying Elements in Melt Spun Mg-alloys for Hydrogen Storage
    (São Carlos : SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, 2016) Rozenberg, Silvia; Saporiti, Fabiana; Lang, Julien; Audebert, Fernando; Botta, Pablo; Stoica, Mihai; Huot, Jacques; Eckert, Jürgen
    In this paper we report the effect of alloying elements on hydrogen storage properties of melt-spun Mg-based alloys. The base alloys Mg90Si10, Mg90Cu10, Mg65Cu35 (at%) were studied. We also investigated the effect of rare earths (using MM: mischmetal) and Al in Mg65Cu25Al10, Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys. All the melt-spun alloys without MM show a crystalline structure, and the Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys showed an amorphous and partially amorphous structure respectively. At 350˚C all the alloys had a crystalline structure during the hydrogen absorption-desorption tests. It was observed that Si and Cu in the binaries alloys hindered completely the activation of the hydrogen absorption. The partial substitution of Cu by MM or Al allowed activation. The combined substitution of Cu by MM and Al showed the best results with the fastest absorption and desorption kinetics, which suggests that this combination can be used for new Mg-alloys to improve hydrogen storage properties.
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    Nesting-driven multipolar order in CeB6 from photoemission tomography
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Koitzsch, A.; Heming, N.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Portnichenko, P.Y.; Dukhnenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Y.; Filipov, V.B.; Lev, L.L.
    Some heavy fermion materials show so-called hidden-order phases which are invisible to many characterization techniques and whose microscopic origin remained controversial for decades. Among such hidden-order compounds, CeB6 is of model character due to its simple electronic configuration and crystal structure. Apart from more conventional antiferromagnetism, it shows an elusive phase at low temperatures, which is commonly associated with multipolar order. Here we show that this phase roots in a Fermi surface instability. This conclusion is based on a full 3D tomographic sampling of the electronic structure by angle-resolved photoemission and comparison with inelastic neutron scattering data. The hidden order is mediated by itinerant electrons. Our measurements will serve as a paradigm for the investigation of hidden-order phases in f-electron systems, but also generally for situations where the itinerant electrons drive orbital or spin order.
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    Sugar-Modified Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers Stimulate the NF-κB Pathway in a Myeloid Cell Line
    (Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2016) Jatczak-Pawlik, Izabela; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Studzian, Maciej; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Pulaski, Lukasz; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara
    Purpose: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. Methods: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed. The expression level of NF-κB targets: IGFBP3, TNFAIP3 and TNF was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Measurement of NF-κB p65 translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus was conducted with a high-content screening platform and binding of NF-κB to a consensus DNA probe was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The cytokine assay was performed to measure protein concentration of TNFalpha and IL-4. Results: We found that PPI-m DS did not impact THP-1 viability and growth even at high concentrations (up to 100 μM). They also did not induce expression of genes for important signaling pathways: Jak/STAT, Keap1/Nrf2 and ER stress. However, high concentrations of 4th generation PPI-m DS (25–100 μM), but not their 3rd generation counterparts, induced nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB protein and its DNA-binding activity, leading to NF-κB-dependent increased expression of mRNA for NF-κB targets: IGFBP3, TNFAIP3 and TNF. However, no increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was detected. Conclusion: We conclude that maltose-modified PPI dendrimers of specific size could exert a modest immunomodulatory effect, which may be advantageous in clinical applications (e.g. adjuvant effect in anti-cancer vaccines).
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    Yet another algorithm for the symmetric eigenvalue problem
    (Oberwolfach : Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2016) Aurentz, Jared L.; Mach, Thomas; Vandebril, Raf; Watkins, David S.
    In this paper we present a new algorithm for solving the symmetric matrix eigenvalue problem that works by first using a Cayley transformation to convert the symmetric matrix into a unitary one and then uses Gragg’s implicitly shifted unitary QR algorithm to solve the resulting unitary eigenvalue problem. We prove that under reasonable assumptions on the symmetric matrix this algorithm is backward stable and also demonstrate that this algorithm is comparable with other well known implementations in terms of both speed and accuracy.
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    Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud
    (Washington, DC [u.a.] : Assoc., 2016) Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J.
    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud.
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    Theoretical approach to resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in iron-based superconductors at the energy scale of the superconducting gap
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Marra, Pasquale; van den Brink, Jeroen; Sykora, Steffen
    We develop a phenomenological theory to predict the characteristic features of the momentum-dependent scattering amplitude in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the energy scale of the superconducting gap in iron-based super-conductors. Taking into account all relevant orbital states as well as their specific content along the Fermi surface we evaluate the charge and spin dynamical structure factors for the compounds LaOFeAs and LiFeAs, based on tight-binding models which are fully consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. We find a characteristic intensity redistribution between charge and spin dynamical structure factors which discriminates between sign-reversing and sign-preserving quasiparticle excitations. Consequently, our results show that RIXS spectra can distinguish between s± and s++ wave gap functions in the singlet pairing case. In addition, we find that an analogous intensity redistribution at small momenta can reveal the presence of a chiral p-wave triplet pairing.
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    Influence of Viscosity in Fluid Atomization with Surface Acoustic Waves
    (Irvine, CA : Scientific Research Publishing, 2016) Winkler, Andreas; Bergelt, Paul; Hillemann, Lars; Menzel, Siegfried
    In this work, aqueous glycerol solutions are atomized to investigate the influence of the viscosity on the droplet size and the general atomization behavior in a setup using standing surface acoustic waves (sSAW) and a fluid supply at the boundary of the acoustic path. Depending on the fluid viscosity, the produced aerosols have a monomodal or polymodal size distribution. The mean droplet size in the dominant droplet fraction, however, decreases with increasing viscosity. Our results also indicate that the local wavefield conditions are crucial for the atomization process.
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    Kinematic origin for near-zero energy structures in mid-IR strong field ionization
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2016) Pisanty, Emilio; Ivanov, Misha
    We propose and discuss a kinematic mechanism underlying the recently discovered 'near-zero energy structure' in the photoionization of atoms in strong mid-infrared laser fields, based on trajectories which revisit the ion at low velocities exactly analogous to the series responsible for low-energy structures. The different scaling of the new series, as $E\sim {I}_{p}^{2}/{U}_{p}$, suggests that the near-zero energy structure can be lifted to higher energies, where it can be better resolved and studied, using harder targets with higher ionization potential.