Browsing by Author "Eisebitt, Stefan"
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- Item27 W 2.1 µm OPCPA system for coherent soft X-ray generation operating at 10 kHz(Washington, DC : Soc., 2020) Feng, Tianli; Heilmann, Anke; Bock, Martin; Ehrentraut, Lutz; Witting, Tobias; Yu, Haohai; Stiel, Holger; Eisebitt, Stefan; Schnürer, MatthiasWe developed a high power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system at 2.1 µm harnessing a 500 W Yb:YAG thin disk laser as the only pump and signal generation source. The OPCPA system operates at 10 kHz with a single pulse energy of up to 2.7 mJ and pulse duration of 30 fs. The maximum average output power of 27 W sets a new record for an OPCPA system in the 2 µm wavelength region. The soft X-ray continuum generated through high harmonic generation with this driver laser can extend to around 0.55 keV, thus covering the entire water window (284 eV - 543 eV). With a repetition rate still enabling pump-probe experiments on solid samples, the system can be used for many applications. © 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
- ItemAchieving diffraction-limited resolution in soft-X-ray Fourier-transform holography(Amsterdam : Elsevier Science, 2020) Geilhufe, Jan; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, StefanThe spatial resolution of microscopic images acquired via X-ray Fourier-transform holography is limited by the source size of the reference wave and by the numerical aperture of the detector. We analyze the interplay between both influences and show how they are matched in practice. We further identify, how high spatial frequencies translate to imaging artifacts in holographic reconstructions where mainly the reference beam limits the spatial resolution. As a solution, three methods are introduced based on numerical post-processing of the reconstruction. The methods comprise apodization of the hologram, refocusing via wave propagation, and deconvolution using the transfer function of the imaging system. In particular for the latter two, we demonstrate that image details smaller than the source size of the reference beam can be recovered up to the diffraction limit of the hologram. Our findings motivate the intentional application of a large reference-wave source enhancing the image contrast in applications with low photon numbers such as single-shot experiments at free-electron lasers or imaging at laboratory sources.
- ItemAuthor Correction: Ultrafast X-ray imaging of the light-induced phase transition in VO2 (Nature Physics, (2022), 10.1038/s41567-022-01848-w)(Basingstoke : Nature Publishing Group, 2023) Johnson, Allan S.; Perez-Salinas, Daniel; Siddiqui, Khalid M.; Kim, Sungwon; Choi, Sungwook; Volckaert, Klara; Majchrzak, Paulina E.; Ulstrup, Søren; Agarwal, Naman; Hallman, Kent; Haglund, Richard F.; Günther, Christian M.; Pfau, Bastian; Eisebitt, Stefan; Backes, Dirk; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Fitzpatrick, Ann; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Valvidares, Manuel; Artrith, Nongnuch; de Groot, Frank; Choi, Hyeongi; Jang, Dogeun; Katoch, Abhishek; Kwon, Soonnam; Park, Sang Han; Kim, Hyunjung; Wall, Simon E.In the version of this article initially published, the Acknowledgements was missing thanks from Soonnam Kwon for support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020R1A2C1007416). The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
- ItemCAMP@FLASH: an end-station for imaging, electron- and ion-spectroscopy, and pump–probe experiments at the FLASH free-electron laser(Chester : IUCr, 2018-8-2) Erk, Benjamin; Müller, Jan P.; Bomme, Cédric; Boll, Rebecca; Brenner, Günter; Chapman, Henry N.; Correa, Jonathan; Düsterer, Stefan; Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Eisebitt, Stefan; Graafsma, Heinz; Grunewald, Sören; Gumprecht, Lars; Hartmann, Robert; Hauser, Günter; Keitel, Barbara; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Kuhlmann, Marion; Manschwetus, Bastian; Mercadier, Laurent; Müller, Erland; Passow, Christopher; Plönjes, Elke; Ramm, Daniel; Rompotis, Dimitrios; Rudenko, Artem; Rupp, Daniela; Sauppe, Mario; Siewert, Frank; Schlosser, Dieter; Strüder, Lothar; Swiderski, Angad; Techert, Simone; Tiedtke, Kai; Tilp, Thomas; Treusch, Rolf; Schlichting, Ilme; Ullrich, Joachim; Moshammer, Robert; Möller, Thomas; Rolles, DanielThe non-monochromatic beamline BL1 at the FLASH free-electron laser facility at DESY was upgraded with new transport and focusing optics, and a new permanent end-station, CAMP, was installed. This multi-purpose instrument is optimized for electron- and ion-spectroscopy, imaging and pump–probe experiments at free-electron lasers. It can be equipped with various electron- and ion-spectrometers, along with large-area single-photon-counting pnCCD X-ray detectors, thus enabling a wide range of experiments from atomic, molecular, and cluster physics to material and energy science, chemistry and biology. Here, an overview of the layout, the beam transport and focusing capabilities, and the experimental possibilities of this new end-station are presented, as well as results from its commissioning.
- ItemCoherent correlation imaging for resolving fluctuating states of matter(London : Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2023) Klose, Christopher; Büttner, Felix; Hu, Wen; Mazzoli, Claudio; Litzius, Kai; Battistelli, Riccardo; Lemesh, Ivan; Bartell, Jason M.; Huang, Mantao; Günther, Christian M.; Schneider, Michael; Barbour, Andi; Wilkins, Stuart B.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.; Eisebitt, Stefan; Pfau, BastianFluctuations and stochastic transitions are ubiquitous in nanometre-scale systems, especially in the presence of disorder. However, their direct observation has so far been impeded by a seemingly fundamental, signal-limited compromise between spatial and temporal resolution. Here we develop coherent correlation imaging (CCI) to overcome this dilemma. Our method begins by classifying recorded camera frames in Fourier space. Contrast and spatial resolution emerge by averaging selectively over same-state frames. Temporal resolution down to the acquisition time of a single frame arises independently from an exceptionally low misclassification rate, which we achieve by combining a correlation-based similarity metric1,2 with a modified, iterative hierarchical clustering algorithm3,4. We apply CCI to study previously inaccessible magnetic fluctuations in a highly degenerate magnetic stripe domain state with nanometre-scale resolution. We uncover an intricate network of transitions between more than 30 discrete states. Our spatiotemporal data enable us to reconstruct the pinning energy landscape and to thereby explain the dynamics observed on a microscopic level. CCI massively expands the potential of emerging high-coherence X-ray sources and paves the way for addressing large fundamental questions such as the contribution of pinning5–8 and topology9–12 in phase transitions and the role of spin and charge order fluctuations in high-temperature superconductivity13,14.
- ItemElement-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic systems probed by ultrafast magneto-optical spectroscopy(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Korff Schmising, Clemens von; Willems, Felix; Sharma, Sangeeta; Yao, Kelvin; Borchert, Martin; Hennecke, Martin; Schick, Daniel; Radu, Ilie; Strüber, Christian; Engel, Dieter W.; Shokeen, Vishal; Buck, Jens; Bagschik, Kai; Viefhaus, Jens; Hartmann, Gregor; Manschwetus, Bastian; Grunewald, Soeren; Düsterer, Stefan; Jal, Emmanuelle; Vodungbo, Boris; Lüning, Jan; Eisebitt, StefanThe vision to manipulate and control magnetism with light is driven on the one hand by fundamental questions of direct and indirect photon-spin interactions, and on the other hand by the necessity to cope with ever growing data volumes, requiring radically new approaches on how to write, read and process information. Here, we present two complementary experimental geometries to access the element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic systems via ultrafast magneto-optical spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. First, we employ linearly polarized radiation of a free electron laser facility to demonstrate decoupled dynamics of the two sublattices of an FeGd alloy, a prerequisite for all-optical magnetization switching. Second, we use circularly polarized radiation generated in a laboratory-based high harmonic generation setup to show optical inter-site spin transfer in a CoPt alloy, a mechanism which only very recently has been predicted to mediate ultrafast metamagnetic phase transitions. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemEnabling time-resolved 2D spatial-coherence measurements using the Fourier-analysis method with an integrated curved-grating beam monitor(Washington, DC : Soc., 2020) Bagschik, Kai; Schneider, Michael; Wagner, Jochen; Buss, Ralph; Riepp, Matthias; Philippi-Kobs, Andre; Müller, Leonard; Roseker, Wojciech; Trinter, Florian; Hoesch, Moritz; Viefhaus, Jens; Eisebitt, Stefan; Grübel, Gerhard; Oepen, Hans Peter; Frömter, RobertDirect 2D spatial-coherence measurements are increasingly gaining importance at synchrotron beamlines, especially due to present and future upgrades of synchrotron facilities to diffraction-limited storage rings. We present a method to determine the 2D spatial coherence of synchrotron radiation in a direct and particularly simple way by using the Fourier-analysis method in conjunction with curved gratings. Direct photon-beam monitoring provided by a curved grating circumvents the otherwise necessary separate determination of the illuminating intensity distribution required for the Fourier-analysis method. Hence, combining these two methods allows for time-resolved spatial-coherence measurements. As a consequence, spatial-coherence degradation effects caused by beamline optics vibrations, which is one of the key issues of state-of-the-art X-ray imaging and scattering beamlines, can be identified and analyzed. © 2020 Optical Society of America.
- ItemExperimental evaluation of signal-to-noise in spectro-holography via modified uniformly redundant arrays in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regime(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2017-05-08) Günther, Christian M.; Guehrs, Erik; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Geilhufe, Jan; Schaffert, Stefan; Eisebitt, StefanWe present dichroic x-ray lensless magnetic imaging by Fourier transform holography with an extended reference scheme via a modified uniformly redundant array (mURA). Holographic images of magnetic domains simultaneously generated by a single pinhole reference as well as by a mURA reference are compared with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of exposure time. We apply this approach for spectro-holographic imaging of ferromagnetic domain patterns in Co/Pt multilayer films. Soft x-rays with wavelengths of 1.59 nm (Co L3 absorption edge) and 20.8 nm (Co M2,3 absorption edges) are used for image formation and to generate contrast via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. For a given exposure time, the mURA-based holography allows to decouple the reconstruction SNR from the spatial resolution. For 1.59 nm wavelength, the reconstruction via the extended reference scheme shows no significant loss of spatial resolution compared to the single pinhole reference. In contrast, at 20.8 nm wavelength the single pinhole reveals some very intricate features which are lost in the image generated by the mURA, although overall a high-quality image is generated. The SNR-advantage of the mURA scheme is most notable when the hologram has to be encoded with few photons, while errors associated with the increased complexity of the reconstruction process reduce the advantage for high-photon-number experiments.
- ItemGenerating circularly polarized radiation in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range at the free-electron laser FLASH(Melville, NY : American Institute of Physics, 2017) von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Weder, David; Noll, Tino; Pfau, Bastian; Hennecke, Martin; Strüber, Christian; Radu, Ilie; Schneider, Michael; Staeck, Steffen; Günther, Christian M.; Lüning, Jan; Merhe, Alaa el dine; Buck, Jens; Hartmann, Gregor; Viefhaus, Jens; Treusch, Rolf; Eisebitt, StefanA new device for polarization control at the free electron laser facility FLASH1 at DESY has been commissioned for user operation. The polarizer is based on phase retardation upon reflection off metallic mirrors. Its performance is characterized in three independent measurements and confirms the theoretical predictions of efficient and broadband generation of circularly polarized radiation in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range from 35 eV to 90 eV. The degree of circular polarization reaches up to 90% while maintaining high total transmission values exceeding 30%. The simple design of the device allows straightforward alignment for user operation and rapid switching between left and right circularly polarized radiation.
- ItemIn situ single-shot diffractive fluence mapping for X-ray free-electron laser pulses([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2018) Schneider, Michael; Günther, Christian M.; Pfau, Bastian; Capotondi, Flavio; Manfredda, Michele; Zangrando, Marco; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Naumenko, Denys; Eisebitt, StefanFree-electron lasers (FELs) in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and X-ray regime opened up the possibility for experiments at high power densities, in particular allowing for fluence-dependent absorption and scattering experiments to reveal non-linear light-matter interactions at ever shorter wavelengths. Findings of such non-linear effects are met with tremendous interest, but prove difficult to understand and model due to the inherent shot-to-shot fluctuations in photon intensity and the often structured, non-Gaussian spatial intensity profile of a focused FEL beam. Presently, the focused beam is characterized and optimized separately from the actual experiment. Here, we present the simultaneous measurement of XUV diffraction signals from solid samples in tandem with the corresponding single-shot spatial fluence distribution on the actual sample. Our in situ characterization scheme enables direct monitoring of the sample illumination, providing a basis to optimize and quantitatively understand FEL experiments.
- ItemMulti-color imaging of magnetic Co/Pt heterostructures(Melville, NY : AIP Publishing LLC, 2017) Willems, Felix; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Weder, David; Günther, Christian M.; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Meise, Sven; Guehrs, Erik; Geilhufe, Jan; Merhe, Alaa El Din; Jal, Emmanuelle; Vodungbo, Boris; Lüning, Jan; Mahieu, Benoit; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Gauthier, David; Manfredda, Michele; Eisebitt, StefanWe present an element specific and spatially resolved view of magnetic domainsin Co/Pt heterostructures in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Resonantsmall-angle scattering and coherent imaging with Fourier-transform holographyreveal nanoscale magnetic domain networks via magnetic dichroism of Co at theM2,3 edges as well as via strong dichroic signals at the O2,3 and N6,7 edges of Pt.We demonstrate for the first time simultaneous, two-color coherent imaging at afree-electron laser facility paving the way for a direct real space access toultrafast magnetization dynamics in complex multicomponent material systems.
- ItemOptical inter-site spin transfer probed by energy and spin-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020) Willems, Felix; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Strüber, Christian; Schick, Daniel; Engel, Dieter W.; Dewhurst, J. K.; Elliott, Peter; Sharma, Sangeeta; Eisebitt, StefanOptically driven spin transport is the fastest and most efficient process to manipulate macroscopic magnetization as it does not rely on secondary mechanisms to dissipate angular momentum. In the present work, we show that such an optical inter-site spin transfer (OISTR) from Pt to Co emerges as a dominant mechanism governing the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of a CoPt alloy. To demonstrate this, we perform a joint theoretical and experimental investigation to determine the transient changes of the helicity dependent absorption in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. We show that the helicity dependent absorption is directly related to changes of the transient spin-split density of states, allowing us to link the origin of OISTR to the available minority states above the Fermi level. This makes OISTR a general phenomenon in optical manipulation of multi-component magnetic systems.
- ItemQuantification of silver nanoparticle uptake and distribution within individual human macrophages by FIB/SEM slice and view(London : Biomed Central, 2017-3-21) Guehrs, Erik; Schneider, Michael; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Heitz, Karen; Wittke, Doreen; López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Jakubowski, Norbert; Plendl, Johanna; Eisebitt, Stefan; Haase, AndreaBackground: Quantification of nanoparticle (NP) uptake in cells or tissues is very important for safety assessment. Often, electron microscopy based approaches are used for this purpose, which allow imaging at very high resolution. However, precise quantification of NP numbers in cells and tissues remains challenging. The aim of this study was to present a novel approach, that combines precise quantification of NPs in individual cells together with high resolution imaging of their intracellular distribution based on focused ion beam/ scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) slice and view approaches. Results: We quantified cellular uptake of 75 nm diameter citrate stabilized silver NPs (Ag 75 Cit) into an individual human macrophage derived from monocytic THP-1 cells using a FIB/SEM slice and view approach. Cells were treated with 10 μg/ml for 24 h. We investigated a single cell and found in total 3138 ± 722 silver NPs inside this cell. Most of the silver NPs were located in large agglomerates, only a few were found in clusters of fewer than five NPs. Furthermore, we cross-checked our results by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and could confirm the FIB/SEM results. Conclusions: Our approach based on FIB/SEM slice and view is currently the only one that allows the quantification of the absolute dose of silver NPs in individual cells and at the same time to assess their intracellular distribution at high resolution. We therefore propose to use FIB/SEM slice and view to systematically analyse the cellular uptake of various NPs as a function of size, concentration and incubation time.
- ItemQuantitative hyperspectral coherent diffractive imaging spectroscopy of a solid-state phase transition in vanadium dioxide(Washington, DC [u.a.] : Assoc., 2021) Johnson, Allan S.; Conesa, Jordi Valls; Vidas, Luciana; Perez-Salinas, Daniel; Günther, Christian M.; Pfau, Bastian; Hallman, Kent A.; Haglund, Richard F.; Eisebitt, Stefan; Wall, SimonSolid-state systems can host a variety of thermodynamic phases that can be controlled with magnetic fields, strain, or laser excitation. Many phases that are believed to exhibit exotic properties only exist on the nanoscale, coexisting with other phases that make them challenging to study, as measurements require both nanometer spatial resolution and spectroscopic information, which are not easily accessible with traditional x-ray spectromicroscopy techniques. Here, we use coherent diffractive imaging spectroscopy (CDIS) to acquire quantitative hyperspectral images of the prototypical quantum material vanadium oxide across the vanadium L2,3 and oxygen K x-ray absorption edges with nanometer-scale resolution. We extract the full complex refractive indices of the monoclinic insulating and rutile conducting phases of VO2 from a single sample and find no evidence for correlation-driven phase transitions. CDIS will enable quantitative full-field x-ray spectromicroscopy for studying phase separation in time-resolved experiments and other extreme sample environments where other methods cannot operate.
- ItemReal-time spatial characterization of micrometer-sized X-ray free-electron laser beams focused by bendable mirrors(Washington, DC : Soc., 2022) Mercurio, Giuseppe; Chalupský, Jaromír; Nistea, Ioana-Theodora; Schneider, Michael; Hájková, Věra; Gerasimova, Natalia; Carley, Robert; Cascella, Michele; Le Guyader, Loïc; Mercadier, Laurent; Schlappa, Justine; Setoodehnia, Kiana; Teichmann, Martin; Yaroslavtsev, Alexander; Burian, Tomáš; Vozda, Vojtĕch; Vyšín, Luděk; Wild, Jan; Hickin, David; Silenzi, Alessandro; Stupar, Marijan; Torben Delitz, Jan; Broers, Carsten; Reich, Alexander; Pfau, Bastian; Eisebitt, Stefan; La Civita, Daniele; Sinn, Harald; Vannoni, Maurizio; Alcock, Simon G.; Juha, Libor; Scherz, AndreasA real-time and accurate characterization of the X-ray beam size is essential to enable a large variety of different experiments at free-electron laser facilities. Typically, ablative imprints are employed to determine shape and size of μm-focused X-ray beams. The high accuracy of this state-of-the-art method comes at the expense of the time required to perform an ex-situ image analysis. In contrast, diffraction at a curved grating with suitably varying period and orientation forms a magnified image of the X-ray beam, which can be recorded by a 2D pixelated detector providing beam size and pointing jitter in real time. In this manuscript, we compare results obtained with both techniques, address their advantages and limitations, and demonstrate their excellent agreement. We present an extensive characterization of the FEL beam focused to ≈1 μm by two Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors, along with optical metrology slope profiles demonstrating their exceptionally high quality. This work provides a systematic and comprehensive study of the accuracy provided by curved gratings in real-time imaging of X-ray beams at a free-electron laser facility. It is applied here to soft X-rays and can be extended to the hard X-ray range. Furthermore, curved gratings, in combination with a suitable detector, can provide spatial properties of μm-focused X-ray beams at MHz repetition rate.
- ItemReference shape effects on Fourier transform holography(Washington, DC : Soc., 2022) Malm, Erik; Pfau, Bastian; Schneider, Michael; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Büttner, Felix; Mikkelsen, Anders; Eisebitt, StefanSoft-x-ray holography which utilizes an optics mask fabricated in direct contact with the sample, is a widely applied x-ray microscopy method, in particular, for investigating magnetic samples. The optics mask splits the x-ray beam into a reference wave and a wave to illuminate the sample. The reconstruction quality in such a Fourier-transform holography experiment depends primarily on the characteristics of the reference wave, typically emerging from a small, high-aspect-ratio pinhole in the mask. In this paper, we study two commonly used reference geometries and investigate how their 3D structure affects the reconstruction within an x-ray Fourier holography experiment. Insight into these effects is obtained by imaging the exit waves from reference pinholes via high-resolution coherent diffraction imaging combined with three-dimensional multislice simulations of the x-ray propagation through the reference pinhole. The results were used to simulate Fourier-transform holography experiments to determine the spatial resolution and precise location of the reconstruction plane for different reference geometries. Based on our findings, we discuss the properties of the reference pinholes with view on application in soft-x-ray holography experiments.
- ItemSingleshot polychromatic coherent diffractive imaging with a high-order harmonic source(Washington, DC : Soc., 2020) Malm, Erik; Wikmark, Hampus; Pfau, Bastian; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Rudawski, Piotr; Peschel, Jasper; Maclot, Sylvain; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Mikkelsen, Anders; L’Huillier, Anne; Johnsson, PerSingleshot polychromatic coherent diffractive imaging is performed with a high-intensity high-order harmonic generation source. The coherence properties are analyzed and several reconstructions show the shot-to-shot fluctuations of the incident beam wavefront. The method is based on a multi-step approach. First, the spectrum is extracted from double-slit diffraction data. The spectrum is used as input to extract the monochromatic sample diffraction pattern, then phase retrieval is performed on the quasi-monochromatic data to obtain the sample’s exit surface wave. Reconstructions based on guided error reduction (ER) and alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) are compared. ADMM allows additional penalty terms to be included in the cost functional to promote sparsity within the reconstruction. © 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement.
- ItemTerahertz magnetic field enhancement in an asymmetric spiral metamaterial(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2018-10-25) Polley, Debanjan; Hagström, Nanna Zhou; Schmising, Clemens von Korff; Eisebitt, Stefan; Bonetti, StefanoWe use finite element simulations in both the frequency and the time-domain to study the terahertz resonance characteristics of a metamaterial (MM) comprising a spiral connected to a straight arm. The MM acts as a RLC circuit whose resonance frequency can be precisely tuned by varying the characteristic geometrical parameters of the spiral: inner and outer radius, width and number of turns. We provide a simple analytical model that uses these geometrical parameters as input to give accurate estimates of the resonance frequency. Finite element simulations show that linearly polarized terahertz radiation efficiently couples to the MM thanks to the straight arm, inducing a current in the spiral, which in turn induces a resonant magnetic field enhancement at the center of the spiral. We observe a large (approximately 40 times) and uniform (over an area of ∼10 μm2) enhancement of the magnetic field for narrowband terahertz radiation with frequency matching the resonance frequency of the MM. When a broadband, single-cycle terahertz pulse propagates towards the MM, the peak magnetic field of the resulting band-passed waveform still maintains a six-fold enhancement compared to the peak impinging field. Using existing laser-based terahertz sources, our MM design allows to generate magnetic fields of the order of 2 T over a time scale of several picoseconds, enabling the investigation of nonlinear ultrafast spin dynamics in table-top experiments. Furthermore, our MM can be implemented to generate intense near-field narrowband, multi-cycle electromagnetic fields to study generic ultrafast resonant terahertz dynamics in condensed matter.
- ItemUltrafast Demagnetization Dominates Fluence Dependence of Magnetic Scattering at Co M Edges(College Park, Md. : APS, 2020) Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Weder, David; Geilhufe, Jan; Perron, Jonathan; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Manfredda, Michele; Hennecke, Martin; Vodungbo, Boris; Lüning, Jan; Eisebitt, StefanWe systematically study the fluence dependence of the resonant scattering cross-section from magnetic domains in Co/Pd-based multilayers. Samples are probed with single extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses of femtosecond duration tuned to the Co M3,2 absorption resonances using the FERMI@Elettra free-electron laser. We report quantitative data over 3 orders of magnitude in fluence, covering 16 mJ/cm2/pulse to 10 000 mJ/cm2/pulse with pulse lengths of 70 fs and 120 fs. A progressive quenching of the diffraction cross-section with fluence is observed. Compression of the same pulse energy into a shorter pulse—implying an increased XUV peak electric field—results in a reduced quenching of the resonant diffraction at the Co M3,2 edge. We conclude that the quenching effect observed for resonant scattering involving the short-lived Co 3p core vacancies is noncoherent in nature. This finding is in contrast to previous reports investigating resonant scattering involving the longer-lived Co 2p states, where stimulated emission has been found to be important. A phenomenological model based on XUV-induced ultrafast demagnetization is able to reproduce our entire set of experimental data and is found to be consistent with independent magneto-optical measurements of the demagnetization dynamics on the same samples.