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- ItemExtruded polycarbonate/Di-Allyl phthalate composites with ternary conductive filler system for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Naji, Ahmed; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Ameli, AmirHere, we report multifunctional polycarbonate (PC)-based conductive polymer composites (CPCs) with outstanding performance manufactured by a simple extrusion process and intended for use in bipolar plate (BPP) applications in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. CPCs were developed using a ternary conductive filler system containing carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon fiber (CF), and graphite (G) and by introducing di-allyl phthalate (DAP) as a plasticizer to PC matrix. The samples were fabricated using twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding and the microstructure, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed a good dispersion of the fillers with some degree of interconnection between dissimilar fillers. The addition of DAP enhanced the electrical conductivity and tensile strength of the CPCs. Due to its plasticizing effect, DAP reduced the processing temperature by 75 °C and facilitated the extrusion of CPCs with filler loads as high as 63 wt% (3 wt% CNT, 30 wt% CF, 30 wt% G). Consequently, CPCs with the through-plane electrical, in-plane electrical and thermal conductivities and tensile strength of 4.2 S cm-1, 34.3 S cm-1, 2.9 W m-1 K-1, and 75.4 MPa, respectively, were achieved. This combination of properties indicates the potential of PC-based composites enriched with hybrid fillers and plasticizers as an alternative material for BPP application.
- ItemMessanlage zur Untersuchung des Seebeck-Effektes in Polymermaterialien(Berlin : De Gruyter, 2020) Jenschke, Wolfgang; Ullrich, Mathias; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe thermoelectric effect named after the physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck has been investigated sufficiently well for all technically relevant metals and has been used for a long time, among other things, for temperature measurement by means of thermocouples. Less well known and researched is the Seebeck effect in polymer materials, which are gaining increasing influence in the sensor industry today. This article describes a measuring system designed specifically to study the Seebeck effect in polymeric samples with the aim of developing tailored polymers for sensory engineering applications using the Seebeck effect. The special requirement of the measuring system is the realization of constant accurate temperature sources.
- ItemGraphite modified epoxy-based adhesive for joining of aluminium and PP/graphite composites(New York, NY [u.a.] : Taylor & Francis, 2020) Rzeczkowski, P.; Pötschke, Petra; Fischer, M.; Kühnert, I.; Krause, BeateA graphite-modified adhesive was developed in order to simultaneously enhance the thermal conductivity and the strength of an adhesive joint. The thermal conductivity through the joint was investigated by using highly filled PP/graphite composite substrates, which were joined with an epoxy adhesive of different layer thicknesses. Similar measurements were carried out with a constant adhesive layer thickness, whilst applying an epoxy adhesive modified with expanded graphite (EG) (6, 10, and 20 wt%). By reducing the adhesive layer thickness or modifying the adhesive with conductive fillers, a significant increase of the thermal conductivity through the joint was achieved. The examination of the mechanical properties of the modified adhesives was carried out by tensile tests (adhesive only), lap-shear tests, and fracture energy tests (mode 1) with aluminium substrates. Modification of the adhesive with EG led to an increase of the tensile lap-shear strength and the adhesive fracture energy (mode 1) of the joint. In addition, burst pressure tests were performed to determine the strength of the joint in a complex component. The strength of the joint increased with the graphite content in the PP substrate and in the epoxy adhesive.
- ItemMelt mixed composites of polypropylene with singlewalled carbon nanotubes for thermoelectric applications: Switching from p- to n-type behavior by additive addition(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Pötschke; Petra; Krause, Beate; Luo, JinjiComposites were prepared with polypropylene (PP) as the matrix and singlewalled CNTs (SWCNTs) of the type TUBALL from OCSiAl Ltd. as the conducting component by melt processing in a small-scale twin-screw compounder. In order to switch the typical p-type behavior of such composites from positive Seebeck coefficients (S) into n-type behavior with negative Seebeck coefficients, a non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether (Brij58) was used and compared with a PEG additive, which was shown previously to be able to induce such switching. For PP-2 wt% SWCNT composites Brij58 is shown to result in n-type composites. The negative S values (up to −48.2 µV/K) are not as high as in the case of previous results using PEG (−56.6 µV/K). However, due to the more pronounced effect of Brij58 on the electrical conductivity, the achieved power factors are higher and reach a maximum of 0.144 µW/(m·K2) compared to previous 0.078 µW/(m·K2) with PEG. Dispersion improvement depends on the type of SWCNTs obtained by using varied synthesis/treatment conditions. Solution prepared composites of PEG with SWCNTs also have negative S values, indicating the donation of electrons from PEG to the SWCNTs. However, such composites are brittle and not suitable as thermoelectric materials.
- ItemEffect of additives on MWCNT dispersion and electrical percolation in polyamide 12 composites(Melville, NY : AIP, 2017) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe aim of this study was to decrease the electrical percolation threshold of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polyamide 12 matrix by the use of additives. Different kinds of additives were selected which either interact with the π-system of the MWCNTs (imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)) or improve the MWCNT wettability (cyclic butylene terephthalate, CBT). The composites were melt mixed using a DACA microcompounder. The electrical percolation threshold for PA12/MWCNT without additives, measured on compression molded plates, was found between 2.0 and 2.25 wt%. With all used additives, a significant reduction of the electrical percolation threshold could be achieved. Whereas the addition of IL and CBT resulted in MWCNT percolation at around 1.0 wt%, a slightly higher percolation threshold between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% was found for PTCDA as an additive. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity at higher loadings was decreased by nearly two decades when using CBT and one decade after application of PTCDA, whereas IL did not contribute to lower values in this range. In all cases macrodispersion as assessed by light microscopy was not improved and even worse as compared to non-modified composites. In summary, the results illustrate that these kinds of additives are able to improve the performance of PA12 based MWCNT nanocomposites.
- ItemDevelopment of joining methods for highly filled Graphite/PP composite based bipolar plates for fuel cells: Adhesive joining and welding(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Rzeczkowski, P.; Lucia, M.; Müller, A.; Facklam, M.; Cohnen, A.; Schäfer, P.; Hopmann, C.; Hickmann, T.; Pötschke, Petra; Krause, BeateNovel material solutions for bipolar plates in fuel cells require adapted ways of joining and sealing technologies. Safe and life time enduring leak-tight contacts must be achieved by automatic processes using reasonable joint forces. A proper sealing should manage such challenges as good ageing properties, excellent leaktightness, high thermal conductivity and low gas permeability. Hence in this work, adhesive bonding and welding are considered as suitable methods, which can fulfill the requirements mentioned above. Adhesive systems seem to be more easy to apply than conventional sealing (hand layed-up rubber gaskets), e.g. with automatic dispensers. Additionally, the properties of an adhesive joint can be enhanced by a process-specific surface pre-treatment. This work focuses on the characterization of adhesive systems and their joints with highly filled graphite composites. Mechanical properties of the joints were characterized through lap-shear tests. The influence of ageing caused by humidity or acidic solvent at increased temperature on the bond line properties as well as neat adhesive was examined. The thermal conductivities of neat adhesives and through the entire joint were examined. In order to improve above conductivities, roughening, substrate pre-heating, post-curing and various contact pressure weights were applied. Plasma treatment was chosen as surface pre-treatment method for improving substrate's surface energy. An alternative to bonding is plastic welding, which does not require the use of sealants and adhesives. Based on former study of influences of filler content on the welding process using ultrasonic, hot plate or infrared welding, a welding method for joining the graphite compounds was derived.
- ItemInfluence of a supplemental filler in twin-screw extruded PP/CNT composites using masterbatch dilution(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Müller, Michael Thomas; Krause, Beate; Kretzschmar, Bernd; Pötschke, PetraIn this study commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (2-8 wt.%) were incorporated in polypropylene (PP) by direct powder feeding or by a masterbatch dilution procedure using a twin-screw extruder. The influence of a supplemental, electrical non-conductive talc or electrically conductive carbon black (CB), filler on the resulting composite properties was investigated. In comparison to the direct carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporation the masterbatch dilution step resulted in improved CNT macro dispersion. The use of the supplemental fillers CB or talc does not show a significant influence on the CNT dispersion state. When compared to direct CNT incorporation, the second compounding process involved in masterbatch dilution leads to higher electrical resistivity of injection molded samples. On the other hand, the supplemental fillers talc or CB decreased the electrical resistivity values. With the addition of talc or CB an increase of the Young’s modulus due to the reinforcing effect of the second filler was achieved. However, no synergistic effect between the used supplemental fillers and the CNT on the mechanical properties was obtained.
- ItemImpact of synthesis temperature on structure of carbon nanotubes and morphological and electrical characterization of their polymeric nanocomposites(Melville, NY : AIP, 2017) Arjmand, Mohammad; Mirkhani, Seyyed Alireza; Pötschke, Petra; Krause, Beate; Sundararaj, UttandaramanCarbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition technique at a broad range of temperatures, i.e. 550°C to 950°C (at 100°C intervals). CNTs were synthesized by flowing source and carrier gases (ethane, argon, and hydrogen) over Fe catalyst in a quartz tubular reactor. CNTs were melt mixed with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix in a miniature mixer. The resulting nanocomposites were then compression molded, and electrically and morphologically characterized. Moreover, a wide range of characterization techniques were employed to obtain detailed information about the physical and morphological characteristics of CNTs. It was surprisingly observed that, despite the ascending trend of powder conductivity with the synthesis temperature, the nanocomposites made with (CNT)650°C had significantly lower percolation threshold (around 0.4wt.%) and higher electromagnetic interference shielding (20.3dB over the X-band for 1.1mm thickness) compared to the other temperatures. The characterization of nanofillers showed that the synthesis yield and quality of (CNT)650°C were highly superior to the other types of CNTs. At 850°C and 950°C, most of the synthesized carbonaceous materials formed graphitic structures around the sintered catalyst particles. It was also observed that the dispersion state of (CNT)650°C within the PVDF matrix was much better than that of CNTs synthesized at the other temperatures. Superior electrical properties of (CNT)650°C nanocomposites can be attributed to a combination of high synthesis yield, low diameter and decent quality of CNTs coupled with good state of dispersion within the PVDF matrix.
- ItemImprovement of electrical resistivity of highly filled graphite/pp composite based bipolar plates for fuel cells by addition of carbon black(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Hickmann, ThorstenNovel material solutions for polymer based bipolar plates in fuel cells require adapted ways to develop suitable material compositions. The common pathway to develop materials with at the same time high electrical as well as thermal conductivity is the use of conductive graphite as filler with contents up to 80-85 wt.%. However, there is a need to develop recipes with maximized conductive behavior at lowest possible content of conductive filler to enhance the mechanical properties and allow good processability. In this study, composites based on polypropylene (PP) and different filler systems were melt-mixed using a lab scale co-rotating twin-screw extruder and compression molded to bipolar type plates. As fillers synthetic (G) or expanded (EG) graphites were incorporated. At the overall filler content of 60 wt.% or 80 wt% part of the graphite was replaced by highly conductive carbon black (CB, 2.5 wt.%, 5.0 wt.%). It was found that the addition of CB significantly reduced the electrical volume as well as the surface resistivity up to values of 0.12 Ωcm or 4 mΩ/square, respectively. For the values of thermal conductivity the kind and particle size of the selected graphite was important. If expanded graphite was partially replaced by CB, the thermal conductivity of PP/EG+CB composites decreased significantly. Otherwise, the combination of synthetic graphite and CB changed the thermal conductivity of PP composites only marginal at the same overall filler content. For both graphite types the filler with larger particle size resulted in higher thermal conductivity.
- ItemElectrical and thermal conductivity of polypropylene filled with combinations of carbon fillers(Melville, NY : AIP, 2016) Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe thermal and electrical conductivity of polymer composites filled with a low content up to 7.5 vol% of different carbon fillers (carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, graphite nanoplates) were investigated. It was found that the combination of two or three carbon fillers leads to an increase of thermal conductivity up to 193% which is higher than the sum of the effects of both fillers.