Browsing by Author "Freudenberger, J."
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- ItemEntropy of conduction electrons from transport experiments(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Pérez, N.; Wolf, C.; Kunzmann, A.; Freudenberger, J.; Krautz, M.; Weise, B.; Nielsch, K.; Schierning, G.The entropy of conduction electrons was evaluated utilizing the thermodynamic definition of the Seebeck coefficient as a tool. This analysis was applied to two dierent kinds of scientific questions that can-if at all-be only partially addressed by other methods. These are the field-dependence of meta-magnetic phase transitions and the electronic structure in strongly disordered materials, such as alloys. We showed that the electronic entropy change in meta-magnetic transitions is not constant with the applied magnetic field, as is usually assumed. Furthermore, we traced the evolution of the electronic entropy with respect to the chemical composition of an alloy series. Insights about the strength and kind of interactions appearing in the exemplary materials can be identified in the experiments.
- ItemEvaluation of the effective temperature change in Gd-based composite wires assessed by static and pulsed-field magnetic measurements(Amsterdam : North-Holland Publ. Co., 2021) Beyer, L.; Weise, B.; Freudenberger, J.; Hufenbach, J.K.; Gottschall, T.; Krautz, M.Gd cladded in a seamless 316L austenitic steel tube has been swaged into wires by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technology, resulting in an outer diameter of 1 mm, a wall thickness of approx. 100 µm and a filling factor of around 62 vol%. Such wires provide an advantageous geometry for heat exchangers and have the benefit to protect the Gadolinium, i.e. from corrosion when being in contact with a heat transfer fluid. The magnetocaloric composite has been studied by static and pulsed magnetic-field measurements in order to evaluate the performance of Gd as a core material. By the analysis of magnetization and heat capacity data, the influences of deformation-induced defects on Gadolinium are presented. The subsequent heat treatment at 773 K for 1 h in Ar atmosphere allowed restoring the magnetic properties of the wire after deformation. Data of the pulsed magnetic-field measurements on the Gd-filled PIT-wires and a Gd–core separated from the jacket are presented, with an achievable temperature change of 1.2 K for the wire and 5.2 K for the Gd in 2 T, respectively. A comparison to previously studied La(Fe, Co, Si)13-filled composite wires is included. It indicates that performance losses due to the passive matrix material cannot be overcome only by an increased adiabatic temperature change of the core material, but instead the wire components need to be chosen regarding an optimized heat capacity ratio, as well.
- ItemGrain refinement and deformation mechanisms in room temperature severe plastic deformed Mg-AZ31(Basel : MDPI AG, 2013) Knauer, E.; Freudenberger, J.; Marr, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Schultz, L.A Ti-AZ31 composite was severely plastically deformed by rotary swaging at room temperature up to a logarithmic deformation strain of 2.98. A value far beyond the forming limit of pure AZ31 when being equivalently deformed. It is observed, that the microstructure evolution in Mg-AZ31 is strongly influenced by twinning. At low strains the [formula presented] twin systems lead to fragmentation of the initial grains. Inside the primary twins, grain refinement takes place by dynamic recrystallization, dynamic recovery and twinning. These mechanisms lead to a final grain size of ≈ 1 μm, while a strong centered ring fibre texture is evolved.
- ItemThe Influence of Cu-Additions on the Microstructure, Mechanical and Magnetic Properties of MnAl-C Alloys(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2020) Jürries, F.; Freudenberger, J.; Nielsch, K.; Woodcock, T.G.Alloys of the form (Mn54Al44C2)100-xCux (with x = 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6) were produced by induction melting. After homogenisation and quenching, most of the alloys consist entirely of the retained ε-phase, except for x = 6, in which the κ-phase was additionally present. After subsequent annealing, the alloys with x ≤ 2 consist entirely of a Cu-doped, ferromagnetic τ-phase, whereas the alloys with x > 2 additionally contain the κ-phase. The polarisation of the alloys at an applied field of 14 T decreases with increasing Cu-content, which is attributed i) to the dilution of the magnetic moment of the τ-phase unit cell by the Cu atoms, which do not carry a magnetic moment, and ii) at higher Cu-contents, to the formation of the κ-phase, which has a much lower polarisation than the τ-phase and therefore dilutes the net polarisation of the alloys. The Curie temperature was not affected by the Cu-additions. The stress needed to die-upset the alloys with x ≤ 2 was similar to that of the undoped alloy, whereas it was much lower for x = 4 and 6, due to the presence of intergranular layers of the κ-phase. The extrinsic magnetic properties of alloys with x ≤ 2 were improved by die-upsetting, whereas decomposition of the τ-phase during processing had a deleterious effect on the magnetic properties for higher Cu-additions.
- ItemMicrostructure evolution during annealing of an SPD- processed supersaturated Cu – 3 at.% Ag alloy(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2014) Gubicza, J.; Hegedűs, Z.; Lábár, J.L.; Sarma, V.S.; Kauffmann, A.; Freudenberger, J.Supersaturated Cu-3 at.% Ag alloy was processed by rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature and subsequent annealing at 623 K up to 20 min. It was found that after annealing, an inhomogeneous solute atom distribution developed, since the Ag particles with small size and/or large specific interfacial energy were dissolved due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect. In the region where the solute concentration increased, a high dislocation density was retained in the Cu matrix even after annealing, while in the region where the Ag solute content did not increase, the dislocation density decreased by more than one order of magnitude. Therefore, in the cryorolled and annealed samples, heterogeneous microstructures were developed where both the dislocation density and the solute concentration varied considerably.
- ItemOrbital and spin effects for the upper critical field in As-deficient disordered Fe pnictide superconductors(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Fuchs, G.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Kozlova, N.; Bartkowiak, M.; Hamann-Borrero, J.E.; Behr, G.; Nenkov, K.; Klauss, H.-H.; Maeter, H.; Amato, A.; Luetkens, H.; Kwadrin, A.; Khasanov, R.; Freudenberger, J.; Köhler, A.; Knupfer, M.; Arushanov, E.; Rosner, H.; Büchner, B.; Schultz, L.We report upper critical field Bc2(T) data for LaO0.9F0.1FeAs1- δ in a wide temperature and field range up to 60 T. The large slope of Bc2≈- 5.4 to -6.6 T K-1 near an improved Tc≈28.5 K of the in-plane Bc2(T) contrasts with a flattening starting near 23 K above 30 T we regard as the onset of Pauli-limited behaviour (PLB) with Bc2(0)≈63–68 T. We interpret a similar hitherto unexplained flattening of the Bc2(T) curves reported for at least three other disordered closely related systems, Co-doped BaFe2As2, (Ba,K) Fe2As2 and NdO0.7F0.3FeAs (all single crystals), for applied fields H∥(a,b), also as a manifestation of PLB. Their Maki parameters have been estimated by analysing their Bc2(T) data within the Werthamer–Helfand–Hohenberg approach. The pronounced PLB of (Ba, K)Fe2As2 single crystals obtained from an Sn flux is attributed also to a significant As deficiency detected by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy as reported by Ni et al (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 014507). Consequences of our results are discussed in terms of disorder effects within conventional superconductivity (CSC) and unconventional superconductivity (USC). USC scenarios with nodes on individual Fermi surface sheets (FSS), e.g. p- and d-wave SC, can be discarded for our samples. The increase of dBc2/dT|Tc by sizeable disorder provides evidence for an important intraband (intra-FSS) contribution to the orbital upper critical field. We suggest that it can be ascribed either to an impurity-driven transition from s± USC to CSC of an extended s++-wave state or to a stabilized s±-state provided As-vacancies cause predominantly strong intraband scattering in the unitary limit. We compare our results with Bc2 data from the literature, which often show no PLB for fields below 60–70 T probed so far. A novel disorder-related scenario of a complex interplay of SC with two different competing magnetic instabilities is suggested.
- ItemPredicting the dominating factors during heat transfer in magnetocaloric composite wires(Amsterdam : Elsevier B.V., 2020) Krautz, M.; Beyer, L.; Funk, A.; Waske, A.; Weise, B.; Freudenberger, J.; Gottschall, T.Magnetocaloric composite wires have been studied by pulsed-field measurements up to μ0ΔH = 10 T with a typical rise time of 13 ms in order to evaluate the evolution of the adiabatic temperature change of the core, ΔTad, and to determine the effective temperature change at the surrounding steel jacket, ΔTeff, during the field pulse. An inverse thermal hysteresis is observed for ΔTad due to the delayed thermal transfer. By numerical simulations of application-relevant sinusoidal magnetic field profiles, it can be stated that for field-frequencies of up to two field cycles per second heat can be efficiently transferred from the core to the outside of the jacket. In addition, intense numerical simulations of the temperature change of the core and jacket were performed by varying different parameters, such as frequency, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and interface resistance in order to shed light on their impact on ΔTeff at the outside of the jacket in comparison to ΔTad provided by the core.
- ItemProcessing of intermetallic titanium aluminide wires(Basel : MDPI AG, 2013) Marr, T.; Freudenberger, J.; Kauffmann, A.; Romberg, J.; Okulov, I.; Petters, R.; Scharnweber, J.; Eschke, A.; Oertel, C.-G.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Skrotzki, W.; Schultz, L.This study shows the possibility of processing titanium aluminide wires by cold deformation and annealing. An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to co-deform Ti and Al. Subsequently, a two step heat treatment is applied to form the desired intermetallics, which strongly depends on the ratio of Ti and Al in the final composite and therefore on the geometry of the starting composite. In a first step, the whole amount of Al is transformed to TiAl3 by Al diffusion into Ti. This involves the formation of 12% porosity. In a second step, the complete microstructure is transformed into the equilibrium state of γ-TiAl and TiAl3. Using this approach, it is possible to obtain various kinds of gradient materials, since there is an intrinsic concentration gradient installed due to the swaging and bundling technique, but the processing of pure γ-TiAl wires is possible as well.
- ItemPromoting abnormal grain growth in Fe-based shape memory alloys through compositional adjustments(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Vollmer, M.; Arold, T.; Kriegel, M.J.; Klemm, V.; Degener, S.; Freudenberger, J.; Niendorf, T.Iron-based shape memory alloys are promising candidates for large-scale structural applications due to their cost efficiency and the possibility of using conventional processing routes from the steel industry. However, recently developed alloy systems like Fe–Mn–Al–Ni suffer from low recoverability if the grains do not completely cover the sample cross-section. To overcome this issue, here we show that small amounts of titanium added to Fe–Mn–Al–Ni significantly enhance abnormal grain growth due to a considerable refinement of the subgrain sizes, whereas small amounts of chromium lead to a strong inhibition of abnormal grain growth. By tailoring and promoting abnormal grain growth it is possible to obtain very large single crystalline bars. We expect that the findings of the present study regarding the elementary mechanisms of abnormal grain growth and the role of chemical composition can be applied to tailor other alloy systems with similar microstructural features.
- ItemStabilization of the ζ-Cu10Sn3 Phase by Ni at Soldering-Relevant Temperatures(Heidelberg : Springer Verlag, 2020) Wieser, C.; Hügel, W.; Martin, S.; Freudenberger, J.; Leineweber, A.A current issue in electrical engineering is the enhancement of the quality of solder joints. This is mainly associated with the ongoing electrification of transportation as well as the miniaturization of (power) electronics. For the reliability of solder joints, intermetallic phases in the microstructure of the solder are of great importance. The formation of the intermetallic phases in the Cu-Sn solder system was investigated for different annealing temperatures between 472 K and 623 K using pure Cu as well as Cu-1at.%Ni and Cu-3at.%Ni substrate materials. These are relevant for lead frame materials in electronic components. The Cu and Cu-Ni alloys were in contact to galvanic plated Sn. This work is focused on the unexpected formation of the hexagonal ζ-(Cu,Ni)10Sn3 phase at annealing temperatures of 523–623 K, which is far below the eutectoid decomposition temperature of binary ζ-Cu10Sn3 of about 855 K. By using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction the presence of the ζ phase was confirmed and its structural properties were analyzed.
- ItemTi-Al composite wires with high specific strength(Basel : MDPI AG, 2011) Marr, T.; Freudenberger, J.; Seifert, D.; Klauß, H.; Romberg, J.; Okulov, I.; Scharnweber, J.; Eschke, A.; Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Schultz, L.An alternative deformation technique was applied to a composite made of titanium and an aluminium alloy in order to achieve severe plastic deformation. This involves accumulative swaging and bundling. Furthermore, it allows uniform deformation of a composite material while producing a wire which can be further used easily. Detailed analysis concerning the control of the deformation process, mesostructural and microstructural features and tensile testing was carried out on the as produced wires. A strong grain refinement to a grain size of 250–500 nm accompanied by a decrease in h111i fibre texture component and a change from low angle to high angle grain boundary characteristics is observed in the Al alloy. A strong increase in the mechanical properties in terms of ultimate tensile strength ranging from 600 to 930 MPa being equivalent to a specific strength of up to 223 MPa/g/cm3 was achieved.
- ItemTuning functional properties by plastic deformation(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Kwon, A.R.; Neu, V.; Matias, V.; Hänisch, J.; Hühne, R.; Freudenberger, J.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.It is well known that a variation of lattice constants can strongly influence the functional properties of materials. Lattice constants can be influenced by external forces; however, most experiments are limited to hydrostatic pressure or biaxial stress. Here, we present an experimental approach that imposes a large uniaxial strain on epitaxially grown films in order to tune their functional properties. A substrate made of a ductile metal alloy covered with a biaxially oriented MgO layer is used as a template for growth of epitaxial films. By applying an external plastic strain, we break the symmetry within the substrate plane compared to the as-deposited state. The consequences of 2% plastic strain are examined for an epitaxial hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B film and are found to result in an elliptical distortion of the in-plane anisotropy below the spin-reorientation temperature. Our approach is a versatile method to study the influence of large plastic strain on various materials, as the MgO(001) layer used is a common substrate for epitaxial growth.
- ItemTwinning phenomena along and beyond the bain path(Basel : MDPI AG, 2013) Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Kauffmann, A.; Niemann, R.; Freudenberger, J.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.Twinning is a phenomenon that occurs, e.g., during deformation, martensitic transformation and film growth. The present study shows that the crystallography of twinning can be described by two twinning modes along the complete Bain transformation path and beyond connecting body-centered and face-centered cubic structures. To probe this concept, we used strained epitaxial films of the Fe-Pd magnetic shape memory system. As the substrate acts as an absolute reference frame, we could show by pole figure measurements that all observed twinning can be a body-centered and face-centered cubic twinning mode. This continuously transforms towards identity when approaching the complementary structure.