Browsing by Author "Kissinger, Dietmar"
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- Item168-195 GHz Power Amplifier with Output Power Larger Than 18 dBm in BiCMOS Technology(New York, NY : IEEE, 2020) Ali, Abdul; Yun, Jongwon; Giannini, Franco; Ng, Herman Jalli; Kissinger, Dietmar; Colantonio, PaoloThis paper presents a 4-way combined G-band power amplifier (PA) fabricated with a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS process. First, a single-ended PA based on the cascode topology (CT) is designed at 185 GHz, which consists of three stages to get an overall gain and an output power higher than 27 dB and 13 dBm, respectively. Then, a 4-way combiner/splitter was designed using low-loss transmission lines at 130-210 GHz. Finally, the combiner was loaded with four single-ended PAs to complete the design of a 4-way combined PA. The chip of the fabricated PA occupies an area of 1.35mm2. The realized PA shows a saturated output power of 18.1 dBm with a peak gain of 25.9 dB and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 3.5% at 185 GHz. A maximum output power of 18.7 dBm with PAE of 4.4% is achieved at 170 GHz. The 3-dB and 6-dB bandwidth of the PA are 27 and 42 GHz, respectively. In addition, the PA delivers a saturated output power higher than 18 dBm in the frequency range 140-186 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, the power reported in this paper is the highest for G-band SiGe BiCMOS PAs. © 2013 IEEE.
- Item240-GHz Reflectometer-Based Dielectric Sensor With Integrated Transducers in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology(New York, NY : IEEE, 2021) Wang, Defu; Eissa, Mohamed Hussein; Schmalz, Klaus; Kampfe, Thomas; Kissinger, DietmarThis article presents a reflectometer-based on-chip dielectric sensor with integrated transducers at 240 GHz. The chip simplifies the measurement of a vector network analyzer (VNA) to sense the incident and reflected waves by using two heterodyne mixer-based receivers with a dielectric sensing element. Radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) submillimeter waves are generated by two frequency multiplier chains, respectively. Two back-to-back identical differential side-coupled directive couplers are proposed to separate the incident and reflected signals and couple them to mixers. Both transmission line and coplanar stripline transducers are proposed and integrated with reflectometer to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric sensors. The latter leads to a larger power variation of the reflectometer by providing more sufficient operating bands for the magnitude and phase slope of S11 . The readout of the transducers upon exposure to liquids is performed by the measurement of their reflected signals using two external excitation sources. The experimental dielectric sensing is demonstrated by using binary methanol–ethanol mixture placed on the proposed on-chip dielectric sensor in the assembled printed circuit board. It enables a maximum 8 dB of the power difference between the incident and reflected channels on the measurement of liquid solvents. Both chips occupy an area of 4.03 mm 2 and consume 560 mW. Along with a wide operational frequency range from 200 to 240 GHz, this simplified one-port-VNA-based on-chip device makes it feasible for the use of handle product and suitable for the submillimeter-wave dielectric spectroscopy applications.
- ItemDesign and Fabrication of a BiCMOS Dielectric Sensor for Viscosity Measurements: A Possible Solution for Early Detection of COPD(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Soltani Zarrin, Pouya; Jamal, Farabi Ibne; Guha, Subhajit; Wessel, Jan; Kissinger, Dietmar; Wenger, ChristianThe viscosity variation of sputum is a common symptom of the progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since the hydration of the sputum defines its viscosity level, dielectric sensors could be used for the characterization of sputum samples collected from patients for early diagnosis of COPD. In this work, a CMOS-based dielectric sensor for the real-time monitoring of sputum viscosity was designed and fabricated. A proper packaging for the ESD-protection and short-circuit prevention of the sensor was developed. The performance evaluation results show that the radio frequency sensor is capable of measuring dielectric constant of biofluids with an accuracy of 4.17%. Integration of this sensor into a portable system will result in a hand-held device capable of measuring viscosity of sputum samples of COPD-patients for diagnostic purposes.
- ItemHigh Performance Asymmetric Coupled Line Balun at Sub-THz Frequency(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Ali, Abdul; Yun, Jongwon; Ng, Herman Jalli; Kissinger, Dietmar; Giannini, Franco; Colantonio, PaoloIn this paper, we report a high-performance balun with characteristics suitable for future broadband sub-THz differential circuits. The idea of the balun is based on three asymmetric coupled lines, which enhance the odd mode capacitances to equalize the even/odd mode phase velocities. The inner line of the three asymmetric coupled lines is configured to form the open stub ( λ /2), while the outer lines form short stubs ( λ /4). To further reduce the phase imbalance, the short stubs in one of the arms of the balun are connected with vias and a lower metal layer. The balun is developed using the standard 130-nm SiGe BiCMOSback-end process and EM simulated with ADS momentum and Sonnet. The −10-dB reflection coefficient (S 11 ) bandwidth of the balun is 136 GHz (88–224 GHz). It shows insertion loss (including RF pads) <1.5 dB, phase imbalance <7 degrees, and amplitude imbalance <1 dB at 94–177 GHz. Furthermore, a scaled-down version of the balun operates on the WR-6, WR-5, and WR-4 frequency bands without significant degradation in its performance. Such characteristics of the balun make it an ideal candidate for various broadband differential circuits.
- ItemMillimeter-Wave and Terahertz Transceivers in SiGe BiCMOS Technologies(New York, NY : IEEE, 2021) Kissinger, Dietmar; Kahmen, Gerhard; Weigel, RobertThis invited paper reviews the progress of silicon–germanium (SiGe) bipolar-complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (BiCMOS) technology-based integrated circuits (ICs) during the last two decades. Focus is set on various transceiver (TRX) realizations in the millimeter-wave range from 60 GHz and at terahertz (THz) frequencies above 300 GHz. This article discusses the development of SiGe technologies and ICs with the latter focusing on the commercially most important applications of radar and beyond 5G wireless communications. A variety of examples ranging from 77-GHz automotive radar to THz sensing as well as the beginnings of 60-GHz wireless communication up to THz chipsets for 100-Gb/s data transmission are recapitulated. This article closes with an outlook on emerging fields of research for future advancement of SiGe TRX performance.
- ItemRidge Gap Waveguide Based Liquid Crystal Phase Shifter(New York, NY : IEEE, 2020) Nickel, Matthias; Jiménez-Sáez, Alejandro; Agrawal, Prannoy; Gadallah, Ahmed; Malignaggi, Andrea; Schuster, Christian; Reese, Roland; Tesmer, Henning; Polat, Ersin; Schumacher, Peter; Jakoby, Rolf; Kissinger, Dietmar; Maune, HolgerIn this paper, the gap waveguide technology is examined for packaging liquid crystal (LC) in tunable microwave devices. For this purpose, a line based passive phase shifter is designed and implemented in a ridge gap waveguide (RGW) topology and filled with LC serving as functional material. The inherent direct current (DC) decoupling property of gap waveguides is used to utilize the waveguide surroundings as biasing electrodes for tuning the LC. The bed of nails structure of the RGW exhibits an E-field suppression of 76 dB in simulation, forming a completely shielded device. The phase shifter shows a maximum figure of merit (FoM) of 70 °/dB from 20 GHz to 30 GHz with a differential phase shift of 387° at 25 GHz. The insertion loss ranges from 3.5 dB to 5.5 dB depending on the applied biasing voltage of 0 V to 60 V. © 2013 IEEE.
- ItemA Scalable Four-Channel Frequency-Division Multiplexing MIMO Radar Utilizing Single-Sideband Delta-Sigma Modulation(New York, NY : IEEE, 2019) Ng, Herman Jalli; Hasan, Raqibul; Kissinger, DietmarA scalable four-channel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar that features a modular system architecture and a novel frequency-division multiplexing approach is presented in this article. It includes a single 30-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) for the local oscillator signal generation, four cascaded 120-GHz transceivers with a frequency quadrupler, and on-board differential series-fed patch antennas. The utilized uniform antenna configuration results in 16 virtual array elements and enables an angular resolution of 6.2°. The vector modulators in the transmit (TX) paths allow the application of complex bit streams of second-order delta-sigma modulators easily generated on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to implement single-sideband (SSB) modulation on the TX signals resulting in orthogonal waveforms for the MIMO operation. Only one phase-locked loop and no digital-To-Analog converter is required. The waveform diversity also allows the simultaneous transmission of the TX signals to reduce the measurement time. The application of the SSB modulation on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave MIMO radar requires only half of the intermediate frequency bandwidth compared with the double-sideband modulation. The issue of the phase and amplitude mismatches at the virtual array elements due to the scalable radar architecture is addressed and a calibration solution is introduced in this article. Radar measurements using different numbers of virtual array elements were compared and the digital-beamforming method was applied to the results to create 2-D images. © 1963-2012 IEEE.