Browsing by Author "Neu, V."
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- ItemDetermination of tip transfer function for quantitative MFM using frequency domain filtering and least squares method(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Nečas, D.; Klapetek, P.; Neu, V.; Havlíček, M.; Puttock, R.; Kazakova, O.; Hu, X.; Zajíčková, L.Magnetic force microscopy has unsurpassed capabilities in analysis of nanoscale and microscale magnetic samples and devices. Similar to other Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques, quantitative analysis remains a challenge. Despite large theoretical and practical progress in this area, present methods are seldom used due to their complexity and lack of systematic understanding of related uncertainties and recommended best practice. Use of the Tip Transfer Function (TTF) is a key concept in making Magnetic Force Microscopy measurements quantitative. We present a numerical study of several aspects of TTF reconstruction using multilayer samples with perpendicular magnetisation. We address the choice of numerical approach, impact of non-periodicity and windowing, suitable conventions for data normalisation and units, criteria for choice of regularisation parameter and experimental effects observed in real measurements. We present a simple regularisation parameter selection method based on TTF width and verify this approach via numerical experiments. Examples of TTF estimation are shown on both 2D and 3D experimental datasets. We give recommendations on best practices for robust TTF estimation, including the choice of windowing function, measurement strategy and dealing with experimental error sources. A method for synthetic MFM data generation, suitable for large scale numerical experiments is also presented.
- ItemDomain evolution during the spin-reorientation transition in epitaxial NdCo5 thin films(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2013) Seifert, M.; Schultz, L.; Schäfer, R.; Neu, V.; Hankemeier, S.; Rössler, S.; Frömter, R.; Oepen, H.P.The domain structure and its changes with temperature were investigated for an epitaxial NdCo5 thin film with in-plane texture in which a spin-reorientation transition takes place from the easy c-axis via the easy cone to the easy plane. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis reveals a transition from a two-domain state at temperatures above 318 K via a four-domain state back to a 90°-rotated two-domain state at temperatures below 252 K. The transition temperatures correspond well to those determined by global magnetization measurements. The magnetization configuration at the three different regimes of magnetic anisotropy and its transition with temperature were analysed in detail. From the local measurements, the spin-reorientation angle and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants of first and second order were derived.
- ItemMetrological large range magnetic force microscopy(College Park, MD : American Institute of Physics, 2018) Dai, G.; Hu, X.; Sievers, S.; Fernández, Scarioni, A.; Neu, V.; Fluegge, J.; Schumacher, H.W.A new metrological large range magnetic force microscope (Met. LR-MFM) has been developed. In its design, the scanner motion is measured by using three laser interferometers along the x, y, and z axes. Thus, the scanner position and the lift height of the MFM can be accurately and traceably determined with subnanometer accuracy, allowing accurate and traceable MFM measurements. The Met. LR-MFM has a measurement range of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm, larger than conventional MFMs by almost three orders of magnitude. It is capable of measuring samples from the nanoscale to the macroscale, and thus, it has the potential to bridge different magnetic field measurement tools having different spatially resolved scales. Three different measurement strategies referred to as Topo&MFM, MFMXY, and MFMZ have been developed. The Topo&MFM is designed for measuring topography and MFM phase images, similar to conventional MFMs. The MFMXY differs from the Topo&MFM as it does not measure the topography profile of surfaces at the second and successive lines, thus reducing tip wear and saving measurement time. The MFMZ allows the imaging of the stray field in the xz- or yz-planes. A number of measurement examples on a multilayered thin film reference sample made of [Co(0.4 nm)/Pt(0.9 nm)]100 and on a patterned magnetic multilayer [Co(0.4 nm)/Pt(0.9 nm)]10 with stripes with a 9.9 μm line width and 20 μm periodicity are demonstrated, indicating excellent measurement performance.
- ItemRound robin comparison on quantitative nanometer scale magnetic field measurements by magnetic force microscopy(Amsterdam : Elsevier B.V., 2020) Hu, X.; Dai, G.; Sievers, S.; Fernández-Scarioni, A.; Corte-León, H.; Puttock, R.; Barton, C.; Kazakova, O.; Ulvr, M.; Klapetek, P.; Havlíček, M.; Nečas, D.; Tang, Y.; Neu, V.; Schumacher, H.W.Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) can be considered as a standard tool for nano-scale investigation of magnetic domain structures by probing the local stray magnetic field landscape of the measured sample. However, this generally provides only qualitative data. To quantify the stray magnetic fields, the MFM system must be calibrated. To that end, a transfer function (TF) approach was proposed, that, unlike point probe models, fully considers the finite extent of the MFM tip. However, albeit being comprehensive, the TF approach is not yet well established, mainly due to the ambiguities concerning the input parameters and the measurement procedure. Additionally, the calibration process represents an ill-posed problem which requires a regularization that introduces further parameters. In this paper we propose a guideline for quantitative stray field measurements by standard MFM tools in ambient conditions. All steps of the measurement and calibration procedure are detailed, including reference sample and sample under test (SUT) measurements and the data analysis. The suitability of the reference sample used in the present work for calibrated measurements on a sub-micron scale is discussed. A specific regularization approach based on a Pseudo-Wiener Filter is applied and combined with criteria for the numerical determination of a unique regularization parameter. To demonstrate the robustness of such a defined approach, a round robin comparison of magnetic field measurements was conducted by four laboratories. The guideline, the reference sample and the results of the round robin are discussed.
- ItemStimulated emission and absorption of photons in magnetic point contacts(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2012) Naidyuk, Yu G.; Balkashin, O.P.; Fisun, V.V.; Yanson, I.K.; Kadigrobov, A.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Neu, V.; Seifert, M.; Korenivski, V.Point contacts between high anisotropy ferromagnetic SmCo5 and normal metal Cu are used to achieve a strong spin-population inversion in the contact core. Subjected to microwave irradiation in resonance with the Zeeman splitting in Cu, the inverted spin population relaxes through stimulated spin-flip photon emission, detected as peaks in the point-contact resistance. Resonant spin-flip photon absorption is detected as resistance minima, corresponding to sourcing the photon field energy into the electrical circuit. These results demonstrate fundamental mechanisms that are potentially useful in designing metallic spin-based lasers.
- ItemA superconducting levitation transport model system for dynamical and didactical studies(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2012) Rosenzweig, St.; Reich, E.; Neu, V.; Berger, D.; Peukert, K.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.; Pospiech, G.Superconducting levitation transport systems might become very attractive in the near future due to various reasons. The realisation of contactless systems allows e.g. extended maintenance-free operation with high efficiency since such a system only needs energy for cooling and propulsion. We established a small superconducting levitation transport model system called "SupraTrans Mini" consisting of permanent magnetic rails and a levitated vehicle including four YBCO-bulk samples in a cryostat. The rail system consists of an oval shaped loop (2.90 m x 1.44 m), which was build up from individual linear and curved track modules. Inside the vehicle position variations of the superconductors are possible. By means of velocity, acceleration and temperature measurements different dynamical aspects of our complex levitation system can be investigated. We also show the broad applicability of the experimental setup for didactical studies in physics.
- ItemTuning functional properties by plastic deformation(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Kwon, A.R.; Neu, V.; Matias, V.; Hänisch, J.; Hühne, R.; Freudenberger, J.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.It is well known that a variation of lattice constants can strongly influence the functional properties of materials. Lattice constants can be influenced by external forces; however, most experiments are limited to hydrostatic pressure or biaxial stress. Here, we present an experimental approach that imposes a large uniaxial strain on epitaxially grown films in order to tune their functional properties. A substrate made of a ductile metal alloy covered with a biaxially oriented MgO layer is used as a template for growth of epitaxial films. By applying an external plastic strain, we break the symmetry within the substrate plane compared to the as-deposited state. The consequences of 2% plastic strain are examined for an epitaxial hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B film and are found to result in an elliptical distortion of the in-plane anisotropy below the spin-reorientation temperature. Our approach is a versatile method to study the influence of large plastic strain on various materials, as the MgO(001) layer used is a common substrate for epitaxial growth.