Browsing by Author "Popp, Jürgen"
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- Item3-Step flow focusing enables multidirectional imaging of bioparticles for imaging flow cytometry(Cambridge : RSC, 2020) Kleiber, Andreas; Ramoji, Anuradha; Mayer, Günter; Neugebauer, Ute; Popp, Jürgen; Henkel, ThomasMultidirectional imaging flow cytometry (mIFC) extends conventional imaging flow cytometry (IFC) for the image-based measurement of 3D-geometrical features of particles. The innovative core is a flow rotation unit in which a vertical sample lamella is incrementally rotated by 90 degrees into a horizontal lamella. The required multidirectional views are generated by guiding all particles at a controllable shear flow position of the parabolic velocity profile of the capillary slit detection chamber. All particles pass the detection chamber in a two-dimensional sheet under controlled rotation while each particle is imaged multiple times. This generates new options for automated particle analysis. In an experimental application, we used our system for the accurate classification of 15 species of pollen based on 3D-morphological information. We demonstrate how the combination of multi directional imaging with advanced machine learning algorithms can improve the accuracy of automated bio-particle classification. As an additional benefit, we significantly decrease the number of false positives in the classification of foreign particles,i.e.those elements which do not belong to one of the trained classes by the 3D-extension of the classification algorithm. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2020.
- ItemActivity and electron donor preference of two denitrifying bacterial strains identified by Raman gas spectroscopy(Berlin [u.a.] : Springer, 2022) Blohm, Annika; Kumar, Swatantar; Knebl, Andreas; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, TorstenHuman activities have greatly increased the input of reactive nitrogen species into the environment and disturbed the balance of the global N cycle. This imbalance may be offset by bacterial denitrification, an important process in maintaining the ecological balance of nitrogen. However, our understanding of the activity of mixotrophic denitrifying bacteria is not complete, as most research has focused on heterotrophic denitrification. The aim of this study was to investigate substrate preferences for two mixotrophic denitrifying bacterial strains, Acidovorax delafieldii and Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis, under heterotrophic, autotrophic or mixotrophic conditions. This complex analysis was achieved by simultaneous identification and quantification of H2, O2, CO2, 14N2, 15N2 and 15N2O in course of the denitrification process with help of cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (CERS) multi-gas analysis. To disentangle electron donor preferences for both bacterial strains, microcosm-based incubation experiments under varying substrate conditions were conducted. We found that Acidovorax delafieldii preferentially performed heterotrophic denitrification in the mixotrophic sub-experiments, while Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis preferred autotrophic denitrification in the mixotrophic incubation. These observations were supported by stoichiometric calculations. The results demonstrate the prowess of advanced Raman multi-gas analysis to study substrate use and electron donor preferences in denitrification, based on the comprehensive quantification of complex microbial gas exchange processes. © 2021, The Author(s).
- ItemAll-in-one: a versatile gas sensor based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for monitoring postharvest fruit conservation and ripening(Cambridge : Soc., 2016) Jochum, Tobias; Rahal, Leila; Suckert, Renè J.; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, TorstenIn today's fruit conservation rooms the ripening of harvested fruit is delayed by precise management of the interior oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Ethylene (C2H4), a natural plant hormone, is commonly used to trigger fruit ripening shortly before entering the market. Monitoring of these critical process gases, also of the increasingly favored cooling agent ammonia (NH3), is a crucial task in modern postharvest fruit management. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a gas sensor setup based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for fast (time resolution of a few minutes) and non-destructive process gas monitoring throughout the complete postharvest production chain encompassing storage and transport in fruit conservation chambers as well as commercial fruit ripening in industrial ripening rooms. Exploiting a micro-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for analyte gas confinement and sensitivity enhancement, the sensor features simultaneous quantification of O2, CO2, NH3 and C2H4 without cross-sensitivity in just one single measurement. Laboratory measurements of typical fruit conservation gas mixtures showed that the sensor is capable of quantifying O2 and CO2 concentration levels with accuracy of 3% or less with respect to reference concentrations. The sensor detected ammonia concentrations, relevant for chemical alarm purposes. Due to the high spectral resolution of the gas sensor, ethylene could be quantified simultaneously with O2 and CO2 in a multi-component mixture. These results indicate that fiber enhanced Raman sensors have a potential to become universally usable on-site gas sensors for controlled atmosphere applications in postharvest fruit management.
- ItemApplication of High-Throughput Screening Raman Spectroscopy (HTS-RS) for Label-Free Identification and Molecular Characterization of Pollen(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Mondol, Abdullah S.; Patel, Milind D.; Rüger, Jan; Stiebing, Clara; Kleiber, Andreas; Henkel, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen; Schie, Iwan W.Pollen studies play a critical role in various fields of science. In the last couple of decades, replacement of manual identification of pollen by image-based methods using pollen morphological features was a great leap forward, but challenges for pollen with similar morphology remain, and additional approaches are required. Spectroscopy approaches for identification of pollen, such as Raman spectroscopy has potential benefits over traditional methods, due to the investigation of the intrinsic molecular composition of a sample. However, current Raman-based characterization of pollen is complex and time-consuming, resulting in low throughput and limiting the statistical significance of the acquired data. Previously demonstrated high-throughput screening Raman spectroscopy (HTS-RS) eliminates the complexity as well as human interaction by incorporation full automation of the data acquisition process. Here, we present a customization of HTS-RS for pollen identification, enabling sampling of a large number of pollen in comparison to other state-of-the-art Raman pollen investigations. We show that using Raman spectra we are able to provide a preliminary estimation of pollen types based on growth habits using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) as well as good taxonomy of 37 different Pollen using principal component analysis-support vector machine (PCA-SVM) with good accuracy even for the pollen specimens sharing similar morphological features. Our results suggest that HTS-RS platform meets the demands for automated pollen detection making it an alternative method for research concerning pollen.
- ItemAssessment of Advanced Oxidation Processes Using Zebrafish in a Non-Forced Exposure System: A Proof of Concept(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Cabascango, Tamia; Ortiz, Karol; Sandoval Pauker, Christian; Espinoza Pavón, Isabel; Ramoji, Anuradha; Popp, Jürgen; Pérez, Jady; Pinto, C. Miguel; Rivera-Parra, José Luis; Muñoz-Bisesti, Florinella; Aldás, María Belén; Araújo, Cristiano V. M.; Vargas Jentzsch, PaulWater bodies and aquatic ecosystems are threatened by discharges of industrial waters. Ecotoxicological effects of components occurring in untreated and treated wastewaters are often not considered. The use of a linear, multi-compartmented, non-forced, static system constructed with PET bottles is proposed for the quality assessment of treated waters, to deal with such limitations. Two synthetic waters, one simulating wastewater from the textile industry and the other one simulating wastewater from the cassava starch industry, were prepared and treated by homogeneous Fenton process and heterogeneous photocatalysis, respectively. Untreated and treated synthetic waters and their dilutions were placed into compartments of the non-forced exposure system, in which zebrafish (Danio rerio), the indicator organism, could select the environment of its preference. Basic physical–chemical and chemical parameters of untreated and treated synthetic waters were measured. The preference and avoidance responses allowed verification of whether or not the quality of the water was improved due to the treatment. The results of these assays can be a complement to conventional parameters of water quality.
- ItemAssessment of shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy in highly fluorescent biological samples(Cambridge : Soc., 2021) Korinth, Florian; Shaik, Tanveer Ahmed; Popp, Jürgen; Krafft, ChristophShifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) can be used as an instrumental baseline correction technique to retrieve Raman bands in highly fluorescent samples. Genipin (GE) cross-linked equine pericardium (EP) was used as a model system since a blue pigment is formed upon cross-linking, which results in a strong fluorescent background in the Raman spectra. EP was cross-linked with 0.25% GE solution for 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, and compared with corresponding untreated EP. Raman spectra were collected with three different excitation wavelengths. For the assessment of the SERDS technique, the preprocessed SERDS spectra of two excitation wavelengths (784 nm-786 nm) were compared with the mathematical baseline-corrected Raman spectra at 785 nm excitation using extended multiplicative signal correction, rubberband, the sensitive nonlinear iterative peak and polynomial fitting algorithms. Whereas each baseline correction gave poor quality spectra beyond 6 h GE crosslinking with wave-like artefacts, the SERDS technique resulted in difference spectra, that gave superior reconstructed spectra with clear collagen and resonance enhanced GE pigment bands with lower standard deviation. Key for this progress was an advanced difference optimization approach that is described here. Furthermore, the results of the SERDS technique were independent of the intensity calibration because the system transfer response was compensated by calculating the difference spectrum. We conclude that this SERDS strategy can be transferred to Raman studies on biological and non-biological samples with a strong fluorescence background at 785 nm and also shorter excitation wavelengths which benefit from more intense scattering intensities and higher quantum efficiencies of CCD detectors. This journal is
- ItemAutofluorescence lifetime augmented reality as a means for real-time robotic surgery guidance in human patients(Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Gorpas, Dimitris; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Bec, Julien; Ma, Dinglong; Dochow, Sebastian; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Sorger, Jonathan; Popp, Jürgen; Bewley, Arnaud Fassett; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Marcu, Laura; Farwell, D. GregoryDue to loss of tactile feedback the assessment of tumor margins during robotic surgery is based only on visual inspection, which is neither significantly sensitive nor specific. Here we demonstrate time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) as a novel technique to complement the visual inspection of oral cancers during transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in real-time and without the need for exogenous contrast agents. TRFS enables identification of cancerous tissue by its distinct autofluorescence signature that is associated with the alteration of tissue structure and biochemical profile. A prototype TRFS instrument was integrated synergistically with the da Vinci Surgical robot and the combined system was validated in swine and human patients. Label-free and real-time assessment and visualization of tissue biochemical features during robotic surgery procedure, as demonstrated here, not only has the potential to improve the intraoperative decision making during TORS but also other robotic procedures without modification of conventional clinical protocols.
- ItemAutomated and rapid identification of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli against the lead drugs of acylureidopenicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones using specific Raman marker bands(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2020) Götz, Theresa; Dahms, Marcel; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Glaser, Uwe; Bohnert, Jürgen A.; Pletz, Mathias W.; Popp, Jürgen; Schlattmann, Peter; Neugebauer, UteA Raman-based, strain-independent, semi-automated method is presented that allows the rapid (<3 hours) determination of antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical samples. Applying a priori knowledge about the mode of action of the respective antibiotic, we identified characteristic Raman marker bands in the spectrum and calculated batch-wise weighted sum scores from standardized Raman intensity differences between spectra of antibiotic exposed and nonexposed samples of the same strains. The lead substances for three relevant antibiotic classes (fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin, third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime, ureidopenicillin piperacillin) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for the susceptibility testing of two Escherichia coli laboratory strains and 12 clinical isolates. The method benefits from the parallel incubation of control and treated samples, which reduces the variance due to alterations in cultivation conditions and the standardization of differences between batches leading to long-term comparability of Raman measurements. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemBeer's Law-Why Integrated Absorbance Depends Linearly on Concentration(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2019) Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Pipa, Andrei V.; Popp, JürgenAs derived by Max Planck in 1903 from dispersion theory, Beer's law has a fundamental limitation. The concentration dependence of absorbance can deviate from linearity, even in the absence of any interactions or instrumental nonlinearities. Integrated absorbance, not peak absorbance, depends linearly on concentration. The numerical integration of the absorbance leads to maximum deviations from linearity of less than 0.1 %. This deviation is a consequence of a sum rule that was derived from the Kramers-Kronig relations at a time when the fundamental limitation of Beer's law was no longer mentioned in the literature. This sum rule also links concentration to (classical) oscillator strengths and thereby enables the use of dispersion analysis to determine the concentration directly from transmittance and reflectance measurements. Thus, concentration analysis of complex samples, such as layered and/or anisotropic materials, in which Beer's law cannot be applied, can be achieved using dispersion analysis. ©2019 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemBessel beam CARS of axially structured samples([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, JürgenWe report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.
- ItemBeyond Beer's Law: Revisiting the Lorentz-Lorenz Equation(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2020) Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, JürgenIn this contribution we show how the Lorentz-Lorenz and the Clausius-Mosotti equations are related to Beer's law. Accordingly, the linear concentration dependence of absorbance is a consequence of neglecting the difference between the local and the applied electric field. Additionally, it is necessary to assume that the absorption index and the related refractive index change is small. By connecting the Lorentz-Lorenz equations with dispersion theory, it becomes obvious that the oscillators are coupled via the local field. We investigate this coupling with numerical examples and show that, as a consequence, the integrated absorbance of a single band is in general no longer linearly depending on the concentration. In practice, the deviations from Beer's law usually do not set in before the density reaches about one tenth of that of condensed matter. For solutions, the Lorentz-Lorenz equations predict a strong coupling also between the oscillators of solute and solvent. In particular, in the infrared spectral region, the absorption coefficients are prognosticated to be much higher due to this coupling compared to those in the gas phase. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemBeyond Beer's Law: Why the Index of Refraction Depends (Almost) Linearly on Concentration(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2020) Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Dabrowska, Alicja; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Popp, JürgenBeer's empiric law states that absorbance is linearly proportional to the concentration. Based on electromagnetic theory, an approximately linear dependence can only be confirmed for comparably weak oscillators. For stronger oscillators the proportionality constant, the molar attenuation coefficient, is modulated by the inverse index of refraction, which is itself a function of concentration. For comparably weak oscillators, the index of refraction function depends, like absorbance, linearly on concentration. For stronger oscillators, this linearity is lost, except at wavenumbers considerably lower than the oscillator position. In these transparency regions, linearity between the change of the index of refraction and concentration is preserved to a high degree. This can be shown with help of the Kramers–Kronig relations which connect the integrated absorbance to the index of refraction change at lower wavenumbers than the corresponding band. This finding builds the foundation not only for refractive index sensing, but also for new interferometric approaches in IR spectroscopy, which allow measuring the complex index of refraction function. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemBeyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, JürgenAssessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.
- ItemBioactive secondary metabolites with multiple activities from a fungal endophyte(Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell, 2016) Bogner, Catherine W.; Kamdem, Ramsay S.T.; Sichtermann, Gisela; Matthäus, Christian; Hölscher, Dirk; Popp, Jürgen; Proksch, Peter; Grundler, Florian M.W.; Schouten, AlexanderIn order to replace particularly biohazardous nematocides, there is a strong drive to finding natural product-based alternatives with the aim of containing nematode pests in agriculture. The metabolites produced by the fungal endophyte Fusarium oxysporum 162 when cultivated on rice media were isolated and their structures elucidated. Eleven compounds were obtained, of which six were isolated from a Fusarium spp. for the first time. The three most potent nematode-antagonistic compounds, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibepyrone D had LC50 values of 104, 117 and 134 μg ml−1, respectively, after 72 h. IAA is a well-known phytohormone that plays a role in triggering plant resistance, thus suggesting a dual activity, either directly, by killing or compromising nematodes, or indirectly, by inducing defence mechanisms against pathogens (nematodes) in plants. Such compounds may serve as important leads in the development of novel, environmental friendly, nematocides.
- ItemBiochemical Characterization of Mouse Retina of an Alzheimer's Disease Model by Raman Spectroscopy(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2020) Stiebing, Clara; Jahn, Izabella J.; Schmitt, Michael; Keijzer, Nanda; Kleemann, Robert; Kiliaan, Amanda J.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Popp, JürgenThe presence of biomarkers characteristic for Alzheimer's disease in the retina is a controversial topic. Raman spectroscopy offers information on the biochemical composition of tissues. Thus, it could give valuable insight into the diagnostic value of retinal analysis. Within the present study, retinas of a double transgenic mouse model, that expresses a chimeric mouse/human amyloid precursor protein and a mutant form of human presenilin 1, and corresponding control group were subjected to ex vivo Raman imaging. The Raman data recorded on cross sections of whole eyes highlight the layered structure of the retina in a label-free manner. Based on the Raman information obtained from en face mounted retina samples, a discrimination between healthy and Alzheimer's disease retinal tissue can be done with an accuracy of 85.9%. For this a partial least squares-linear discriminant analysis was applied. Therefore, although no macromolecular changes in form of, i.e., amyloid beta plaques, can be noticed based on Raman spectroscopy, subtle biochemical changes happening in the retina could lead to Alzheimer's disease identification. ©
- ItemBladder tissue characterization using probe-based Raman spectroscopy: Evaluation of tissue heterogeneity and influence on the model prediction(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2020) Cordero, Eliana; Rüger, Jan; Marti, Dominik; Mondol, Abdullah S.; Hasselager, Thomas; Mogensen, Karin; Hermann, Gregers G.; Popp, Jürgen; Schie, Iwan W.Existing approaches for early-stage bladder tumor diagnosis largely depend on invasive and time-consuming procedures, resulting in hospitalization, bleeding, bladder perforation, infection and other health risks for the patient. The reduction of current risk factors, while maintaining or even improving the diagnostic precision, is an underlying factor in clinical instrumentation research. For example, for clinic surveillance of patients with a history of noninvasive bladder tumors real-time tumor diagnosis can enable immediate laser-based removal of tumors using flexible cystoscopes in the outpatient clinic. Therefore, novel diagnostic modalities are required that can provide real-time in vivo tumor diagnosis. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical information of tissue samples ex vivo and in vivo and without the need for complicated sample preparation and staining procedures. For the past decade there has been a rise in applications to diagnose and characterize early cancer in different organs, such as in head and neck, colon and stomach, but also different pathologies, for example, inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. Bladder pathology has also been studied but only with little attention to aspects that can influence the diagnosis, such as tissue heterogeneity, data preprocessing and model development. The present study presents a clinical investigative study on bladder biopsies to characterize the tumor grading ex vivo, using a compact fiber probe-based imaging Raman system, as a crucial step towards in vivo Raman endoscopy. Furthermore, this study presents an evaluation of the tissue heterogeneity of highly fluorescent bladder tissues, and the multivariate statistical analysis for discrimination between nontumor tissue, and low- and high-grade tumor. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemThe Bouguer-Beer-Lambert Law: Shining Light on the Obscure(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2020) Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Pahlow, Susanne; Popp, JürgenThe Beer-Lambert law is unquestionably the most important law in optical spectroscopy and indispensable for the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of spectroscopic data. As such, every spectroscopist should know its limits and potential pitfalls, arising from its application, by heart. It is the goal of this work to review these limits and pitfalls, as well as to provide solutions and explanations to guide the reader. This guidance will allow a deeper understanding of spectral features, which cannot be explained by the Beer-Lambert law, because they arise from electromagnetic effects/the wave nature of light. Those features include band shifts and intensity changes based exclusively upon optical conditions, i. e. the method chosen to record the spectra, the substrate and the form of the sample. As such, the review will be an essential tool towards a full understanding of optical spectra and their quantitative interpretation based not only on oscillator positions, but also on their strengths and damping constants.
- ItemCombination of high-resolution optical coherence tomography and raman spectroscopy for improved staging and grading in bladder cancer(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Bovenkamp, Daniela; Sentosa, Ryan; Rank, Elisabet; Erkkilä, Mikael T.; Placzek, Fabian; Püls, Jeremias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer Andreas; Garstka, Nathalie; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Stiebing, Clara; Schie, Iwan W.; Popp, Jürgen; Andreana, Marco; Unterhuber, AngelikaWe present a combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) for improved diagnosis and discrimination of different stages and grades of bladder cancer ex vivo by linking the complementary information provided by these two techniques. Bladder samples were obtained from biopsies dissected via transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). As OCT provides structural information rapidly, it was used as a red-flag technology to scan the bladder wall for suspicious lesions with the ability to discriminate malignant tissue from healthy urothelium. Upon identification of degenerated tissue via OCT, RS was implemented to determine the molecular characteristics via point measurements at suspicious sites. Combining the complementary information of both modalities allows not only for staging, but also for differentiation of low-grade and high-grade cancer based on a multivariate statistical analysis. OCT was able to clearly differentiate between healthy and malignant tissue by tomogram inspection and achieved an accuracy of 71% in the staging of the tumor, from pTa to pT2, through texture analysis followed by k-nearest neighbor classification. RS yielded an accuracy of 93% in discriminating low-grade from high-grade lesions via principal component analysis followed by k-nearest neighbor classification. In this study, we show the potential of a multi-modal approach with OCT for fast pre-screening and staging of cancerous lesions followed by RS for enhanced discrimination of low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer in a non-destructive, label-free and non-invasive way.
- ItemComparison of bacteria in different metabolic states by micro-Raman spectroscopy(New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Shen, Haodong; Rösch, Petra; Thieme, Lara; Pletz, Mathias W.; Popp, JürgenIt was shown that several metabolic states of bacteria with various characteristics such as chemical composition participate in the formation of biofilms. To study the connections and differences among different bacterial metabolic states, five species of bacteria in exponential phase, stationary phase and biofilm have been compared and investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral differences between different metabolic states showed that the chemical composition varied among those metabolic states. Moreover, as can be shown by the spectral differences and principal components (PCs), different species and strains of bacteria behave differently. Furthermore, a principal component analysis (PCA) combined with support vector machines (SVM) was applied to distinguish species of bacteria within the same metabolic states. Our study provides valuable data for the comparison of bacteria between different metabolic states utilizing micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics models.
- ItemComparison of Different Label-Free Raman Spectroscopy Approaches for the Discrimination of Clinical MRSA and MSSA Isolates(Birmingham, Ala. : ASM, 2022) Pistiki, Aikaterini; Monecke, Stefan; Shen, Haodong; Ryabchykov, Oleg; Bocklitz, Thomas W.; Rösch, Petra; Ehricht, Ralf; Popp, JürgenMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is classified as one of the priority pathogens that threaten human health. Resistance detection with conventional microbiological methods takes several days, forcing physicians to administer empirical antimicrobial treatment that is not always appropriate. A need exists for a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method that allows targeted antimicrobial therapy in limited time. In this pilot study, we investigate the efficacy of three different label-free Raman spectroscopic approaches to differentiate methicillin-resistant and -susceptible clinical isolates of S. aureus (MSSA). Single-cell analysis using 532 nm excitation was shown to be the most suitable approach since it captures information on the overall biochemical composition of the bacteria, predicting 87.5% of the strains correctly. UV resonance Raman microspectroscopy provided a balanced accuracy of 62.5% and was not sensitive enough in discriminating MRSA from MSSA. Excitation of 785 nm directly on the petri dish provided a balanced accuracy of 87.5%. However, the difference between the strains was derived from the dominant staphyloxanthin bands in the MRSA, a cell component not associated with the presence of methicillin resistance. This is the first step toward the development of label-free Raman spectroscopy for the discrimination of MRSA and MSSA using single-cell analysis with 532 nm excitation. IMPORTANCE Label-free Raman spectra capture the high chemical complexity of bacterial cells. Many different Raman approaches have been developed using different excitation wavelength and cell analysis methods. This study highlights the major importance of selecting the most suitable Raman approach, capable of providing spectral features that can be associated with the cell mechanism under investigation. It is shown that the approach of choice for differentiating MRSA from MSSA should be single-cell analysis with 532 nm excitation since it captures the difference in the overall biochemical composition. These results should be taken into consideration in future studies aiming for the development of label-free Raman spectroscopy as a clinical analytical tool for antimicrobial resistance determination.