Browsing by Author "Schubert, Ulrich S."
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- ItemEnergy transfer and formation of long-lived 3MLCT states in multimetallic complexes with extended highly conjugated bis-terpyridyl ligands(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2015) Wächtler, Maria; Kübel, Joachim; Barthelmes, Kevin; Winter, Andreas; Schmiedel, Alexander; Pascher, Torbjörn; Lambert, Christoph; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Dietzek, BenjaminMultimetallic complexes with extended and highly conjugated bis-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridyl bridging ligands, which present building blocks for coordination polymers, are investigated with respect to their ability to act as light-harvesting antennae. The investigated species combine Ru(II)- with Os(II)- and Fe(II)-terpyridyl chromophores, the latter acting as energy sinks. Due to the extended conjugated system the ligands are able to prolong the lifetime of the 3MLCT states compared to unsubstituted terpyridyl species by delocalization and energetic stabilization of the 3MLCT states. This concept is applied for the first time to Fe(II) terpyridyl species and results in an exceptionally long lifetime of 23 ps for the Fe(II) 3MLCT state. While partial energy (>80%) transfer is observed between the Ru(II) and Fe(II) centers with a time-constant of 15 ps, excitation energy is transferred completely from the Ru(II) to the Os(II) center within the first 200 fs after excitation.
- ItemMicrowave-Assisted Synthesis of Core–Shell Nanoparticles—Insights into the Growth of Different Geometries(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Womiloju, Aisha A.; Höppener, Christiane; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Hoeppener, StephanieMicrowave irradiation is utilized for the rapid synthesis of gold–silver core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) in a two-step process. A strategy of establishing a bilayer organic barrier around the core using citrate and ascorbic acid as capping agents, providing a means to achieve a well-defined boundary layer between the core and the shell material, is reported. These boundary layers are essential for synthesizing different core–shell morphologies and the approach results in tunable bimetallic NPs with defined core–shell structures, both for spherical as well as for triangular seed cores. In addition, theoretical calculations of the plasmonic characteristics based on the boundary element method of different classes of NPs are conducted. These investigations enable conclusions to be drawn on the influence of the core morphology on the tunability of their localized surface plasmon resonances. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemPhotophysical Study on the Rigid Pt(II) Complex [Pt(naphen)(Cl)] (Hnaphen = Naphtho[1,2-b][1,10]Phenanthroline and Derivatives(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Krause, Maren; Maisuls, Iván; Buss, Stefan; Strassert, Cristian A.; Winter, Andreas; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Nair, Shruthi S.; Dietzek-Ivanšić, Benjamin; Klein, AxelThe electrochemistry and photophysics of the Pt(II) complexes [Pt(naphen)(X)] (Hnaphen = naphtho[1,2-b][1,10]phenanthroline, X = Cl or C≡CPh) containing the rigid tridentate C^N^N-coordinating pericyclic naphen ligand was studied alongside the complexes of the tetrahydro-derivative [Pt(thnaphen)(X)] (Hthnaphen = 5,6,8,9-tetrahydro-naphtho[1,2-b][1,10]phenanthroline) and the N^C^N-coordinated complex [Pt(bdq)(Cl)] (Hbdq = benzo[1,2-h:5,4-h’]diquinoline. The cyclic voltammetry showed reversible reductions for the C^N^N complexes, with markedly fewer negative potentials (around −1.6 V vs. ferrocene) for the complexes containing the naphen ligand compared with the thnaphen derivatives (around −1.9 V). With irreversible oxidations at around +0.3 V for all of the complexes, the naphen made a difference in the electrochemical gap of about 0.3 eV (1.9 vs. 2.2 eV) compared with thnaphen. The bdq complex was completely different, with an irreversible reduction at around −2 V caused by the N^C^N coordination pattern, which lacked a good electron acceptor such as the phenanthroline unit in the C^N^N ligand naphen. Long-wavelength UV-Vis absorption bands were found around 520 to 530 nm for the C^N^N complexes with the C≡CPh coligand and were red-shifted when compared with the Cl derivatives. The N^C^N-coordinated bdq complex was markedly blue-shifted (493 nm). The steady-state photoluminescence spectra showed poorly structured emission bands peaking at around 630 nm for the two naphen complexes and 570 nm for the thnaphen derivatives. The bdq complex showed a pronounced vibrational structure and an emission maximum at 586 nm. Assuming mixed 3LC/3MLCT excited states, the vibronic progression for the N^C^N bdq complex indicated a higher LC character than assumed for the C^N^N-coordinated naphen and thnaphen complexes. The blue-shift was a result of the different N^C^N vs. C^N^N coordination. The photoluminescence lifetimes and quantum yields ΦL massively increased from solutions at 298 K (0.06 to 0.24) to glassy frozen matrices at 77 K (0.80 to 0.95). The nanosecond time-resolved study on [Pt(naphen)(Cl)] showed a phosphorescence emission signal originating from the mixed 3LC/3MLCT with an emission lifetime of around 3 µs.
- ItemShape-Memory Metallopolymer Networks Based on a Triazole–Pyridine Ligand(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Meurer, Josefine; Hniopek, Julian; Zechel, Stefan; Enke, Marcel; Vitz, Jürgen; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.Shape memory polymers represent an interesting class of stimuli-responsive polymers. With their ability to memorize and recover their original shape, they could be useful in almost every area of our daily life. We herein present the synthesis of shape-memory metallopolymers in which the switching unit is designed by using bis(pyridine–triazole) metal complexes. The polymer networks were synthesized via free radical polymerization of methyl-, ethyl- or butyl-methacrylate, tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate and a methacrylate moiety of the triazole–pyridine ligand. By the addition of zinc(II) or cobalt(II) acetate it was possible to achieve metallopolymer networks featuring shape-memory abilities. The successful formation of the metal-ligand complex was proven by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the shape-recovery behavior was studied in detailed fashion and even triple-shape memory behavior could be revealed.
- ItemShape-Memory Metallopolymers Based on Two Orthogonal Metal–Ligand Interactions(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Meurer, Josefine; Hniopek, Julian; Bätz, Thomas; Zechel, Stefan; Enke, Marcel; Vitz, Jürgen; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.A new shape-memory polymer is presented, in which both the stable phase as well as the switching unit consist of two different metal complexes. Suitable metal ions, which simultaneously form labile complexes with histidine and stable ones with terpyridine ligands, are identified via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements. Different copolymers are synthesized, which contain butyl methacrylate as the main monomer and the metal-binding ligands in the side chains. Zn(TFMS)2 and NiCl2 are utilized for the dual crosslinking, resulting in the formation of metallopolymer networks. The switching temperature can simply be tuned by changing the composition as well as by the choice of the metal ion. Strain fixity rates (about 99%) and very high strain recovery rates (up to 95%) are achieved and the mechanism is revealed using different techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemStealth Effect of Short Polyoxazolines in Graft Copolymers: Minor Changes of Backbone End Group Determine Liver Cell-Type Specificity(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2021) Muljajew, Irina; Huschke, Sophie; Ramoji, Anuradha; Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Nischang, Ivo; Foo, Wanling; Popp, Jürgen; Figge, Marc Thilo; Weber, Christine; Bauer, Michael; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Press, Adrian T.Dye-loaded micelles of 10 nm diameter formed from amphiphilic graft copolymers composed of a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) backbone and hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) side chains with a degree of polymerization of 15 were investigated concerning their cellular interaction and uptake in vitro as well as their interaction with local and circulating cells of the reticuloendothelial system in the liver by intravital microscopy. Despite the high molar mass of the individual macromolecules (Mn ≈ 20 kg mol-1), backbone end group modification by attachment of a hydrophilic anionic fluorescent probe strongly affected the in vivo performance. To understand these effects, the end group was additionally modified by the attachment of four methacrylic acid repeating units. Although various micelles appeared similar in dynamic light scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, changes in the micelles were evident from principal component analysis of the Raman spectra. Whereas an efficient stealth effect was found for micelles formed from polymers with anionically charged or thiol end groups, a hydrophobic end group altered the micelles' structure sufficiently to adapt cell-type specificity and stealth properties in the liver. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
- ItemTargeted delivery of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ inhibitor to restore organ function in sepsis(Heidelberg : EMBO Press, 2021) Press, Adrian T.; Babic, Petra; Hoffmann, Bianca; Müller, Tina; Foo, Wanling; Hauswald, Walter; Benecke, Jovana; Beretta, Martina; Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Nischang, Ivo; Coldewey, Sina M.; Gräler, Markus H.; Bauer, Reinhard; Gonnert, Falk; Gaßler, Nikolaus; Wetzker, Reinhard; Figge, Marc Thilo; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, MichaelJaundice, the clinical hallmark of infection-associated liver dysfunction, reflects altered membrane organization of the canalicular pole of hepatocytes and portends poor outcomes. Mice lacking phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ (PI3Kγ) are protected against membrane disintegration and hepatic excretory dysfunction. However, they exhibit a severe immune defect that hinders neutrophil recruitment to sites of infection. To exploit the therapeutic potential of PI3Kγ inhibition in sepsis, a targeted approach to deliver drugs to hepatic parenchymal cells without compromising other cells, in particular immune cells, seems warranted. Here, we demonstrate that nanocarriers functionalized through DY-635, a fluorescent polymethine dye, and a ligand of organic anion transporters can selectively deliver therapeutics to hepatic parenchymal cells. Applying this strategy to a murine model of sepsis, we observed the PI3Kγ-dependent restoration of biliary canalicular architecture, maintained excretory liver function, and improved survival without impairing host defense mechanisms. This strategy carries the potential to expand targeted nanomedicines to disease entities with systemic inflammation and concomitantly impaired barrier functionality.