Browsing by Author "Simon, Frank"
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- ItemAbschlußbericht 2007 zum SMWK-geförderten Verbundprojekt "Aluminiumwerkstoffe mit nachhaltiger ultrahydrophober Oberflächengestaltung" zwischen der Technischen Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft (IfWW) und dem Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF)(Dresden : Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, 2007) Worch, Hartmut; Simon, Frank; Blank, Christa; Thieme, Michael; Höhne, Susanne; Frenzel, Ralf[no abstract available]
- ItemAntimicrobial Brushes on Titanium via “Grafting to” Using Phosphonic Acid/Pyridinium Containing Block Copolymers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH GmbH, 2023) Methling, Rafael; Dückmann, Oliver; Simon, Frank; Wolf‐Brandstetter, Cornelia; Kuckling, DirkCoating medical implants with antibacterial polymers may prevent postoperative infections which are a common issue for conventional titanium implants and can even lead to implant failure. Easily applicable diblock copolymers are presented that form polymer brushes via “grafting to” mechanism on titanium and equip the modified material with antibacterial properties. The polymers carry quaternized pyridinium units to combat bacteria and phosphonic acid groups which allow the linear chains to be anchored to metal surfaces in a convenient coating process. The polymers are synthesized via reversible-addition-fragmentation-chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and postmodifications and are characterized using NMR spectroscopy and SEC. Low grafting densities are a major drawback of the “grafting to” approach compared to “grafting from”. Thus, the number of phosphonic acid groups in the anchor block are varied to investigate and optimize the surface binding. Modified titanium surfaces are examined regarding their composition, wetting behavior, streaming potential, and coating stability. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties revealed reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation for certain polymers, albeit the cell biocompatibility against human gingival fibroblasts is also impaired. The presented findings show the potential of easy-to-apply polymer coatings and aid in designing next-generation implant surface modifications.
- ItemAntioxidant and hydrophilic poly(lactic acid) fibers obtained through their modification with amines and ferulic acid(New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley, 2017) Wojciechowska, Dorota; Herczyńska, Lucyna; Simon, Frank; Puchalski, Michał; Stawski, DawidThe ferulic acid (FA) is a natural antioxidant, abundantly present in plants, which acts as the plant's immune system. In order to take advantage of its properties, a method has been developed, which combines antioxidant FA with bio-based biodegradable poly(lactic acid) fibers and biocompatible hydrophilic polyallylamine, enabling the production of versatile base material that could be used for active anti-inflammatory wound dressings. The fibers are first subjected to aminolysis in order to obtain amino moieties on the surface, able to react with the molecules of FA. Next, the FA was attached to the aminolyzed fibers surface with use of 1-ethyl-3–(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The anti-inflammatory properties of the modified fibers were assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Presence of FA on the fibers’ surface was investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Folin–Ciocalteu (total phenolic content) test.
- ItemBio-inspired deposition of electrochemically exfoliated graphene layers for electrical resistance heating applications(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2020-12-4) Utech, Toni; Pötschke, Petra; Simon, Frank; Janke, Andreas; Kettner, Hannes; Paiva, Maria; Zimmerer, CordeliaElectrochemically exfoliated graphene (eeG) layers possess a variety of potential applications, e.g. as susceptor material for contactless induction heating in dynamic electro-magnetic fields, and as flexible and transparent electrode or resistivity heating elements. Spray coating of eeG dispersions was investigated in detail as a simple and fast method to deposit both, thin conducting layers and ring structures on polycarbonate substrates. The spray coating process was examined by systematic variation of dispersion concentration and volume applied to heated substrates. Properties of the obtained layers were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM and Confocal Scanning Microscopy. Electrical conductivity of eeG ring structures was measured using micro-four-point measurements. Modification of eeG with poly(dopamine) and post-thermal treatment yields in the reduction of the oxidized graphene proportion, an increase in electrical conductivity, and mechanical stabilization of the deposited thin layers. The chemical composition of modified eeG layer was analyzed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy pointing to the reductive behavior of poly(dopamine). Application oriented experiments demonstrate the direct electric current heating (Joule-Heating) effect of spray-coated eeG layers.
- ItemBioinspired Polydopamine Coating as an Adhesion Enhancer Between Paraffin Microcapsules and an Epoxy Matrix(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2020) Fredi, Giulia; Simon, Frank; Sychev, Dmitrii; Melnyk, Inga; Janke, Andreas; Scheffler, Christina; Zimmerer, CordeliaMicroencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) are attracting increasing attention as functional fillers in polymer matrices, to produce smart thermoregulating composites for applications in thermal energy storage (TES) and thermal management. In a polymer composite, the filler–matrix interfacial adhesion plays a fundamental role in the thermomechanical properties. Hence, this work aims to modify the surface of commercial PCM microcapsules through the formation of a layer of polydopamine (PDA), a bioinspired polymer that is emerging as a powerful tool to functionalize chemically inert surfaces due to its versatility and great adhesive potential in many different materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) evidenced that after PDA coating, the surface roughness increased from 9 to 86 nm, which is beneficial, as it allows a further increase in the interfacial interaction by mechanical interlocking. Spectroscopic techniques allowed investigating the surface chemistry and identifying reactive functional groups of the PDA layer and highlighted that, unlike the uncoated microcapsules, the PDA layer is able to react with oxirane groups, thereby forming a covalent bond with the epoxy matrix. Hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) highlighted that the PDA modification does not hinder the melting/crystallization process of the paraffinic core. Finally, SEM micrographs of the cryofracture surface of epoxy composites containing neat or PDA-modified microcapsules clearly evidenced improved adhesion between the capsule shell and the epoxy matrix. These results showed that PDA is a suitable coating material with considerable potential for increasing the interfacial adhesion between an epoxy matrix and polymer microcapsules with low surface reactivity. This is remarkably important not only for this specific application but also for other classes of composite materials. Future studies will investigate how the deposition parameters affect the morphology, roughness, and thickness of the PDA layer and how the layer properties influence the capsule–matrix adhesion.
- ItemBiowaste chicken eggshell powder as a potential cure modifier for epoxy/anhydride systems: competitiveness with terpolymer-modified calcium carbonate at low loading levels(London : RSC Publishing, 2017) Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Ghaffari, Mehdi; Rastin, Hadi; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Simon, Frank; Najafi, Farhood; Goodarzi, Vahabodin; Vijayan P., Poornima; Puglia, Debora; Asl, Farzaneh Hassanpour; Formela, KrzysztofBiowaste chicken eggshell (ES) powder was applied as a potential cure modifier in epoxy/anhydride systems. Cure behaviour and kinetics of composites filled with very low content (0.1 wt% based on epoxy resin) of ES, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and terpolymer-modified fillers, mES and mCaCO3, were discussed comparatively. Surface analysis was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cure kinetics was investigated by differential (Friedman) and integral (Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) isoconversional methods using dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. Overall, protein precursors naturally existing in the structure of pristine ES facilitated crosslinking of epoxy and hardener of anhydride with functional groups resulting from terpolymer attachment to CaCO3 particles. Accelerated/hindered cure was observed depending on the filler type and surface characteristics, as investigated via the autocatalytic/non-catalytic nature of reactions and comparison of activation energy values of four types of composites. An enhanced cure was identified for composites containing untreated ES, which could be inferred on account of the lower competitive cure of carboxyl groups in the terpolymer backbone with epoxy compared to peptide groups existing in microporous pristine ES. On the other hand, mCaCO3 revealed low values of activation energy compared to pristine CaCO3, but still of the same order as ground biowaste ES.
- ItemCharge‐Compensated N‐Doped π ‐Conjugated Polymers: Toward both Thermodynamic Stability of N‐Doped States in Water and High Electron Conductivity(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2022) Borrmann, Fabian; Tsuda, Takuya; Guskova, Olga; Kiriy, Nataliya; Hoffmann, Cedric; Neusser, David; Ludwigs, Sabine; Lappan, Uwe; Simon, Frank; Geisler, Martin; Debnath, Bipasha; Krupskaya, Yulia; Al‐Hussein, Mahmoud; Kiriy, AntonThe understanding and applications of electron-conducting π-conjugated polymers with naphtalene diimide (NDI) blocks show remarkable progress in recent years. Such polymers demonstrate a facilitated n-doping due to the strong electron deficiency of the main polymer chain and the presence of the positively charged side groups stabilizing a negative charge of the n-doped backbone. Here, the n-type conducting NDI polymer with enhanced stability of its n-doped states for prospective “in-water” applications is developed. A combined experimental–theoretical approach is used to identify critical features and parameters that control the doping and electron transport process. The facilitated polymer reduction ability and the thermodynamic stability in water are confirmed by electrochemical measurements and doping studies. This material also demonstrates a high conductivity of 10−2 S cm−1 under ambient conditions and 10−1 S cm−1 in vacuum. The modeling explains the stabilizing effects for various dopants. The simulations show a significant doping-induced “collapse” of the positively charged side chains on the core bearing a partial negative charge. This explains a decrease in the lamellar spacing observed in experiments. This study fundamentally enables a novel pathway for achieving both thermodynamic stability of the n-doped states in water and the high electron conductivity of polymers.
- ItemCVD-Grown CNTs on Basalt Fiber Surfaces for Multifunctional Composite Interphases(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Förster, Theresa; Hao, Bin; Mäder, Edith; Simon, Frank; Wölfel, Enrico; Ma, Peng-ChengChemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used as a method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on substrates, most commonly pre-treated by a metal-catalyst. In this work, the capability of basalt fiber surfaces was investigated in order to stimulate catalyst-free growth of carbon nanotubes. We have carried out CVD experiments on unsized, sized, and NaOH-treated basalt fibers modified by growth temperature and a process gas mixture. Subsequently, we investigated the fiber surfaces by SEM, AFM, XPS and carried out single fiber tensile tests. Growth temperatures of 700 °C as well as 800 °C may induce CNT growth, but depending on the basalt fiber surface, the growth process was differently affected. The XPS results suggest surficial iron is not crucial for the CNT growth. We demonstrate that the formation of a corrosion shell is able to support CNT networks. However, our investigations do not expose distinctively the mechanisms by which unsized basalt fibers sometimes induce vertically aligned CNT carpets, isotropically arranged CNTs or no CNT growth. Considering data from the literature and our AFM results, it is assumed that the nano-roughness of surfaces could be a critical parameter for CNT growth. These findings will motivate the design of future experiments to discover the role of surface roughness as well as surface defects on the formation of hierarchical interphases.
- ItemElectrolytic Surface Treatment for Improved Adhesion between Carbon Fibre and Polycarbonate(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Kamps, Jan Henk; Henderson, Luke C.; Scheffler, Christina; Van der Heijden, Ruud; Simon, Frank; Bonizzi, Teena; Verghese, NikhilTo achieve good mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced polycarbonate composites, the fibre-matrix adhesion must be dialled to an optimum level. The electrolytic surface treatment of carbon fibres during their production is one of the possible means of adapting the surface characteristics of the fibres. The production of a range of tailored fibres with varying surface treatments (adjusting the current, potential, and conductivity) was followed by contact angle, inverse gas chromatography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, which revealed a significant increase in polarity and hydroxyl, carboxyl, and nitrile groups on the fibre surface. Accordingly, an increase in the fibre-matrix interaction indicated by a higher interfacial shear strength was observed with the single fibre pull-out force-displacement curves. The statistical analysis identified the correlation between the process settings, fibre surface characteristics, and the performance of the fibres during single fibre pull-out testing.
- ItemElucidating the chemistry behind the reduction of graphene oxide using a green approach with polydopamine(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Silva, Cláudia; Simon, Frank; Friedel, Peter; Pötschke, Petra; Zimmerer, CordeliaA new approach using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to give insight into the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using a green approach with polydopamine (PDA). In this approach, the number of carbon atoms bonded to OH and to nitrogen in PDA is considered and compared to the total intensity of the signal resulting from OH groups in polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide (PDA-GO) to show the reduction. For this purpose, GO and PDA-GO with different times of reduction were prepared and characterized by Raman Spectroscopy and XPS. The PDA layer was removed to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the effect of all chemical treatments on the thermal and electrical properties of the materials was studied. The results show that the complete reduction of the OH groups in GO occurred after 180 min of reaction. It was also concluded that Raman spectroscopy is not well suited to determine if the reduction and restoration of the sp2 structure occurred. Moreover, a significant change in the thermal stability was not observed with the chemical treatments. Finally, the electrical powder conductivity decreased after reduction with PDA, increasing again after its removal. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemGold Aerogels: Three-Dimensional Assembly of Nanoparticles and Their Use as Electrocatalytic Interfaces(Washington, DC : Soc., 2016) Wen, Dan; Liu, Wei; Haubold, Danny; Zhu, Chengzhou; Oschatz, Martin; Holzschuh, Matthias; Wolf, André; Simon, Frank; Kaskel, Stefan; Eychmüller, AlexanderThree-dimensional (3D) porous metal nanostructures have been a long sought-after class of materials due to their collective properties and widespread applications. In this study, we report on a facile and versatile strategy for the formation of Au hydrogel networks involving the dopamine-induced 3D assembly of Au nanoparticles. Following supercritical drying, the resulting Au aerogels exhibit high surface areas and porosity. They are all composed of porous nanowire networks reflecting in their diameters those of the original particles (5–6 nm) via electron microscopy. Furthermore, electrocatalytic tests were carried out in the oxidation of some small molecules with Au aerogels tailored by different functional groups. The beta-cyclodextrin-modified Au aerogel, with a host–guest effect, represents a unique class of porous metal materials of considerable interest and promising applications for electrocatalysis.
- ItemThe Localization Behavior of Different CNTs in PC/SAN Blends Containing a Reactive Component(Basel : MDPI, 2021-3-1) Gültner, Marén; Boldt, Regine; Formanek, Petr; Fischer, Dieter; Simon, Frank; Pötschke, PetraCo-continuous blend systems of polycarbonate (PC), poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN), commercial non-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or various types of commercial and laboratory functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and a reactive component (RC, N-phenylmaleimide styrene maleic anhydride copolymer) were melt compounded in one step in a microcompounder. The blend system is immiscible, while the RC is miscible with SAN and contains maleic anhydride groups that have the potential to reactively couple with functional groups on the surface of the nanotubes. The influence of the RC on the localization of MWCNTs and SWCNTs (0.5 wt.%) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-filtered TEM. In PC/SAN blends without RC, MWCNTs are localized in the PC component. In contrast, in PC/SAN-RC, the MWCNTs localize in the SAN-RC component, depending on the RC concentration. By adjusting the MWCNT/RC ratio, the localization of the MWCNTs can be tuned. The SWCNTs behave differently compared to the MWCNTs in PC/SAN-RC blends and their localization occurs either only in the PC or in both blend components, depending on the type of the SWCNTs. CNT defect concentration and surface functionalities seem to be responsible for the localization differences.
- ItemNickel cobalt oxide hollow nanosponges as advanced electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction(Cambridge : Soc., 2015) Zhu, Chengzhou; Wen, Dan; Leubner, Susanne; Oschatz, Martin; Liu, Wei; Holzschuh, Matthias; Simon, Frank; Kaskel, Stefan; Eychmüller, AlexanderA class of novel nickel cobalt oxide hollow nanosponges were synthesized through a sodium borohydride reduction strategy. Due to their porous and hollow nanostructures, and synergetic effects between their components, the optimized nickel cobalt oxide nanosponges exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction.
- ItemPoly(3-hexylthiophene)s Functionalized with N-Heterocyclic Carbenes as Robust and Conductive Ligands for the Stabilization of Gold Nanoparticles(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Sun, Ningwei; Zhang, Shi-Tong; Simon, Frank; Steiner, Anja Maria; Schubert, Jonas; Du, Yixuan; Qiao, Zhi; Fery, Andreas; Lissel, FranziskaRecently, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are explored as anchor groups to bind organic ligands to colloidal gold (i.e. gold nanoparticles, Au NPs), yet these efforts are confined to non-conjugated ligands so far—that is, focused solely on exploiting the stability aspect. Using NHCs to link Au NPs and electronically active organic components, for example, conjugated polymers (CPs), will allow capitalizing on both the stability as well as the inherent conductivity of the NHC anchors. Here, we report three types of Br-NHC-Au-X (X=Cl, Br) complexes, which, when used as starting points for Kumada polymerizations, yield regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophenes)-NHC-Au (P3HTs-NHC-Au) with narrow molecular weight distributions. The corresponding NPs are obtained via direct reduction and show excellent thermal as well as redox stability. The NHC anchors enable electron delocalization over the gold/CP interface, resulting in an improved electrochromic response behavior in comparison with P3HT-NHC-Au. © 2020 The Authors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemPolyethenetetrathiolate or polytetrathiooxalate? Improved synthesis, a comparative analysis of a prominent thermoelectric polymer and implications to the charge transport mechanism(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2018) Tkachov, Roman; Stepien, Lukas; Grafe, Robert; Guskova, Olga; Kiriy, Anton; Simon, Frank; Reith, Heiko; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schierning, Gabi; Kasinathan, Deepa; Leyens, Christoph1,1,2,2-Ethenetetrathiolate (ett4-) coordination polymers, such as poly[Kx(Ni-ett)], have been known for decades for their excellent thermoelectric properties. However in reality, ett4- is neither a "true" comonomer which participates in the polymerization, nor represents a "true" repeat unit of the target polymer. Indeed, poly[K2(Ni-ett)], which is formally the product of Ni-induced polymerization of ett4-, has a poor conductivity and needs to be oxidized to show attractive thermoelectric characteristics. The polymerization and oxidation processes are poorly controllable which causes irreproducibility of the polymer properties. To improve the synthesis reproducibility, we studied polymerization of potassium tetrathiooxalate (K2tto), the convenient synthesis of which was developed in our recent work. Because K2tto is the "true monomer", and not its precursor, a high quality product is reproducibly formed simply by mixing K2tto with NiCl2 at room temperature. The procedure does not require additional components (bases), or special conditions (prolonged heating), which are usually needed for the preparation of this polymer from the monomer precursor 1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene-2,5-dione (TPD). Furthermore, as tto2- is formally the product of two-electron oxidation of ett4-, the poorly controllable oxidation process is avoided and poly[Ni-tto] almost free from K is directly formed upon the complexation of Ni2+ and tto2-. Thus-obtained poly[Ni-tto] possesses conductivity in the range of 27-47 S cm-1 and a Seebeck coefficient in the range of -38 to -55 μV K-1, which are superior thermoelectric properties compared to poly[Kx(Ni-ett)] samples obtained by the previously reported methods. Redox and structural properties of poly[Ni-tto] were compared with those of poly[Kx(Ni-ett)] obtained by the reported methods. Furthermore, DFT calculations were performed to shed more light on generally promising properties of this class of materials. Particularly, possible packing models have been predicted for polymers, and the molecular dynamics simulations have been used to simulate the molecular arrangements under ambient conditions.
- ItemRöntgen-Photoelektronenspektroskopie zur Charakterisierung der Zugänglichkeit und Reaktivität funktioneller Gruppen an Polymeroberflächen gegenüber großen Molekülen : Abschlussbericht zum BMBF-geförderten Forschungsprojekt(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2003) Simon, Frank; Frenzel, Ralf[no abstract available]
- ItemSand/Polyethyleneimine Composites with Enhanced Sorption/Desorption Properties toward Pollutants(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Bucatariu, Florin; Petrila, Larisa-Maria; Zaharia, Marius-Mihai; Simon, Frank; Mihai, MarcelaThe direct deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI), a weak polycation with a large content of amino groups, onto sand fractions with different sizes (F70, F100, F200, and F355), resulted in versatile core-shell sorbents for water cleaning. Herein, PEI and the weak polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were directly precipitated as an nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex ([PEI]:[PAA] = 2:1) onto a sand surface followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA) at three molar ratios ([CHO]:[amine] = 1:10; 1:5; 1:1 = r). Non-crosslinked polyelectrolyte chains were washed out in strongly basic (pH 14) and acidic (pH 0) media. The sand/PEI-GA composites were evaluated to determine the organic shell stability using swelling experiments and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sorbed/desorbed amount of two model pollutants (copper ions and bromocresol green) in column experiments depended on the sand fraction size and cross-linking degree of the PEI shell. The maximum recorded values, after five loading/release cycles of pollutant species onto F70/PEI-GAr, F100/PEI-GAr, F200/PEI-GAr, and F355/PEI-GAr, were situated between the 0.7–5.5 mg Cu2+/mL column and 3.7–15 mg BCG/mL column. Sand/PEI-GAr composites could act as promising sorbents, low-cost and eco-friendly, which could be applied for water purification procedures.
- ItemSurface Treatment of Carbon Fibers by Oxy-Fluorination(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Kruppke, Iris; Scheffler, Christina; Simon, Frank; Hund, Rolf-Dieter; Cherif, ChokriIn this paper, the oxy-fluorination process and the influence of different concentrations of fluorine and oxygen in the gas phase on the physicochemical properties of polyacrylonitrile(PAN)-based carbon fibers are described. The properties of the treated carbon structures are determined by zeta potential and tensiometry measurements. In addition, changes in surface composition and morphology are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adhesion properties are characterized by the single fiber pull-out (SFPO) test. Furthermore, changes in intrinsic properties are described by means of tensile and density measurements. After a primary desizing effect by oxy-fluorination, an increased number of oxygen-containing surface functional groups could be detected, which led to more debonding work in SFPOs with an epoxy-based matrix. It was also shown that the polar surface energy grows with rising fluorine concentration in the reaction gas mixture. In addition, a minor increase of ~10% in the maximum strength of PAN-based carbon fibers is detected by single fiber tensile measurements after oxy-fluorination with a fluorine content of 5% in the reaction mixture.