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    The vertical aerosol type distribution above Israel – 2 years of lidar observations at the coastal city of Haifa
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Heese, Birgit; Floutsi, Athena Augusta; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Herzog, Alina; Mewes, Silke; Radenz, Martin; Schechner, Yoav Y.
    For the first time, vertically resolved long-term lidar measurements of the aerosol distribution were conducted in Haifa, Israel. The measurements were performed by a PollyXT multi-wavelength Raman and polarization lidar. The lidar was measuring continuously over a 2-year period from March 2017 to May 2019. The resulting data set is a series of manually evaluated lidar optical property profiles. To identify the aerosol types in the observed layers, a novel aerosol typing method that was developed at TROPOS is used. This method applies optimal estimation to a combination of lidar-derived intensive aerosol properties to determine the statistically most-likely contribution per aerosol component in terms of relative volume. A case study that shows several elevated aerosol layers illustrates this method and shows, for example, that coarse dust particles are observed up to 5ĝ€¯km height over Israel. From the whole data set, the seasonal distribution of the observed aerosol components over Israel is derived. Throughout all seasons, coarse spherical particles like sea salt and hygroscopically grown continental aerosol were observed. These particles originate from continental Europe and were transported over the Mediterranean Sea. Sea-salt particles were observed frequently due to the coastal site of Haifa. The highest contributions of coarse spherical particles are present in summer, autumn, and winter. During spring, mostly coarse non-spherical particles that are attributed to desert dust were observed. This is consistent with the distinct dust season in spring in Israel. An automated time-height-resolved air mass source attribution method identifies the origin of the dust in the Sahara and the Arabian deserts. Fine-mode spherical particles contribute significantly to the observed aerosol mixture during all seasons. These particles originate mainly from the industrial region at the bay of Haifa.
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    Long-term profiling of aerosol light extinction, particle mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice-nucleating particle concentration over Dushanbe, Tajikistan, in Central Asia
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Hofer, Julian; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.
    For the first time, continuous, vertically resolved long-term aerosol measurements were conducted with a state-of-the-art multiwavelength lidar over a Central Asian site. Such observations are urgently required in efforts to predict future climate and environmental conditions and to support spaceborne remote sensing (ground truth activities). The lidar observations were performed in the framework of the Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX) at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, from March 2015 to August 2016. An AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometer was operated at the lidar field site. During the 18-month campaign, mixtures of continental aerosol pollution and mineral dust were frequently detected from ground to cirrus height level. Regional sources of dust and pollution as well as long-range transport of mineral dust mainly from Middle Eastern and the Saharan deserts determine the aerosol conditions over Tajikistan. In this study, we summarize our findings and present seasonally resolved statistics regarding aerosol layering (main aerosol layer depth, lofted layer occurrence); optical properties (aerosol and dust optical thicknesses at 500–532 nm, vertically resolved light-extinction coefficient at 532 nm); profiles of dust and non-dust mass concentrations and dust fraction; and profiles of particle parameters relevant for liquid water, mixed-phase cloud, and cirrus formation such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. The main aerosol layer over Dushanbe typically reaches 4–5 km height in spring to autumn. Frequently lofted dust-containing aerosol layers were observed at heights from 5 to 10 km, indicating a sensitive potential of dust to influence cloud ice formation. Typical dust mass fractions were of the order of 60 %–80 %. A considerable fraction is thus anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning smoke. The highest aerosol pollution levels (in the relatively shallow winter boundary layer) occur during the winter months. The seasonal mean 500 nm AOT (aerosol optical thickness) ranges from 0.15 in winter to 0.36 in summer during the CADEX period (March 2015 to August 2016); DOTs (dust optical thicknesses) were usually below 0.2; seasonally mean particle extinction coefficients were of the order of 100–500 Mm−1 in the main aerosol layer during the summer half year and about 100–150 Mm−1 in winter but were mainly caused by anthropogenic haze. Accordingly, the highest dust mass concentrations occurred in the summer season (200–600 µg m−3) and the lowest during the winter months (20–50 µg m−3) in the main aerosol layer. In winter, the aerosol pollution mass concentrations were 20–50 µg m−3, while during the summer half year (spring to autumn), the mass concentration caused by urban haze and biomass burning smoke decreases to 10–20 µg m−3 in the lower troposphere. The CCN concentration levels are always controlled by aerosol pollution. The INP concentrations were found to be high enough in the middle and upper troposphere to significantly influence ice formation in mixed-phase and ice clouds during spring and summer seasons.
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    Triple-wavelength lidar observations of the linear depolarization ratio of dried marine particles
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2018) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Althausen, Dietrich; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Gasteiger, Josef; Farrell, David; Nicolae, D.; Makoto, A.; Vassilis, A.; Balis, D.; Behrendt, A.; Comeron, A.; Gibert, F.; Landulfo, E.; McCormick, M.P.; Senff, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Wandinger, U.
    For aerosol typing with lidar, sea salt particles are usually assumed to be spherical with a consequently low depolarization ratio. Evidence of dried marine particles at the top of the humid marine aerosol layer with a depolarization ratio up to 0.1 has been found at predominately maritime locations on Barbados and in the Southern Atlantic. The depolarization ratio for these probably cubic sea salt particles has been measured at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously for the first time and compared to model simulations.
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    First triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dus
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamin; Althausen, Dietrich; Radenz, Martin; Wandinger, Ulla
    Two layers of Saharan dust observed over Leipzig, Germany, in February and March 2021 were used to provide the first-ever lidar measurements of the dust lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) and linear depolarization ratio at all three classical lidar wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064gnm). The pure-dust conditions during the first event exhibit lidar ratios of 47g±g8, 50g±g5 and 69g±g14gsr and particle linear depolarization ratios of 0.242g±g0.024, 0.299g±g0.018 and 0.206g±g0.010 at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The second, slightly polluted-dust case shows a similar spectral behavior of the lidar and depolarization ratio with values of the lidar ratio of 49g±g4, 46g±g5 and 57g±g9gsr and the depolarization ratio of 0.174g±g0.041, 0.298g±g0.016 and 0.242g±g0.007 at 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The results were compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) version 3 (v3) inversion solutions and the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) at six and seven wavelengths. Both retrieval schemes make use of a spheroid shape model for mineral dust. The spectral slope of the lidar ratio from 532 to 1064gnm could be well reproduced by the AERONET and GRASP retrieval schemes. Higher lidar ratios in the UV were retrieved by AERONET and GRASP. The enhancement was probably caused by the influence of fine-mode pollution particles in the boundary layer which are included in the columnar photometer measurements. Significant differences between the measured and retrieved wavelength dependence of the particle linear depolarization ratio were found. The potential sources for these uncertainties are discussed.
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    Observation of Arabian and Saharan dust in Cyprus with a new generation of the smart Raman lidar Polly
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Heese, Birgit; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Vrekoussis, Mihalis
    The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the “3+2” measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].
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    Measurement of the linear depolarization ratio of aged dust at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously over Barbados
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Haarig, Moritz; Althausen, Dietrich; Ansmann, Albert; Klepel, André; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Groß, Silke; Freudenthaler, Volker
    A ground-based polarization Raman lidar is presented, that is able to measure the depolarization ratio at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously. This new feature is implemented for the first time in a Raman lidar. It provides a full dataset of 3 backscatter coefficients, two extinction coefficients and 3 depolarization ratios (3+2+3 lidar system). To ensure the data quality, it has been compared to the well characterized two-wavelength polarization lidar POLIS. Measurements of long-range transported dust have been performed in the framework of the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) in the Caribbean.
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    Optical properties of Central Asian aerosol relevant for spaceborne lidar applications and aerosol typing at 355 and 532nm
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Hofer, Julian; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Wandinger, Ulla; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.
    For the first time, a dense data set of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios), linear depolarization ratios, and backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents for a Central Asian site are presented. The observations were performed with a continuously running multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, during an 18-month campaign (March 2015 to August 2016). The presented seasonally resolved observations fill an important gap in the database of aerosol optical properties used in aerosol typing efforts with spaceborne lidars and ground-based lidar networks. Lidar ratios and depolarization ratios are also basic input parameters in spaceborne lidar data analyses and in efforts to harmonize long-term observations with different space lidar systems operated at either 355 or 532 nm. As a general result, the found optical properties reflect the large range of occurring aerosol mixtures consisting of long-range-transported dust (from the Middle East and the Sahara), regional desert, soil, and salt dust, and anthropogenic pollution. The full range from highly polluted to pure dust situations could be observed. Typical dust depolarization ratios of 0.23–0.29 (355 nm) and 0.30–0.35 (532 nm) were observed. In contrast, comparably low lidar ratios were found. Dust lidar ratios at 532 nm accumulated around 35–40 sr and were even lower for regional background dust conditions (20–30 sr). Detailed correlation studies (e.g., lidar ratio vs. depolarization ratios, Ångström exponent vs. lidar ratio and vs. depolarization ratio) are presented to illuminate the complex relationships between the observed optical properties and to identify the contributions of anthropogenic haze, dust, and background aerosol to the overall aerosol mixtures found within the 18-month campaign. The observation of 532 nm lidar ratios (<25 sr) and depolarization ratios (around 15 %–20 %) in layers with very low particle extinction coefficient (<30 sr) suggests that direct emission and emission of resuspended salt dust (initially originated from numerous desiccating lakes and the Aralkum desert) have a sensitive impact on the aerosol background optical properties over Dushanbe.
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    Wildfire smoke, Arctic haze, and aerosol effects on mixed-phase and cirrus clouds over the North Pole region during MOSAiC: an introduction
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Ohneiser, Kevin; Griesche, Hannes; Radenz, Martin; Hofer, Julian; Althausen, Dietrich; Dahlke, Sandro; Maturilli, Marion; Veselovskii, Igor; Jimenez, Cristofer; Wiesen, Robert; Baars, Holger; Bühl, Johannes; Gebauer, Henriette; Haarig, Moritz; Seifert, Patric; Wandinger, Ulla; Macke, Andreas
    An advanced multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar was operated aboard the icebreaker Polarstern during the MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate) expedition to continuously monitor aerosol and cloud layers in the central Arctic up to 30gkm height. The expedition lasted from September 2019 to October 2020 and measurements were mostly taken between 85 and 88.5ggN. The lidar was integrated into a complex remote-sensing infrastructure aboard the Polarstern. In this article, novel lidar techniques, innovative concepts to study aerosol-cloud interaction in the Arctic, and unique MOSAiC findings will be presented. The highlight of the lidar measurements was the detection of a 10gkm deep wildfire smoke layer over the North Pole region between 7-8gkm and 17-18gkm height with an aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 532gnm of around 0.1 (in October-November 2019) and 0.05 from December to March. The dual-wavelength Raman lidar technique allowed us to unambiguously identify smoke as the dominating aerosol type in the aerosol layer in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). An additional contribution to the 532gnm AOT by volcanic sulfate aerosol (Raikoke eruption) was estimated to always be lower than 15g%. The optical and microphysical properties of the UTLS smoke layer are presented in an accompanying paper . This smoke event offered the unique opportunity to study the influence of organic aerosol particles (serving as ice-nucleating particles, INPs) on cirrus formation in the upper troposphere. An example of a closure study is presented to explain our concept of investigating aerosol-cloud interaction in this field. The smoke particles were obviously able to control the evolution of the cirrus system and caused low ice crystal number concentration. After the discussion of two typical Arctic haze events, we present a case study of the evolution of a long-lasting mixed-phase cloud layer embedded in Arctic haze in the free troposphere. The recently introduced dual-field-of-view polarization lidar technique was applied, for the first time, to mixed-phase cloud observations in order to determine the microphysical properties of the water droplets. The mixed-phase cloud closure experiment (based on combined lidar and radar observations) indicated that the observed aerosol levels controlled the number concentrations of nucleated droplets and ice crystals.
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    Aerosol properties over Southeastern China from multi-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar measurements
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Deng, Ruru
    A dataset of particle optical properties of highly polluted urban aerosol over the Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou, China is presented. The data were derived from multi-wavelengths Raman and depolarization lidar PollyXT and AERONET sun photometer measurements. The measurement campaign was conducted from Nov 2011 to June 2012. High aerosol optical depth was observed in the polluted atmosphere over this megacity, with a mean value of 0.54 ± 0.33 and a peak value of even 1.9. For the particle characterization the lidar ratio and the linear particle depolarization ratio, both at 532 nm, were used. The mean values of these properties are 48.0 sr ± 10.7 sr for the lidar ratio and 4%+-4% for the particle depolarization ratio, which means most depolarization measurements stayed below 10%. So far, most of these results indicate urban pollution particles mixed with particles arisen from biomass and industrial burning.
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    The unprecedented 2017–2018 stratospheric smoke event: decay phase and aerosol properties observed with the EARLINET
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Ohneiser, Kevin; Haarig, Moritz; Engelmann, Ronny; Althausen, Dietrich; Hanssen, Ingrid; Gausa, Michael; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Szkop, Artur; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Wang, Dongxiang; Reichardt, Jens; Skupin, Annett; Mattis, Ina; Trickl, Thomas; Vogelmann, Hannes; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Haefele, Alexander; Acheson, Karen; Ruth, Albert A.; Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Hu, Qiaoyun; Podvin, Thierry; Goloub, Philippe; Veselovskii, Igor; Pietras, Christophe; Haeffelin, Martial; Fréville, Patrick; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo; García, Alfonso Javier Fernández; Molero Menéndez, Francisco; Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bortoli, Daniele; Costa, Maria João; Dionisi, Davide; Liberti, Gian Luigi; Wang, Xuan; Sannino, Alessia; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Boselli, Antonella; Mona, Lucia; D’Amico, Guiseppe; Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita; Belegante, Livio; Nicolae, Doina; Grigorov, Ivan; Gialitaki, Anna; Amiridis, Vassilis; Soupiona, Ourania; Papayannis, Alexandros; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisaveth; Nisantzi, Argyro; Heese, Birgit; Hofer, Julian; Schechner, Yoav Y.; Wandinger, Ulla; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    Six months of stratospheric aerosol observations with the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) from August 2017 to January 2018 are presented. The decay phase of an unprecedented, record-breaking stratospheric perturbation caused by wildfire smoke is reported and discussed in terms of geometrical, optical, and microphysical aerosol properties. Enormous amounts of smoke were injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over fire areas in western Canada on 12 August 2017 during strong thunderstorm–pyrocumulonimbus activity. The stratospheric fire plumes spread over the entire Northern Hemisphere in the following weeks and months. Twenty-eight European lidar stations from northern Norway to southern Portugal and the eastern Mediterranean monitored the strong stratospheric perturbation on a continental scale. The main smoke layer (over central, western, southern, and eastern Europe) was found at heights between 15 and 20 km since September 2017 (about 2 weeks after entering the stratosphere). Thin layers of smoke were detected at heights of up to 22–23 km. The stratospheric aerosol optical thickness at 532 nm decreased from values > 0.25 on 21–23 August 2017 to 0.005–0.03 until 5–10 September and was mainly 0.003–0.004 from October to December 2017 and thus was still significantly above the stratospheric background (0.001–0.002). Stratospheric particle extinction coefficients (532 nm) were as high as 50–200 Mm−1 until the beginning of September and on the order of 1 Mm−1 (0.5–5 Mm−1) from October 2017 until the end of January 2018. The corresponding layer mean particle mass concentration was on the order of 0.05–0.5 µg m−3 over these months. Soot particles (light-absorbing carbonaceous particles) are efficient ice-nucleating particles (INPs) at upper tropospheric (cirrus) temperatures and available to influence cirrus formation when entering the tropopause from above. We estimated INP concentrations of 50–500 L−1 until the first days in September and afterwards 5–50 L−1 until the end of the year 2017 in the lower stratosphere for typical cirrus formation temperatures of −55 ∘C and an ice supersaturation level of 1.15. The measured profiles of the particle linear depolarization ratio indicated a predominance of nonspherical smoke particles. The 532 nm depolarization ratio decreased slowly with time in the main smoke layer from values of 0.15–0.25 (August–September) to values of 0.05–0.10 (October–November) and < 0.05 (December–January). The decrease of the depolarization ratio is consistent with aging of the smoke particles, growing of a coating around the solid black carbon core (aggregates), and thus change of the shape towards a spherical form. We found ascending aerosol layer features over the most southern European stations, especially over the eastern Mediterranean at 32–35∘ N, that ascended from heights of about 18–19 to 22–23 km from the beginning of October to the beginning of December 2017 (about 2 km per month). We discuss several transport and lifting mechanisms that may have had an impact on the found aerosol layering structures.