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Measurements of particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio at 1064 nm with the rotational raman method in Polly-XT

2018, Engelmann, Ronny, Haarig, Moritz, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Kottas, Michael, Marinou, Eleni, Nicolae, D., Makoto, A., Vassilis, A., Balis, D., Behrendt, A., Comeron, A., Gibert, F., Landulfo, E., McCormick, M.P., Senff, C., Veselovskii, I., Wandinger, U.

We replaced a 1064-nm interference filter of a Polly-XT lidar system by a 1058-nm filter to observe pure rotational Raman backscattering from atmospheric Nitrogen and Oxygen. Polly-XT is compact Raman lidar with a Nd:YAG laser (20 Hz, 200 mJ at 1064 nm) and a 30-cm telescope mirror which applies photomultipliers in photoncounting mode. We present the first measured signals at 1058 nm and the derived extinction profile from measurements aboard RV Polarstern and in Leipzig. In combination with another Polly-XT system we could also derive particle backscatter and lidar ratio profiles at 1064 nm.

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Triple-wavelength lidar observations of the linear depolarization ratio of dried marine particles

2018, Haarig, Moritz, Ansmann, Albert, Baars, Holger, Engelmann, Ronny, Althausen, Dietrich, Bohlmann, Stephanie, Gasteiger, Josef, Farrell, David, Nicolae, D., Makoto, A., Vassilis, A., Balis, D., Behrendt, A., Comeron, A., Gibert, F., Landulfo, E., McCormick, M.P., Senff, C., Veselovskii, I., Wandinger, U.

For aerosol typing with lidar, sea salt particles are usually assumed to be spherical with a consequently low depolarization ratio. Evidence of dried marine particles at the top of the humid marine aerosol layer with a depolarization ratio up to 0.1 has been found at predominately maritime locations on Barbados and in the Southern Atlantic. The depolarization ratio for these probably cubic sea salt particles has been measured at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously for the first time and compared to model simulations.

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First triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dus

2022, Haarig, Moritz, Ansmann, Albert, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Toledano, Carlos, Torres, Benjamin, Althausen, Dietrich, Radenz, Martin, Wandinger, Ulla

Two layers of Saharan dust observed over Leipzig, Germany, in February and March 2021 were used to provide the first-ever lidar measurements of the dust lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) and linear depolarization ratio at all three classical lidar wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064gnm). The pure-dust conditions during the first event exhibit lidar ratios of 47g±g8, 50g±g5 and 69g±g14gsr and particle linear depolarization ratios of 0.242g±g0.024, 0.299g±g0.018 and 0.206g±g0.010 at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The second, slightly polluted-dust case shows a similar spectral behavior of the lidar and depolarization ratio with values of the lidar ratio of 49g±g4, 46g±g5 and 57g±g9gsr and the depolarization ratio of 0.174g±g0.041, 0.298g±g0.016 and 0.242g±g0.007 at 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The results were compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) version 3 (v3) inversion solutions and the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) at six and seven wavelengths. Both retrieval schemes make use of a spheroid shape model for mineral dust. The spectral slope of the lidar ratio from 532 to 1064gnm could be well reproduced by the AERONET and GRASP retrieval schemes. Higher lidar ratios in the UV were retrieved by AERONET and GRASP. The enhancement was probably caused by the influence of fine-mode pollution particles in the boundary layer which are included in the columnar photometer measurements. Significant differences between the measured and retrieved wavelength dependence of the particle linear depolarization ratio were found. The potential sources for these uncertainties are discussed.

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Lidar Ice nuclei estimates and how they relate with airborne in-situ measurements

2018, Marinou, Eleni, Amiridis, Vassilis, Ansmann, Albert, Nenes, Athanasios, Balis, Dimitris, Schrod, Jann, Binietoglou, Ioannis, Solomos, Stavros, Mamali, Dimitra, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Kottas, Michael, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Proestakis, Emmanouil, Kokkalis, Panagiotis, Goloub, Philippe, Cvetkovic, Bojan, Nichovic, Slobodan, Mamouri, Rodanthi, Pikridas, Michael, Stavroulas, Iasonas, Keleshis, Christos, Sciare, Jean

By means of available ice nucleating particle (INP) parameterization schemes we compute profiles of dust INP number concentration utilizing Polly-XT and CALIPSO lidar observations during the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS 2016 campaign. The polarization-lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method is used to separate dust and non-dust aerosol backscatter, extinction, mass concentration, particle number concentration (for particles with radius > 250 nm) and surface area concentration. The INP final products are compared with aerosol samples collected from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and analyzed using the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE.

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EARLINET instrument intercomparison campaigns: Overview on strategy and results

2016, Wandinger, Ulla, Freudenthaler, Volker, Baars, Holger, Amodeo, Aldo, Engelmann, Ronny, Mattis, Ina, Groß, Silke, Pappalardo, Gelsomina, Giunta, Aldo, D'Amico, Giuseppe, Chaikovsky, Anatoli, Osipenko, Fiodor, Slesar, Alexander, Nicolae, Doina, Belegante, Livio, Talianu, Camelia, Serikov, Ilya, Linné, Holger, Jansen, Friedhelm, Apituley, Arnoud, Wilson, Keith M., de Graaf, Martin, Trickl, Thomas, Giehl, Helmut, Adam, Mariana, Comerón, Adolfo, Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino, Rocadenbosch, Francesc, Sicard, Michaël, Tomás, Sergio, Lange, Diego, Kumar, Dhiraj, Pujadas, Manuel, Molero, Francisco, Fernández, Alfonso J., Alados-Arboledas, Lucas, Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio, Navas-Guzmán, Francisco, Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis, Granados-Muñoz, María José, Preißler, Jana, Wagner, Frank, Gausa, Michael, Grigorov, Ivan, Stoyanov, Dimitar, Iarlori, Marco, Rizi, Vincenco, Spinelli, Nicola, Boselli, Antonella, Wang, Xuan, Feudo, Teresa Lo, Perrone, Maria Rita, De Tomas, Ferdinando, Burlizzi, Pasquale

This paper introduces the recent European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) quality-assurance efforts at instrument level. Within two dedicated campaigns and five single-site intercomparison activities, 21 EARLINET systems from 18 EARLINET stations were intercompared between 2009 and 2013. A comprehensive strategy for campaign setup and data evaluation has been established. Eleven systems from nine EARLINET stations participated in the EARLINET Lidar Intercomparison 2009 (EARLI09). In this campaign, three reference systems were qualified which served as traveling standards thereafter. EARLINET systems from nine other stations have been compared against these reference systems since 2009. We present and discuss comparisons at signal and at product level from all campaigns for more than 100 individual measurement channels at the wavelengths of 355, 387, 532, and 607 nm. It is shown that in most cases, a very good agreement of the compared systems with the respective reference is obtained. Mean signal deviations in predefined height ranges are typically below ±2 %. Particle backscatter and extinction coefficients agree within ±2  ×  10−4 km−1 sr−1 and ± 0.01 km−1, respectively, in most cases. For systems or channels that showed larger discrepancies, an in-depth analysis of deficiencies was performed and technical solutions and upgrades were proposed and realized. The intercomparisons have reinforced confidence in the EARLINET data quality and allowed us to draw conclusions on necessary system improvements for some instruments and to identify major challenges that need to be tackled in the future.

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Extreme levels of Canadian wildfire smoke in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017

2018, Ansmann, Albert, Baars, Holger, Chudnovsky, Alexandra, Mattis, Ina, Veselovskii, Igor, Haarig, Moritz, Seifert, Patric, Engelmann, Ronny, Wandinger, Ulla

Light extinction coefficients of 500 Mm1, about 20 times higher than after the Pinatubo volcanic eruptions in 1991, were observed by European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017. Pronounced smoke layers with a 1-2 km vertical extent were found 2-5 km above the local tropopause. Optically dense layers of Canadian wildfire smoke reached central Europe 10 days after their injection into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which was caused by rather strong pyrocumulonimbus activity over western Canada. The smoke-related aerosol optical thickness (AOT) identified by lidar was close to 1.0 at 532 nm over Leipzig during the noon hours on 22 August 2017. Smoke particles were found throughout the free troposphere (AOT of 0.3) and in the pronounced 2 km thick stratospheric smoke layer at an altitude of 14-16 km (AOT of 0.6). The lidar observations indicated peak mass concentrations of 70-100 μgm-3 in the stratosphere. In addition to the lidar profiles, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power (FRP) over Canada, and the distribution of MODIS AOT and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index across the North Atlantic. These instruments showed a similar pattern and a clear link between the western Canadian fires and the aerosol load over Europe. In this paper, we also present Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer observations, compare photometer and lidar-derived AOT, and discuss an obvious bias (the smoke AOT is too low) in the photometer observations. Finally, we compare the strength of this recordbreaking smoke event (in terms of the particle extinction coefficient and AOT) with major and moderate volcanic events observed over the northern midlatitudes.

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Observation of Arabian and Saharan dust in Cyprus with a new generation of the smart Raman lidar Polly

2016, Engelmann, Ronny, Ansmann, Albert, Bühl, Johannes, Heese, Birgit, Baars, Holger, Althausen, Dietrich, Marinou, Eleni, Amiridis, Vassilis, Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet, Vrekoussis, Mihalis

The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the “3+2” measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].

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Long-term profiling of aerosol light extinction, particle mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice-nucleating particle concentration over Dushanbe, Tajikistan, in Central Asia

2020, Hofer, Julian, Ansmann, Albert, Althausen, Dietrich, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Abdullaev, Sabur F., Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.

For the first time, continuous, vertically resolved long-term aerosol measurements were conducted with a state-of-the-art multiwavelength lidar over a Central Asian site. Such observations are urgently required in efforts to predict future climate and environmental conditions and to support spaceborne remote sensing (ground truth activities). The lidar observations were performed in the framework of the Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX) at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, from March 2015 to August 2016. An AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometer was operated at the lidar field site. During the 18-month campaign, mixtures of continental aerosol pollution and mineral dust were frequently detected from ground to cirrus height level. Regional sources of dust and pollution as well as long-range transport of mineral dust mainly from Middle Eastern and the Saharan deserts determine the aerosol conditions over Tajikistan. In this study, we summarize our findings and present seasonally resolved statistics regarding aerosol layering (main aerosol layer depth, lofted layer occurrence); optical properties (aerosol and dust optical thicknesses at 500–532 nm, vertically resolved light-extinction coefficient at 532 nm); profiles of dust and non-dust mass concentrations and dust fraction; and profiles of particle parameters relevant for liquid water, mixed-phase cloud, and cirrus formation such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. The main aerosol layer over Dushanbe typically reaches 4–5 km height in spring to autumn. Frequently lofted dust-containing aerosol layers were observed at heights from 5 to 10 km, indicating a sensitive potential of dust to influence cloud ice formation. Typical dust mass fractions were of the order of 60 %–80 %. A considerable fraction is thus anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning smoke. The highest aerosol pollution levels (in the relatively shallow winter boundary layer) occur during the winter months. The seasonal mean 500 nm AOT (aerosol optical thickness) ranges from 0.15 in winter to 0.36 in summer during the CADEX period (March 2015 to August 2016); DOTs (dust optical thicknesses) were usually below 0.2; seasonally mean particle extinction coefficients were of the order of 100–500 Mm−1 in the main aerosol layer during the summer half year and about 100–150 Mm−1 in winter but were mainly caused by anthropogenic haze. Accordingly, the highest dust mass concentrations occurred in the summer season (200–600 µg m−3) and the lowest during the winter months (20–50 µg m−3) in the main aerosol layer. In winter, the aerosol pollution mass concentrations were 20–50 µg m−3, while during the summer half year (spring to autumn), the mass concentration caused by urban haze and biomass burning smoke decreases to 10–20 µg m−3 in the lower troposphere. The CCN concentration levels are always controlled by aerosol pollution. The INP concentrations were found to be high enough in the middle and upper troposphere to significantly influence ice formation in mixed-phase and ice clouds during spring and summer seasons.

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Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements

2017, Baars, Holger, Seifert, Patric, Engelmann, Ronny, Wandinger, Ulla

Absolute calibrated signals at 532 and 1064 nm and the depolarization ratio from a multiwavelength lidar are used to categorize primary aerosol but also clouds in high temporal and spatial resolution. Automatically derived particle backscatter coefficient profiles in low temporal resolution (30 min) are applied to calibrate the lidar signals. From these calibrated lidar signals, new atmospheric parameters in temporally high resolution (quasi-particle-backscatter coefficients) are derived. By using thresholds obtained from multiyear, multisite EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) measurements, four aerosol classes (small; large, spherical; large, non-spherical; mixed, partly nonspherical) and several cloud classes (liquid, ice) are defined. Thus, particles are classified by their physical features (shape and size) instead of by source. The methodology is applied to 2 months of continuous observations (24 h a day, 7 days a week) with the multiwavelength-Raman-polarization lidar PollyXT during the High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013. Cloudnet equipment was operated continuously directly next to the lidar and is used for comparison. By discussing three 24 h case studies, it is shown that the aerosol discrimination is very feasible and informative and gives a good complement to the Cloudnet target categorization. Performing the categorization for the 2-month data set of the entire HOPE campaign, almost 1 million pixel (5 min×30 m) could be analysed with the newly developed tool. We find that the majority of the aerosol trapped in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was composed of small particles as expected for a heavily populated and industrialized area. Large, spherical aerosol was observed mostly at the top of the PBL and close to the identified cloud bases, indicating the importance of hygroscopic growth of the particles at high relative humidity. Interestingly, it is found that on several days non-spherical particles were dispersed from the ground into the atmosphere.

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Measurement of the linear depolarization ratio of aged dust at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously over Barbados

2016, Haarig, Moritz, Althausen, Dietrich, Ansmann, Albert, Klepel, André, Baars, Holger, Engelmann, Ronny, Groß, Silke, Freudenthaler, Volker

A ground-based polarization Raman lidar is presented, that is able to measure the depolarization ratio at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously. This new feature is implemented for the first time in a Raman lidar. It provides a full dataset of 3 backscatter coefficients, two extinction coefficients and 3 depolarization ratios (3+2+3 lidar system). To ensure the data quality, it has been compared to the well characterized two-wavelength polarization lidar POLIS. Measurements of long-range transported dust have been performed in the framework of the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) in the Caribbean.