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Is the near-spherical shape the "new black" for smoke?

2020, Gialitaki, Anna, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Amiridis, Vassilis, Ceolato, Romain, Paulien, Lucas, Kampouri, Anna, Gkikas, Antonis, Solomos, Stavros, Marinou, Eleni, Haarig, Moritz, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Lapyonok, Tatyana, Lopatin, Anton, Dubovik, Oleg, Groß, Silke, Wirth, Martin, Tsichla, Maria, Tsikoudi, Ioanna, Balis, Dimitris

We examine the capability of near-sphericalshaped particles to reproduce the triple-wavelength particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR) and lidar ratio (LR) values measured over Europe for stratospheric smoke originating from Canadian wildfires. The smoke layers were detected both in the troposphere and the stratosphere, though in the latter case the particles presented PLDR values of almost 18% at 532 nm as well as a strong spectral dependence from the UV to the near-IR wavelength. Although recent simulation studies of rather complicated smoke particle morphologies have shown that heavily coated smoke aggregates can produce large PLDR, herein we propose a much simpler model of compact near-spherical smoke particles. This assumption allows for the reproduction of the observed intensive optical properties of stratospheric smoke, as well as their spectral dependence. We further examine whether an extension of the current Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) scattering model to include the near-spherical shapes could be of benefit to the AERONET retrieval for stratospheric smoke cases associated with enhanced PLDR. Results of our study illustrate the fact that triple-wavelength PLDR and LR lidar measurements can provide us with additional insight when it comes to particle characterization. © 2020 Author(s).

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Estimation of dust related ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere: Comparison of profiling and in-situ measurements

2019, Haarig, Moritz, Ansmann, Albert, Walser, Adrian, Baars, Holger, Urbanneck, Claudia, Weinzierl, Bernadett, Schöberl, Manuel, Dollner, Maximilian, Mamouri, Rodanthi, Althausen, Dietrich

Vertical profiles of number concentrations of dust particles relevant for ice nucleation in clouds are derived from lidar measurements. The results are compared to coincidental airborne in-situ measurements of particle number and surface area concentrations in the dust layer. The observations were performed in long-range transported Saharan dust at Barbados and Asian dust at Cyprus. The Asian dust data analysis is ongoing. A comparison of Asian and Saharan dust will be given at the conference. Concentrations of ice nucleating particles in the order of 10 to 1000 per cm-3 in the dust layer are derived for a temperature of-25°C at Barbados. The method can be used to continuously monitor the concentration of ice nucleating dust particles vertically resolved from lidar measurements. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

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Smoke of extreme Australian bushfires observed in the stratosphere over Punta Arenas, Chile, in January 2020 : optical thickness, lidar ratios, and depolarization ratios at 355 and 532nm

2020, Ohneiser, Kevin, Ansmann, Albert, Baars, Holger, Seifert, Patric, Barja, Boris, Jimenez, Cristofer, Radenz, Martin, Teisseire, Audrey, Floutsi, Athina, Haarig, Moritz, Foth, Andreas, Chudnovsky, Alexandra, Engelmann, Ronny, Zamorano, Félix, Bühl, Johannes, Wandinger, Ulla

We present particle optical properties of stratospheric smoke layers observed with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar over Punta Arenas (53.2∘ S, 70.9∘ W), Chile, at the southernmost tip of South America in January 2020. The smoke originated from the record-breaking bushfires in Australia. The stratospheric aerosol optical thickness reached values up to 0.85 at 532 nm in mid-January 2020. The main goal of this rapid communication letter is to provide first stratospheric measurements of smoke extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) and particle linear depolarization ratios at 355 and 532 nm wavelengths. These aerosol parameters are important input parameters in the analysis of spaceborne CALIPSO and Aeolus lidar observations of the Australian smoke spreading over large parts of the Southern Hemisphere in January and February 2020 up to heights of around 30 km. Lidar and depolarization ratios, simultaneously measured at 355 and 532 nm, are of key importance regarding the homogenization of the overall Aeolus (355 nm wavelength) and CALIPSO (532 nm wavelength) lidar data sets documenting the spread of the smoke and the decay of the stratospheric perturbation, which will be observable over the entire year of 2020. We found typical values and spectral dependencies of the lidar ratio and linear depolarization ratio for aged stratospheric smoke. At 355 nm, the lidar ratio and depolarization ratio ranged from 53 to 97 sr (mean 71 sr) and 0.2 to 0.26 (mean 0.23), respectively. At 532 nm, the lidar ratios were higher (75–112 sr, mean 97 sr) and the depolarization ratios were lower with values of 0.14–0.22 (mean 0.18). The determined depolarization ratios for aged Australian smoke are in very good agreement with respective ones for aged Canadian smoke, observed with lidar in stratospheric smoke layers over central Europe in the summer of 2017. The much higher 532 nm lidar ratios, however, indicate stronger absorption by the Australian smoke particles.

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Measurement of the linear depolarization ratio of aged dust at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously over Barbados

2016, Haarig, Moritz, Althausen, Dietrich, Ansmann, Albert, Klepel, André, Baars, Holger, Engelmann, Ronny, Groß, Silke, Freudenthaler, Volker

A ground-based polarization Raman lidar is presented, that is able to measure the depolarization ratio at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously. This new feature is implemented for the first time in a Raman lidar. It provides a full dataset of 3 backscatter coefficients, two extinction coefficients and 3 depolarization ratios (3+2+3 lidar system). To ensure the data quality, it has been compared to the well characterized two-wavelength polarization lidar POLIS. Measurements of long-range transported dust have been performed in the framework of the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) in the Caribbean.

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Measurements of particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio at 1064 nm with the rotational raman method in Polly-XT

2018, Engelmann, Ronny, Haarig, Moritz, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Kottas, Michael, Marinou, Eleni, Nicolae, D., Makoto, A., Vassilis, A., Balis, D., Behrendt, A., Comeron, A., Gibert, F., Landulfo, E., McCormick, M.P., Senff, C., Veselovskii, I., Wandinger, U.

We replaced a 1064-nm interference filter of a Polly-XT lidar system by a 1058-nm filter to observe pure rotational Raman backscattering from atmospheric Nitrogen and Oxygen. Polly-XT is compact Raman lidar with a Nd:YAG laser (20 Hz, 200 mJ at 1064 nm) and a 30-cm telescope mirror which applies photomultipliers in photoncounting mode. We present the first measured signals at 1058 nm and the derived extinction profile from measurements aboard RV Polarstern and in Leipzig. In combination with another Polly-XT system we could also derive particle backscatter and lidar ratio profiles at 1064 nm.

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Cloud top heights and aerosol layer properties from EarthCARE lidar observations: The A-CTH and A-ALD products

2023, Wandinger, Ulla, Haarig, Moritz, Baars, Holger, Donovan, David, van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan

The high-spectral-resolution Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) on the Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) provides vertically resolved information on aerosols and clouds with unprecedented accuracy. Together with the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), the Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), and the Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR) on the same platform, it allows for a new synergistic view on atmospheric processes related to the interaction of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and radiation at the global scale. This paper describes the algorithms for the determination of cloud top height and aerosol layer information from ATLID Level 1b (L1b) and Level 2a (L2a) input data. The ATLID L2a Cloud Top Height (A-CTH) and Aerosol Layer Descriptor (A-ALD) products are developed to ensure the provision of atmospheric layer products in continuation of the heritage from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). Moreover, the products serve as input for synergistic algorithms that make use of data from ATLID and MSI. Therefore, the products are provided on the EarthCARE joint standard grid (JSG). A wavelet covariance transform (WCT) method with flexible thresholds is applied to determine layer boundaries from the ATLID Mie co-polar signal. Strong features detected with a horizontal resolution of 1 JSG pixel (approximately 1ĝ€¯km) or 11 JSG pixels are classified as thick or thin clouds, respectively. The top height of the uppermost cloud layer together with information on cloud layering are stored in the A-CTH product for further use in the generation of the ATLID-MSI Cloud Top Height (AM-CTH) synergy product. Aerosol layers are detected as weaker features at a resolution of 11 JSG pixels. Layer-mean optical properties are calculated from the ATLID L2a Extinction, Backscatter and Depolarization (A-EBD) product and stored in the A-ALD product, which also contains the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of each layer, the stratospheric AOT, and the AOT of the entire atmospheric column. The latter parameter is used to produce the synergistic ATLID-MSI Aerosol Column Descriptor (AM-ACD) later in the processing chain. Several quality criteria are applied in the generation of A-CTH and A-ALD, and respective information is stored in the products. The functionality and performance of the algorithms are demonstrated by applying them to common EarthCARE test scenes. Conclusions are drawn for the application to real-world data and the validation of the products after the launch of EarthCARE.

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Extreme levels of Canadian wildfire smoke in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017

2018, Ansmann, Albert, Baars, Holger, Chudnovsky, Alexandra, Mattis, Ina, Veselovskii, Igor, Haarig, Moritz, Seifert, Patric, Engelmann, Ronny, Wandinger, Ulla

Light extinction coefficients of 500 Mm1, about 20 times higher than after the Pinatubo volcanic eruptions in 1991, were observed by European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017. Pronounced smoke layers with a 1-2 km vertical extent were found 2-5 km above the local tropopause. Optically dense layers of Canadian wildfire smoke reached central Europe 10 days after their injection into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which was caused by rather strong pyrocumulonimbus activity over western Canada. The smoke-related aerosol optical thickness (AOT) identified by lidar was close to 1.0 at 532 nm over Leipzig during the noon hours on 22 August 2017. Smoke particles were found throughout the free troposphere (AOT of 0.3) and in the pronounced 2 km thick stratospheric smoke layer at an altitude of 14-16 km (AOT of 0.6). The lidar observations indicated peak mass concentrations of 70-100 μgm-3 in the stratosphere. In addition to the lidar profiles, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power (FRP) over Canada, and the distribution of MODIS AOT and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index across the North Atlantic. These instruments showed a similar pattern and a clear link between the western Canadian fires and the aerosol load over Europe. In this paper, we also present Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer observations, compare photometer and lidar-derived AOT, and discuss an obvious bias (the smoke AOT is too low) in the photometer observations. Finally, we compare the strength of this recordbreaking smoke event (in terms of the particle extinction coefficient and AOT) with major and moderate volcanic events observed over the northern midlatitudes.

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Advection of Biomass Burning Aerosols towards the Southern Hemispheric Mid-Latitude Station of Punta Arenas as Observed with Multiwavelength Polarization Raman Lidar

2021, Floutsi, Athena Augusta, Baars, Holger, Radenz, Martin, Haarig, Moritz, Yin, Zhenping, Seifert, Patric, Jimenez, Cristofer, Ansmann, Albert, Engelmann, Ronny, Barja, Boris, Zamorano, Felix, Wandinger, Ulla

In this paper, we present long-term observations of the multiwavelength Raman lidar PollyXT conducted in the framework of the DACAPO-PESO campaign. Regardless of the relatively clean atmosphere in the southern mid-latitude oceans region, we regularly observed events of long-range transported smoke, originating either from regional sources in South America or from Australia. Two case studies will be discussed, both identified as smoke events that occurred on 5 February 2019 and 11 March 2019. For the first case considered, the lofted smoke layer was located at an altitude between 1.0 and 4.2 km, and apart from the predominance of smoke particles, particle linear depolarization values indicated the presence of dust particles. Mean lidar ratio values at 355 and 532 nm were 49 ± 12 and 24 ± 18 sr respectively, while the mean particle linear depolarization was 7.6 ± 3.6% at 532 nm. The advection of smoke and dust particles above Punta Arenas affected significantly the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INP) in the lower troposphere, and effectively triggered the ice crystal formation processes. Regarding the second case, the thin smoke layers were observed at altitudes 5.5–7.0, 9.0 and 11.0 km. The particle linear depolarization ratio at 532 nm increased rapidly with height, starting from 2% for the lowest two layers and increasing up to 9.5% for the highest layer, indicating the possible presence of non-spherical coated soot aggregates. INP activation was effectively facilitated. The long-term analysis of the one year of observations showed that tropospheric smoke advection over Punta Arenas occurred 16 times (lasting from 1 to 17 h), regularly distributed over the period and with high potential to influence cloud formation in the otherwise pristine environment of the region.

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Triple-wavelength lidar observations of the linear depolarization ratio of dried marine particles

2018, Haarig, Moritz, Ansmann, Albert, Baars, Holger, Engelmann, Ronny, Althausen, Dietrich, Bohlmann, Stephanie, Gasteiger, Josef, Farrell, David, Nicolae, D., Makoto, A., Vassilis, A., Balis, D., Behrendt, A., Comeron, A., Gibert, F., Landulfo, E., McCormick, M.P., Senff, C., Veselovskii, I., Wandinger, U.

For aerosol typing with lidar, sea salt particles are usually assumed to be spherical with a consequently low depolarization ratio. Evidence of dried marine particles at the top of the humid marine aerosol layer with a depolarization ratio up to 0.1 has been found at predominately maritime locations on Barbados and in the Southern Atlantic. The depolarization ratio for these probably cubic sea salt particles has been measured at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously for the first time and compared to model simulations.

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The unprecedented 2017–2018 stratospheric smoke event: decay phase and aerosol properties observed with the EARLINET

2019, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Ohneiser, Kevin, Haarig, Moritz, Engelmann, Ronny, Althausen, Dietrich, Hanssen, Ingrid, Gausa, Michael, Pietruczuk, Aleksander, Szkop, Artur, Stachlewska, Iwona S., Wang, Dongxiang, Reichardt, Jens, Skupin, Annett, Mattis, Ina, Trickl, Thomas, Vogelmann, Hannes, Navas-Guzmán, Francisco, Haefele, Alexander, Acheson, Karen, Ruth, Albert A., Tatarov, Boyan, Müller, Detlef, Hu, Qiaoyun, Podvin, Thierry, Goloub, Philippe, Veselovskii, Igor, Pietras, Christophe, Haeffelin, Martial, Fréville, Patrick, Sicard, Michaël, Comerón, Adolfo, García, Alfonso Javier Fernández, Molero Menéndez, Francisco, Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen, Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis, Alados-Arboledas, Lucas, Bortoli, Daniele, Costa, Maria João, Dionisi, Davide, Liberti, Gian Luigi, Wang, Xuan, Sannino, Alessia, Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos, Boselli, Antonella, Mona, Lucia, D’Amico, Guiseppe, Romano, Salvatore, Perrone, Maria Rita, Belegante, Livio, Nicolae, Doina, Grigorov, Ivan, Gialitaki, Anna, Amiridis, Vassilis, Soupiona, Ourania, Papayannis, Alexandros, Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisaveth, Nisantzi, Argyro, Heese, Birgit, Hofer, Julian, Schechner, Yoav Y., Wandinger, Ulla, Pappalardo, Gelsomina

Six months of stratospheric aerosol observations with the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) from August 2017 to January 2018 are presented. The decay phase of an unprecedented, record-breaking stratospheric perturbation caused by wildfire smoke is reported and discussed in terms of geometrical, optical, and microphysical aerosol properties. Enormous amounts of smoke were injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over fire areas in western Canada on 12 August 2017 during strong thunderstorm–pyrocumulonimbus activity. The stratospheric fire plumes spread over the entire Northern Hemisphere in the following weeks and months. Twenty-eight European lidar stations from northern Norway to southern Portugal and the eastern Mediterranean monitored the strong stratospheric perturbation on a continental scale. The main smoke layer (over central, western, southern, and eastern Europe) was found at heights between 15 and 20 km since September 2017 (about 2 weeks after entering the stratosphere). Thin layers of smoke were detected at heights of up to 22–23 km. The stratospheric aerosol optical thickness at 532 nm decreased from values > 0.25 on 21–23 August 2017 to 0.005–0.03 until 5–10 September and was mainly 0.003–0.004 from October to December 2017 and thus was still significantly above the stratospheric background (0.001–0.002). Stratospheric particle extinction coefficients (532 nm) were as high as 50–200 Mm−1 until the beginning of September and on the order of 1 Mm−1 (0.5–5 Mm−1) from October 2017 until the end of January 2018. The corresponding layer mean particle mass concentration was on the order of 0.05–0.5 µg m−3 over these months. Soot particles (light-absorbing carbonaceous particles) are efficient ice-nucleating particles (INPs) at upper tropospheric (cirrus) temperatures and available to influence cirrus formation when entering the tropopause from above. We estimated INP concentrations of 50–500 L−1 until the first days in September and afterwards 5–50 L−1 until the end of the year 2017 in the lower stratosphere for typical cirrus formation temperatures of −55 ∘C and an ice supersaturation level of 1.15. The measured profiles of the particle linear depolarization ratio indicated a predominance of nonspherical smoke particles. The 532 nm depolarization ratio decreased slowly with time in the main smoke layer from values of 0.15–0.25 (August–September) to values of 0.05–0.10 (October–November) and < 0.05 (December–January). The decrease of the depolarization ratio is consistent with aging of the smoke particles, growing of a coating around the solid black carbon core (aggregates), and thus change of the shape towards a spherical form. We found ascending aerosol layer features over the most southern European stations, especially over the eastern Mediterranean at 32–35∘ N, that ascended from heights of about 18–19 to 22–23 km from the beginning of October to the beginning of December 2017 (about 2 km per month). We discuss several transport and lifting mechanisms that may have had an impact on the found aerosol layering structures.