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Measurements of particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio at 1064 nm with the rotational raman method in Polly-XT

2018, Engelmann, Ronny, Haarig, Moritz, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Kottas, Michael, Marinou, Eleni, Nicolae, D., Makoto, A., Vassilis, A., Balis, D., Behrendt, A., Comeron, A., Gibert, F., Landulfo, E., McCormick, M.P., Senff, C., Veselovskii, I., Wandinger, U.

We replaced a 1064-nm interference filter of a Polly-XT lidar system by a 1058-nm filter to observe pure rotational Raman backscattering from atmospheric Nitrogen and Oxygen. Polly-XT is compact Raman lidar with a Nd:YAG laser (20 Hz, 200 mJ at 1064 nm) and a 30-cm telescope mirror which applies photomultipliers in photoncounting mode. We present the first measured signals at 1058 nm and the derived extinction profile from measurements aboard RV Polarstern and in Leipzig. In combination with another Polly-XT system we could also derive particle backscatter and lidar ratio profiles at 1064 nm.

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Ice nucleating particles over the Eastern Mediterranean measured by unmanned aircraft systems

2017, Schrod, Jann, Weber, Daniel, Drücke, Jaqueline, Keleshis, Christos, Pikridas, Michael, Ebert, Martin, Cvetković, Bojan, Nickovic, Slobodan, Marinou, Eleni, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Vrekoussis, Mihalis, Mihalopoulos, Nikos, Sciare, Jean, Curtius, Joachim, Bingemer, Heinz G.

During an intensive field campaign on aerosol, clouds, and ice nucleation in the Eastern Mediterranean in April 2016, we measured the abundance of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the lower troposphere from unmanned aircraft systems (UASs). Aerosol samples were collected by miniaturized electrostatic precipitators onboard the UASs at altitudes up to 2.5 km. The number of INPs in these samples, which are active in the deposition and condensation modes at temperatures from -20 to -30 °C, were analyzed immediately after collection on site using the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE (FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment). During the 1-month campaign, we encountered a series of Saharan dust plumes that traveled at several kilometers' altitude. Here we present INP data from 42 individual flights, together with aerosol number concentrations, observations of lidar backscattering, dust concentrations derived by the dust transport model DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model), and results from scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the dust plumes is reflected by the coincidence of INPs with the particulate matter (PM), the lidar signal, and the predicted dust mass of the model. This suggests that mineral dust or a constituent related to dust was a major contributor to the ice nucleating properties of the aerosol. Peak concentrations of above 100 INPs std L-1 were measured at -30 °C. The INP concentration in elevated plumes was on average a factor of 10 higher than at ground level. Since desert dust is transported for long distances over wide areas of the globe predominantly at several kilometers' altitude, we conclude that INP measurements at ground level may be of limited significance for the situation at the level of cloud formation.

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Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events

2018, Mamali, Dimitra, Marinou, Eleni, Sciare, Jean, Pikridas, Michael, Kokkalis, Panagiotis, Kottas, Michael, Binietoglou, Ioannis, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Keleshis, Christos, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Amiridis, Vassilis, Russchenberg, Herman, Biskos, George

In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 μm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.

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EARLINET evaluation of the CATS Level 2 aerosol backscatter coefficient product

2019, Proestakis, Emmanouil, Amiridis, Vassilis, Marinou, Eleni, Binietoglou, Ioannis, Ansmann, Albert, Wandinger, Ulla, Hofer, Julian, Yorks, John, Nowottnick, Edward, Makhmudov, Abduvosit, Papayannis, Alexandros, Pietruczuk, Aleksander, Gialitaki, Anna, Apituley, Arnoud, Szkop, Artur, Muñoz Porcar, Constantino, Bortoli, Daniele, Dionisi, Davide, Althausen, Dietrich, Mamali, Dimitra, Balis, Dimitris, Nicolae, Doina, Tetoni, Eleni, Liberti, Gian Luigi, Baars, Holger, Mattis, Ina, Stachlewska, Iwona Sylwia, Voudouri, Kalliopi Artemis, Mona, Lucia, Mylonaki, Maria, Perrone, Maria Rita, Costa, Maria João, Sicard, Michael, Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos, Siomos, Nikolaos, Burlizzi, Pasquale, Pauly, Rebecca, Engelmann, Ronny, Abdullaev, Sabur, Pappalardo, Gelsomina

We present the evaluation activity of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) for the quantitative assessment of the Level 2 aerosol backscatter coefficient product derived by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS; Rodier et al., 2015). The study employs correlative CATS and EARLINET backscatter measurements within a 50km distance between the ground station and the ISS overpass and as close in time as possible, typically with the starting time or stopping time of the EARLINET performed measurement time window within 90min of the ISS overpass, for the period from February 2015 to September 2016. The results demonstrate the good agreement of the CATS Level 2 backscatter coefficient and EARLINET. Three ISS overpasses close to the EARLINET stations of Leipzig, Germany; Évora, Portugal; and Dushanbe, Tajikistan, are analyzed here to demonstrate the performance of the CATS lidar system under different conditions. The results show that under cloud-free, relative homogeneous aerosol conditions, CATS is in good agreement with EARLINET, independent of daytime and nighttime conditions. CATS low negative biases are observed, partially attributed to the deficiency of lidar systems to detect tenuous aerosol layers of backscatter signal below the minimum detection thresholds; these are biases which may lead to systematic deviations and slight underestimations of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in climate studies. In addition, CATS misclassification of aerosol layers as clouds, and vice versa, in cases of coexistent and/or adjacent aerosol and cloud features, occasionally leads to non-representative, unrealistic, and cloud-contaminated aerosol profiles. Regarding solar illumination conditions, low negative biases in CATS backscatter coefficient profiles, of the order of 6.1%, indicate the good nighttime performance of CATS. During daytime, a reduced signal-to-noise ratio by solar background illumination prevents retrievals of weakly scattering atmospheric layers that would otherwise be detectable during nighttime, leading to higher negative biases, of the order of 22.3%. © Author(s) 2019.

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Observation of Arabian and Saharan dust in Cyprus with a new generation of the smart Raman lidar Polly

2016, Engelmann, Ronny, Ansmann, Albert, Bühl, Johannes, Heese, Birgit, Baars, Holger, Althausen, Dietrich, Marinou, Eleni, Amiridis, Vassilis, Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet, Vrekoussis, Mihalis

The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the “3+2” measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].

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Is the near-spherical shape the "new black" for smoke?

2020, Gialitaki, Anna, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Amiridis, Vassilis, Ceolato, Romain, Paulien, Lucas, Kampouri, Anna, Gkikas, Antonis, Solomos, Stavros, Marinou, Eleni, Haarig, Moritz, Baars, Holger, Ansmann, Albert, Lapyonok, Tatyana, Lopatin, Anton, Dubovik, Oleg, Groß, Silke, Wirth, Martin, Tsichla, Maria, Tsikoudi, Ioanna, Balis, Dimitris

We examine the capability of near-sphericalshaped particles to reproduce the triple-wavelength particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR) and lidar ratio (LR) values measured over Europe for stratospheric smoke originating from Canadian wildfires. The smoke layers were detected both in the troposphere and the stratosphere, though in the latter case the particles presented PLDR values of almost 18% at 532 nm as well as a strong spectral dependence from the UV to the near-IR wavelength. Although recent simulation studies of rather complicated smoke particle morphologies have shown that heavily coated smoke aggregates can produce large PLDR, herein we propose a much simpler model of compact near-spherical smoke particles. This assumption allows for the reproduction of the observed intensive optical properties of stratospheric smoke, as well as their spectral dependence. We further examine whether an extension of the current Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) scattering model to include the near-spherical shapes could be of benefit to the AERONET retrieval for stratospheric smoke cases associated with enhanced PLDR. Results of our study illustrate the fact that triple-wavelength PLDR and LR lidar measurements can provide us with additional insight when it comes to particle characterization. © 2020 Author(s).

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Application of the Garrlic algorithm for the characterization of dust and marine particles utilizing the lidar-sunphotometer synergy

2016, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Amiridis, Vassilis, Lopatin, Anton, Marinou, Eleni, Kokkalis, Panos, Solomos, Stavros, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Wandinger, Ulla, Ansmann, Albert, Schüttemeyer, Dirk, Dubovik, Oleg

The importance of studying the vertical distribution of aerosol plumes is prominent in regional and climate studies. The new Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) provides this opportunity combining active and passive ground-based remote sensing from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Here, we utilize GARRLiC capabilities for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles at the Eastern Mediterranean region during the Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp). Two different case studies are presented, a dust-dominated case which we managed to characterize successfully in terms of the particle microphysical properties and their vertical distribution and a case of two separate layers of marine and dust particles for which the characterization proved to be more challenging.

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Lidar Ice nuclei estimates and how they relate with airborne in-situ measurements

2018, Marinou, Eleni, Amiridis, Vassilis, Ansmann, Albert, Nenes, Athanasios, Balis, Dimitris, Schrod, Jann, Binietoglou, Ioannis, Solomos, Stavros, Mamali, Dimitra, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Kottas, Michael, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Proestakis, Emmanouil, Kokkalis, Panagiotis, Goloub, Philippe, Cvetkovic, Bojan, Nichovic, Slobodan, Mamouri, Rodanthi, Pikridas, Michael, Stavroulas, Iasonas, Keleshis, Christos, Sciare, Jean

By means of available ice nucleating particle (INP) parameterization schemes we compute profiles of dust INP number concentration utilizing Polly-XT and CALIPSO lidar observations during the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS 2016 campaign. The polarization-lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method is used to separate dust and non-dust aerosol backscatter, extinction, mass concentration, particle number concentration (for particles with radius > 250 nm) and surface area concentration. The INP final products are compared with aerosol samples collected from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and analyzed using the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE.

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GARRLiC and LIRIC: Strengths and limitations for the characterization of dust and marine particles along with their mixtures

2017, Tsekeri, Alexandra, Lopatin, Anton, Amiridis, Vassilis, Marinou, Eleni, Igloffstein, Julia, Siomos, Nikolaos, Solomos, Stavros, Kokkalis, Panagiotis, Engelmann, Ronny, Baars, Holger, Gratsea, Myrto, Raptis, Panagiotis I., Binietoglou, Ioannis, Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos, Kalivitis, Nikolaos, Kouvarakis, Giorgos, Bartsotas, Nikolaos, Kallos, George, Basart, Sara, Schuettemeyer, Dirk, Wandinger, Ulla, Ansmann, Albert, Chaikovsky, Anatoli P., Dubovik, Oleg

The Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) and the LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) provide the opportunity to study the aerosol vertical distribution by combining ground-based lidar and sun-photometric measurements. Here, we utilize the capabilities of both algorithms for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles, along with their mixtures, in the south-eastern Mediterranean during the CHARacterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust and Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp). Three case studies are presented, focusing on dust-dominated, marinedominated and dust-marine mixing conditions. GARRLiC and LIRIC achieve a satisfactory characterization for the dust-dominated case in terms of particle microphysical properties and concentration profiles. The marine-dominated and the mixture cases are more challenging for both algorithms, although GARRLiC manages to provide more detailed microphysical retrievals compared to AERONET, while LIRIC effectively discriminates dust and marine particles in its concentration profile retrievals. The results are also compared with modelled dust and marine concentration profiles and surface in situ measurements.

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The automated multiwavelength Raman polarization and water-vapor lidar PollyXT: The neXT generation

2016, Engelmann, Ronny, Kanitz, Thomas, Baars, Holger, Heese, Birgit, Althausen, Dietrich, Skupin, Annett, Wandinger, Ulla, Komppula, Mika, Stachlewska, Iwona S., Amiridis, Vassilis, Marinou, Eleni, Mattis, Ina, Linné, Holger, Ansmann, Albert

The atmospheric science community demands autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. For this purpose, a portable lidar called Polly was developed at TROPOS in 2003. The lidar system was continuously improved with gained experience from the EARLINET community, involvement in worldwide field campaigns, and international institute collaborations within the last 10 years. Here we present recent changes of the setup of the portable multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar PollyXT and discuss the improved capabilities of the system by means of a case study. The latest system developments include an additional near-range receiver unit for Raman measurements of the backscatter and extinction coefficient down to 120 m above ground, a water-vapor channel, and channels for simultaneous measurements of the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm. Quality improvements were achieved by systematically following the EARLINET guidelines and the international PollyNET quality assurance developments. A modified ship radar ensures measurements in agreement with air-traffic safety regulations and allows for 24∕7 monitoring of the atmospheric state with PollyXT.