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    The vertical aerosol type distribution above Israel – 2 years of lidar observations at the coastal city of Haifa
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Heese, Birgit; Floutsi, Athena Augusta; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Herzog, Alina; Mewes, Silke; Radenz, Martin; Schechner, Yoav Y.
    For the first time, vertically resolved long-term lidar measurements of the aerosol distribution were conducted in Haifa, Israel. The measurements were performed by a PollyXT multi-wavelength Raman and polarization lidar. The lidar was measuring continuously over a 2-year period from March 2017 to May 2019. The resulting data set is a series of manually evaluated lidar optical property profiles. To identify the aerosol types in the observed layers, a novel aerosol typing method that was developed at TROPOS is used. This method applies optimal estimation to a combination of lidar-derived intensive aerosol properties to determine the statistically most-likely contribution per aerosol component in terms of relative volume. A case study that shows several elevated aerosol layers illustrates this method and shows, for example, that coarse dust particles are observed up to 5ĝ€¯km height over Israel. From the whole data set, the seasonal distribution of the observed aerosol components over Israel is derived. Throughout all seasons, coarse spherical particles like sea salt and hygroscopically grown continental aerosol were observed. These particles originate from continental Europe and were transported over the Mediterranean Sea. Sea-salt particles were observed frequently due to the coastal site of Haifa. The highest contributions of coarse spherical particles are present in summer, autumn, and winter. During spring, mostly coarse non-spherical particles that are attributed to desert dust were observed. This is consistent with the distinct dust season in spring in Israel. An automated time-height-resolved air mass source attribution method identifies the origin of the dust in the Sahara and the Arabian deserts. Fine-mode spherical particles contribute significantly to the observed aerosol mixture during all seasons. These particles originate mainly from the industrial region at the bay of Haifa.
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    Long-term profiling of aerosol light extinction, particle mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice-nucleating particle concentration over Dushanbe, Tajikistan, in Central Asia
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Hofer, Julian; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.
    For the first time, continuous, vertically resolved long-term aerosol measurements were conducted with a state-of-the-art multiwavelength lidar over a Central Asian site. Such observations are urgently required in efforts to predict future climate and environmental conditions and to support spaceborne remote sensing (ground truth activities). The lidar observations were performed in the framework of the Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX) at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, from March 2015 to August 2016. An AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometer was operated at the lidar field site. During the 18-month campaign, mixtures of continental aerosol pollution and mineral dust were frequently detected from ground to cirrus height level. Regional sources of dust and pollution as well as long-range transport of mineral dust mainly from Middle Eastern and the Saharan deserts determine the aerosol conditions over Tajikistan. In this study, we summarize our findings and present seasonally resolved statistics regarding aerosol layering (main aerosol layer depth, lofted layer occurrence); optical properties (aerosol and dust optical thicknesses at 500–532 nm, vertically resolved light-extinction coefficient at 532 nm); profiles of dust and non-dust mass concentrations and dust fraction; and profiles of particle parameters relevant for liquid water, mixed-phase cloud, and cirrus formation such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. The main aerosol layer over Dushanbe typically reaches 4–5 km height in spring to autumn. Frequently lofted dust-containing aerosol layers were observed at heights from 5 to 10 km, indicating a sensitive potential of dust to influence cloud ice formation. Typical dust mass fractions were of the order of 60 %–80 %. A considerable fraction is thus anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning smoke. The highest aerosol pollution levels (in the relatively shallow winter boundary layer) occur during the winter months. The seasonal mean 500 nm AOT (aerosol optical thickness) ranges from 0.15 in winter to 0.36 in summer during the CADEX period (March 2015 to August 2016); DOTs (dust optical thicknesses) were usually below 0.2; seasonally mean particle extinction coefficients were of the order of 100–500 Mm−1 in the main aerosol layer during the summer half year and about 100–150 Mm−1 in winter but were mainly caused by anthropogenic haze. Accordingly, the highest dust mass concentrations occurred in the summer season (200–600 µg m−3) and the lowest during the winter months (20–50 µg m−3) in the main aerosol layer. In winter, the aerosol pollution mass concentrations were 20–50 µg m−3, while during the summer half year (spring to autumn), the mass concentration caused by urban haze and biomass burning smoke decreases to 10–20 µg m−3 in the lower troposphere. The CCN concentration levels are always controlled by aerosol pollution. The INP concentrations were found to be high enough in the middle and upper troposphere to significantly influence ice formation in mixed-phase and ice clouds during spring and summer seasons.
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    First triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dus
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamin; Althausen, Dietrich; Radenz, Martin; Wandinger, Ulla
    Two layers of Saharan dust observed over Leipzig, Germany, in February and March 2021 were used to provide the first-ever lidar measurements of the dust lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) and linear depolarization ratio at all three classical lidar wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064gnm). The pure-dust conditions during the first event exhibit lidar ratios of 47g±g8, 50g±g5 and 69g±g14gsr and particle linear depolarization ratios of 0.242g±g0.024, 0.299g±g0.018 and 0.206g±g0.010 at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The second, slightly polluted-dust case shows a similar spectral behavior of the lidar and depolarization ratio with values of the lidar ratio of 49g±g4, 46g±g5 and 57g±g9gsr and the depolarization ratio of 0.174g±g0.041, 0.298g±g0.016 and 0.242g±g0.007 at 355, 532 and 1064gnm, respectively. The results were compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) version 3 (v3) inversion solutions and the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) at six and seven wavelengths. Both retrieval schemes make use of a spheroid shape model for mineral dust. The spectral slope of the lidar ratio from 532 to 1064gnm could be well reproduced by the AERONET and GRASP retrieval schemes. Higher lidar ratios in the UV were retrieved by AERONET and GRASP. The enhancement was probably caused by the influence of fine-mode pollution particles in the boundary layer which are included in the columnar photometer measurements. Significant differences between the measured and retrieved wavelength dependence of the particle linear depolarization ratio were found. The potential sources for these uncertainties are discussed.
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    Optical properties of Central Asian aerosol relevant for spaceborne lidar applications and aerosol typing at 355 and 532nm
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Hofer, Julian; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Wandinger, Ulla; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.
    For the first time, a dense data set of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios), linear depolarization ratios, and backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents for a Central Asian site are presented. The observations were performed with a continuously running multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, during an 18-month campaign (March 2015 to August 2016). The presented seasonally resolved observations fill an important gap in the database of aerosol optical properties used in aerosol typing efforts with spaceborne lidars and ground-based lidar networks. Lidar ratios and depolarization ratios are also basic input parameters in spaceborne lidar data analyses and in efforts to harmonize long-term observations with different space lidar systems operated at either 355 or 532 nm. As a general result, the found optical properties reflect the large range of occurring aerosol mixtures consisting of long-range-transported dust (from the Middle East and the Sahara), regional desert, soil, and salt dust, and anthropogenic pollution. The full range from highly polluted to pure dust situations could be observed. Typical dust depolarization ratios of 0.23–0.29 (355 nm) and 0.30–0.35 (532 nm) were observed. In contrast, comparably low lidar ratios were found. Dust lidar ratios at 532 nm accumulated around 35–40 sr and were even lower for regional background dust conditions (20–30 sr). Detailed correlation studies (e.g., lidar ratio vs. depolarization ratios, Ångström exponent vs. lidar ratio and vs. depolarization ratio) are presented to illuminate the complex relationships between the observed optical properties and to identify the contributions of anthropogenic haze, dust, and background aerosol to the overall aerosol mixtures found within the 18-month campaign. The observation of 532 nm lidar ratios (<25 sr) and depolarization ratios (around 15 %–20 %) in layers with very low particle extinction coefficient (<30 sr) suggests that direct emission and emission of resuspended salt dust (initially originated from numerous desiccating lakes and the Aralkum desert) have a sensitive impact on the aerosol background optical properties over Dushanbe.
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    Wildfire smoke, Arctic haze, and aerosol effects on mixed-phase and cirrus clouds over the North Pole region during MOSAiC: an introduction
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Ohneiser, Kevin; Griesche, Hannes; Radenz, Martin; Hofer, Julian; Althausen, Dietrich; Dahlke, Sandro; Maturilli, Marion; Veselovskii, Igor; Jimenez, Cristofer; Wiesen, Robert; Baars, Holger; Bühl, Johannes; Gebauer, Henriette; Haarig, Moritz; Seifert, Patric; Wandinger, Ulla; Macke, Andreas
    An advanced multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar was operated aboard the icebreaker Polarstern during the MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate) expedition to continuously monitor aerosol and cloud layers in the central Arctic up to 30gkm height. The expedition lasted from September 2019 to October 2020 and measurements were mostly taken between 85 and 88.5ggN. The lidar was integrated into a complex remote-sensing infrastructure aboard the Polarstern. In this article, novel lidar techniques, innovative concepts to study aerosol-cloud interaction in the Arctic, and unique MOSAiC findings will be presented. The highlight of the lidar measurements was the detection of a 10gkm deep wildfire smoke layer over the North Pole region between 7-8gkm and 17-18gkm height with an aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 532gnm of around 0.1 (in October-November 2019) and 0.05 from December to March. The dual-wavelength Raman lidar technique allowed us to unambiguously identify smoke as the dominating aerosol type in the aerosol layer in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). An additional contribution to the 532gnm AOT by volcanic sulfate aerosol (Raikoke eruption) was estimated to always be lower than 15g%. The optical and microphysical properties of the UTLS smoke layer are presented in an accompanying paper . This smoke event offered the unique opportunity to study the influence of organic aerosol particles (serving as ice-nucleating particles, INPs) on cirrus formation in the upper troposphere. An example of a closure study is presented to explain our concept of investigating aerosol-cloud interaction in this field. The smoke particles were obviously able to control the evolution of the cirrus system and caused low ice crystal number concentration. After the discussion of two typical Arctic haze events, we present a case study of the evolution of a long-lasting mixed-phase cloud layer embedded in Arctic haze in the free troposphere. The recently introduced dual-field-of-view polarization lidar technique was applied, for the first time, to mixed-phase cloud observations in order to determine the microphysical properties of the water droplets. The mixed-phase cloud closure experiment (based on combined lidar and radar observations) indicated that the observed aerosol levels controlled the number concentrations of nucleated droplets and ice crystals.
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    Smoke of extreme Australian bushfires observed in the stratosphere over Punta Arenas, Chile, in January 2020 : optical thickness, lidar ratios, and depolarization ratios at 355 and 532nm
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Ohneiser, Kevin; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Seifert, Patric; Barja, Boris; Jimenez, Cristofer; Radenz, Martin; Teisseire, Audrey; Floutsi, Athina; Haarig, Moritz; Foth, Andreas; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Engelmann, Ronny; Zamorano, Félix; Bühl, Johannes; Wandinger, Ulla
    We present particle optical properties of stratospheric smoke layers observed with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar over Punta Arenas (53.2∘ S, 70.9∘ W), Chile, at the southernmost tip of South America in January 2020. The smoke originated from the record-breaking bushfires in Australia. The stratospheric aerosol optical thickness reached values up to 0.85 at 532 nm in mid-January 2020. The main goal of this rapid communication letter is to provide first stratospheric measurements of smoke extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios) and particle linear depolarization ratios at 355 and 532 nm wavelengths. These aerosol parameters are important input parameters in the analysis of spaceborne CALIPSO and Aeolus lidar observations of the Australian smoke spreading over large parts of the Southern Hemisphere in January and February 2020 up to heights of around 30 km. Lidar and depolarization ratios, simultaneously measured at 355 and 532 nm, are of key importance regarding the homogenization of the overall Aeolus (355 nm wavelength) and CALIPSO (532 nm wavelength) lidar data sets documenting the spread of the smoke and the decay of the stratospheric perturbation, which will be observable over the entire year of 2020. We found typical values and spectral dependencies of the lidar ratio and linear depolarization ratio for aged stratospheric smoke. At 355 nm, the lidar ratio and depolarization ratio ranged from 53 to 97 sr (mean 71 sr) and 0.2 to 0.26 (mean 0.23), respectively. At 532 nm, the lidar ratios were higher (75–112 sr, mean 97 sr) and the depolarization ratios were lower with values of 0.14–0.22 (mean 0.18). The determined depolarization ratios for aged Australian smoke are in very good agreement with respective ones for aged Canadian smoke, observed with lidar in stratospheric smoke layers over central Europe in the summer of 2017. The much higher 532 nm lidar ratios, however, indicate stronger absorption by the Australian smoke particles.
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    Is the near-spherical shape the "new black" for smoke?
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Gialitaki, Anna; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Ceolato, Romain; Paulien, Lucas; Kampouri, Anna; Gkikas, Antonis; Solomos, Stavros; Marinou, Eleni; Haarig, Moritz; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Lopatin, Anton; Dubovik, Oleg; Groß, Silke; Wirth, Martin; Tsichla, Maria; Tsikoudi, Ioanna; Balis, Dimitris
    We examine the capability of near-sphericalshaped particles to reproduce the triple-wavelength particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR) and lidar ratio (LR) values measured over Europe for stratospheric smoke originating from Canadian wildfires. The smoke layers were detected both in the troposphere and the stratosphere, though in the latter case the particles presented PLDR values of almost 18% at 532 nm as well as a strong spectral dependence from the UV to the near-IR wavelength. Although recent simulation studies of rather complicated smoke particle morphologies have shown that heavily coated smoke aggregates can produce large PLDR, herein we propose a much simpler model of compact near-spherical smoke particles. This assumption allows for the reproduction of the observed intensive optical properties of stratospheric smoke, as well as their spectral dependence. We further examine whether an extension of the current Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) scattering model to include the near-spherical shapes could be of benefit to the AERONET retrieval for stratospheric smoke cases associated with enhanced PLDR. Results of our study illustrate the fact that triple-wavelength PLDR and LR lidar measurements can provide us with additional insight when it comes to particle characterization. © 2020 Author(s).
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    Experimental assessment of a micro-pulse lidar system in comparison with reference lidar measurements for aerosol optical properties retrieval
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Ansmann, Albert; Jiménez, Cristofer; Baars, Holger; López-Cayuela, María-Ángeles; Engelmann, Ronny
    Simultaneous observations of a polarized micro-pulse lidar (P-MPL) system and two reference European Aerosol Research Lidar Network lidars running at the Leipzig site Germany, 51.4g gN, 12.4g gE; 125gmga.s.l.) were performed during a comprehensive 2-month field intercomparison campaign in summer 2019. An experimental assessment regarding both the overlap (OVP) correction of the P-MPL signal profiles and the volume linear depolarization ratio (VLDR) analysis, together with its impact on the retrieval of the aerosol optical properties, is achieved; the experimental procedure used is also described. The optimal lidar-specific OVP function is experimentally determined, highlighting that the one delivered by the P-MPL manufacturer cannot be used long. Among the OVP functions examined, the averaged function between those obtained from the comparison of the P-MPL observations with those of the other two reference lidars seems to be the best proxy at both near- and far-field ranges. In addition, the impact of the OVP function on the accuracy of the retrieved profiles of the total particle backscatter coefficient (PBC) and the particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR) is examined. The VLDR profile is obtained and compared with that derived from the reference lidar, showing that it needs to be corrected by a small offset value with good accuracy. Once P-MPL measurements are optimally (OVP, VLDR) corrected, both the PBC and PLDR profiles can be accurately derived and are in good agreement with reference aerosol retrievals. Overall, as a systematic requirement for lidar systems, an adequate OVP function determination and VLDR testing analysis needs to be performed on a regular basis to correct the P-MPL measurements in order to derive suitable aerosol products. A dust event observed in Leipzig in June 2019 is used for illustration.
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    An EARLINET early warning system for atmospheric aerosol aviation hazards
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; D’Amico, Giuseppe; Gialitaki, Anna; Ajtai, Nicolae; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Amodeo, Aldo; Amiridis, Vassilis; Baars, Holger; Balis, Dimitris; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Comerón, Adolfo; Dionisi, Davide; Falconieri, Alfredo; Fréville, Patrick; Kampouri, Anna; Mattis, Ina; Mijić, Zoran; Molero, Francisco; Papayannis, Alex; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Rodríguez-Gómez, Alejandro; Solomos, Stavros; Mona, Lucia
    A stand-alone lidar-based method for detecting airborne hazards for aviation in near real time (NRT) is presented. A polarization lidar allows for the identification of irregular-shaped particles such as volcanic dust and desert dust. The Single Calculus Chain (SCC) of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) delivers high-resolution preprocessed data: the calibrated total attenuated backscatter and the calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio time series. From these calibrated lidar signals, the particle backscatter coefficient and the particle depolarization ratio can be derived in temporally high resolution and thus provide the basis of the NRT early warning system (EWS). In particular, an iterative method for the retrieval of the particle backscatter is implemented. This improved capability was designed as a pilot that will produce alerts for imminent threats for aviation. The method is applied to data during two diverse aerosol scenarios: first, a record breaking desert dust intrusion in March 2018 over Finokalia, Greece, and, second, an intrusion of volcanic particles originating from Mount Etna, Italy, in June 2019 over Antikythera, Greece. Additionally, a devoted observational period including several EARLINET lidar systems demonstrates the network's preparedness to offer insight into natural hazards that affect the aviation sector. © 2020 Author(s).
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    Application of the shipborne remote sensing supersite OCEANET for profiling of Arctic aerosols and clouds during Polarstern cruise PS106
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Griesche, Hannes J.; Seifer, Patric; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Velasco, Carola Barrientos; Bühl, Johannes; Engelmann, Ronny; Radenz, Martin; Zhenping, Yin; Macke, Andreas
    From 25 May to 21 July 2017, the research vessel Polarstern performed the cruise PS106 to the high Arctic in the region north and northeast of Svalbard. The mobile remote-sensing platform OCEANET was deployed aboard Polarstern. Within a single container, OCEANET houses state-of-the-art remote-sensing equipment, including a multiwavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a 14-channel microwave radiometer HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler). For the cruise PS106, the measurements were supplemented by a motion-stabilized 35 GHz cloud radar Mira-35. This paper describes the treatment of technical challenges which were immanent during the deployment of OCEANET in the high Arctic. This includes the description of the motion stabilization of the cloud radar Mira-35 to ensure vertical-pointing observations aboard the moving Polarstern as well as the applied correction of the vessels heave rate to provide valid Doppler velocities. The correction ensured a leveling accuracy of ±0.5◦ during transits through the ice and an ice floe camp. The applied heave correction reduced the signal induced by the vertical movement of the cloud radar in the PSD of the Doppler velocity by a factor of 15. Low-level clouds, in addition, frequently prevented a continuous analysis of cloud conditions from synergies of lidar and radar within Cloudnet, because the technically determined lowest detection height of Mira-35 was 165 m above sea level. To overcome this obstacle, an approach for identification of the cloud presence solely based on data from the near-field receiver of PollyXT at heights from 50 m and 165 m above sea level is presented. We found low-level stratus clouds, which were below the lowest detection range of most automatic ground-based remote-sensing instruments during 25 % of the observation time. We present case studies of aerosol and cloud studies to introduce the capabilities of the data set. In addition, new approaches for ice crystal effective radius and eddy dissipation rates from cloud radar measurements and the retrieval of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from the observations of PollyXT are introduced. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.