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    Profiling water vapor mixing ratios in Finland by means of a Raman lidar, a satellite and a model
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2017) Filioglou, Maria; Nikandrova, Anna; Niemelä, Sami; Baars, Holger; Mielonen, Tero; Leskinen, Ari; Brus, David; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Giannakaki, Elina; Komppula, Mika
    We present tropospheric water vapor profiles measured with a Raman lidar during three field campaigns held in Finland. Co-located radio soundings are available throughout the period for the calibration of the lidar signals. We investigate the possibility of calibrating the lidar water vapor profiles in the absence of co-existing on-site soundings using water vapor profiles from the combined Advanced InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) satellite product; the Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement INternational and High Resolution Limited Area Model (ALADIN/HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) system, and the nearest radio sounding station located 100 km away from the lidar site (only for the permanent location of the lidar). The uncertainties of the calibration factor derived from the soundings, the satellite and the model data are < 2.8, 7.4 and 3.9 %, respectively. We also include water vapor mixing ratio intercomparisons between the radio soundings and the various instruments/model for the period of the campaigns. A good agreement is observed for all comparisons with relative errors that do not exceed 50 % up to 8 km altitude in most cases. A 4-year seasonal analysis of vertical water vapor is also presented for the Kuopio site in Finland. During winter months, the air in Kuopio is dry (1.15±0.40 †kg-1); during summer it is wet (5.54±1.02 †kg-1); and at other times, the air is in an intermediate state. These are averaged values over the lowest 2 km in the atmosphere. Above that height a quick decrease in water vapor mixing ratios is observed, except during summer months where favorable atmospheric conditions enable higher mixing ratio values at higher altitudes. Lastly, the seasonal change in disagreement between the lidar and the model has been studied. The analysis showed that, on average, the model underestimates water vapor mixing ratios at high altitudes during spring and summer.
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    Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2017) Baars, Holger; Seifert, Patric; Engelmann, Ronny; Wandinger, Ulla
    Absolute calibrated signals at 532 and 1064 nm and the depolarization ratio from a multiwavelength lidar are used to categorize primary aerosol but also clouds in high temporal and spatial resolution. Automatically derived particle backscatter coefficient profiles in low temporal resolution (30 min) are applied to calibrate the lidar signals. From these calibrated lidar signals, new atmospheric parameters in temporally high resolution (quasi-particle-backscatter coefficients) are derived. By using thresholds obtained from multiyear, multisite EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) measurements, four aerosol classes (small; large, spherical; large, non-spherical; mixed, partly nonspherical) and several cloud classes (liquid, ice) are defined. Thus, particles are classified by their physical features (shape and size) instead of by source. The methodology is applied to 2 months of continuous observations (24 h a day, 7 days a week) with the multiwavelength-Raman-polarization lidar PollyXT during the High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013. Cloudnet equipment was operated continuously directly next to the lidar and is used for comparison. By discussing three 24 h case studies, it is shown that the aerosol discrimination is very feasible and informative and gives a good complement to the Cloudnet target categorization. Performing the categorization for the 2-month data set of the entire HOPE campaign, almost 1 million pixel (5 min×30 m) could be analysed with the newly developed tool. We find that the majority of the aerosol trapped in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was composed of small particles as expected for a heavily populated and industrialized area. Large, spherical aerosol was observed mostly at the top of the PBL and close to the identified cloud bases, indicating the importance of hygroscopic growth of the particles at high relative humidity. Interestingly, it is found that on several days non-spherical particles were dispersed from the ground into the atmosphere.
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    Application of the shipborne remote sensing supersite OCEANET for profiling of Arctic aerosols and clouds during Polarstern cruise PS106
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Griesche, Hannes J.; Seifer, Patric; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Velasco, Carola Barrientos; Bühl, Johannes; Engelmann, Ronny; Radenz, Martin; Zhenping, Yin; Macke, Andreas
    From 25 May to 21 July 2017, the research vessel Polarstern performed the cruise PS106 to the high Arctic in the region north and northeast of Svalbard. The mobile remote-sensing platform OCEANET was deployed aboard Polarstern. Within a single container, OCEANET houses state-of-the-art remote-sensing equipment, including a multiwavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a 14-channel microwave radiometer HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler). For the cruise PS106, the measurements were supplemented by a motion-stabilized 35 GHz cloud radar Mira-35. This paper describes the treatment of technical challenges which were immanent during the deployment of OCEANET in the high Arctic. This includes the description of the motion stabilization of the cloud radar Mira-35 to ensure vertical-pointing observations aboard the moving Polarstern as well as the applied correction of the vessels heave rate to provide valid Doppler velocities. The correction ensured a leveling accuracy of ±0.5◦ during transits through the ice and an ice floe camp. The applied heave correction reduced the signal induced by the vertical movement of the cloud radar in the PSD of the Doppler velocity by a factor of 15. Low-level clouds, in addition, frequently prevented a continuous analysis of cloud conditions from synergies of lidar and radar within Cloudnet, because the technically determined lowest detection height of Mira-35 was 165 m above sea level. To overcome this obstacle, an approach for identification of the cloud presence solely based on data from the near-field receiver of PollyXT at heights from 50 m and 165 m above sea level is presented. We found low-level stratus clouds, which were below the lowest detection range of most automatic ground-based remote-sensing instruments during 25 % of the observation time. We present case studies of aerosol and cloud studies to introduce the capabilities of the data set. In addition, new approaches for ice crystal effective radius and eddy dissipation rates from cloud radar measurements and the retrieval of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from the observations of PollyXT are introduced. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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    Validation of Aeolus wind products above the Atlantic Ocean
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Baars, Holger; Herzog, Alina; Heese, Birgit; Ohneiser, Kevin; Hanbuch, Karsten; Hofer, Julian; Yin, Zhenping; Engelmann, Ronny; Wandinger, Ulla
    In August 2018, the first Doppler wind lidar in space called Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument (ALADIN) was launched on board the satellite Aeolus by the European Space Agency (ESA). Aeolus measures profiles of one horizontal wind component (i.e., mainly the west-east direction) in the troposphere and lower stratosphere on a global basis. Furthermore, profiles of aerosol and cloud properties can be retrieved via the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique. The Aeolus mission is supposed to improve the quality of weather forecasts and the understanding of atmospheric processes. We used the opportunity to perform a unique validation of the wind products of Aeolus by utilizing the RV Polarstern cruise PS116 from Bremerhaven to Cape Town in November/December 2018. Due to concerted course modifications, six direct intersections with the Aeolus ground track could be achieved in the Atlantic Ocean west of the African continent. For the validation of the Aeolus wind products, we launched additional radiosondes and used the EARLINET/ACTRIS lidar Polly XT for atmospheric scene analysis. The six analyzed cases prove that Aeolus is able to measure horizontal wind speeds in the nearly west-east direction. Good agreements with the radiosonde observations could be achieved for both Aeolus wind products-the winds observed in clean atmospheric regions called Rayleigh winds and the winds obtained in cloud layers called Mie winds (according to the responsible scattering regime). Systematic and statistical errors of the Rayleigh winds were less than 1.5 and 3.3ms-1, respectively, when compared to radiosonde values averaged to the vertical resolution of Aeolus. For the Mie winds, a systematic and random error of about 1ms-1 was obtained from the six comparisons in different climate zones. However, it is also shown that the coarse vertical resolution of 2km in the upper troposphere, which was set in this early mission phase 2 months after launch, led to an underestimation of the maximum wind speed in the jet stream regions. In summary, promising first results of the first wind lidar space mission are shown and prove the concept of Aeolus for global wind observations. © 2020 Author(s).
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    Experimental techniques for the calibration of lidar depolarization channels in EARLINET
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Belegante, Livio; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Nemuc, Anca; Ene, Dragos; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Amodeo, Aldo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amato, Francesco; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Papayannis, Alexandros; Kokkalis, Panos; Pereira, Sérgio N.
    Particle depolarization ratio retrieved from lidar measurements are commonly used for aerosol-typing studies, microphysical inversion, or mass concentration retrievals. The particle depolarization ratio is one of the primary parameters that can differentiate several major aerosol components but only if the measurements are accurate enough. The accuracy related to the retrieval of particle depolarization ratios is the driving factor for assessing and improving the uncertainties of the depolarization products. This paper presents different depolarization calibration procedures used to improve the quality of the depolarization data. The results illustrate a significant improvement of the depolarization lidar products for all the selected lidar stations that have implemented depolarization calibration procedures. The calibrated volume and particle depolarization profiles at 532-nm show values that fall within a range that is generally accepted in the literature.
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    GARRLiC and LIRIC: Strengths and limitations for the characterization of dust and marine particles along with their mixtures
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2017) Tsekeri, Alexandra; Lopatin, Anton; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Igloffstein, Julia; Siomos, Nikolaos; Solomos, Stavros; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Gratsea, Myrto; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Bartsotas, Nikolaos; Kallos, George; Basart, Sara; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Chaikovsky, Anatoli P.; Dubovik, Oleg
    The Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) and the LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) provide the opportunity to study the aerosol vertical distribution by combining ground-based lidar and sun-photometric measurements. Here, we utilize the capabilities of both algorithms for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles, along with their mixtures, in the south-eastern Mediterranean during the CHARacterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust and Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp). Three case studies are presented, focusing on dust-dominated, marinedominated and dust-marine mixing conditions. GARRLiC and LIRIC achieve a satisfactory characterization for the dust-dominated case in terms of particle microphysical properties and concentration profiles. The marine-dominated and the mixture cases are more challenging for both algorithms, although GARRLiC manages to provide more detailed microphysical retrievals compared to AERONET, while LIRIC effectively discriminates dust and marine particles in its concentration profile retrievals. The results are also compared with modelled dust and marine concentration profiles and surface in situ measurements.
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    Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Mamali, Dimitra; Marinou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Keleshis, Christos; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Russchenberg, Herman; Biskos, George
    In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 μm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.
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    Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) 1064 nm calibration and validation
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2019) Pauly, Rebecca M.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; McGill, Matthew J.; Amiridis, Vassilis; Palm, Stephen P.; Rodier, Sharon D.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Selmer, Patrick A.; Kupchock, Andrew W.; Baars, Holger; Gialitaki, Anna
    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) lidar on board the International Space Station (ISS) operated from 10 February 2015 to 30 October 2017 providing range-resolved vertical backscatter profiles of Earth's atmosphere at 1064 and 532 nm. The CATS instrument design and ISS orbit lead to a higher 1064 nm signal-to-noise ratio than previous space-based lidars, allowing for direct atmospheric calibration of the 1064 nm signals. Nighttime CATS version 3-00 data were calibrated by scaling the measured data to a model of the expected atmospheric backscatter between 22 and 26 km a.m.s.l. (above mean sea level). The CATS atmospheric model is constructed using molecular backscatter profiles derived from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data and aerosol scattering ratios measured by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The nighttime normalization altitude region was chosen to simultaneously minimize aerosol loading and variability within the CATS data frame, which extends from 28 to −2 km a.m.s.l. Daytime CATS version 3-00 data were calibrated through comparisons with nighttime measurements of the layer-integrated attenuated total backscatter (iATB) from strongly scattering, rapidly attenuating opaque cirrus clouds. The CATS nighttime 1064 nm attenuated total backscatter (ATB) uncertainties for clouds and aerosols are primarily related to the uncertainties in the CATS nighttime calibration technique, which are estimated to be ∼9  %. Median CATS V3-00 1064 nm ATB relative uncertainty at night within cloud and aerosol layers is 7 %, slightly lower than these calibration uncertainty estimates. CATS median daytime 1064 nm ATB relative uncertainty is 21 % in cloud and aerosol layers, similar to the estimated 16 %–18 % uncertainty in the CATS daytime cirrus cloud calibration transfer technique. Coincident daytime comparisons between CATS and the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) during the CATS-CALIPSO Airborne Validation Experiment (CCAVE) project show good agreement in mean ATB profiles for clear-air regions. Eight nighttime comparisons between CATS and the PollyXT ground-based lidars also show good agreement in clear-air regions between 3 and 12 km, with CATS having a mean ATB of 19.7 % lower than PollyXT. Agreement between the two instruments (∼7 %) is even better within an aerosol layer. Six-month comparisons of nighttime ATB values between CATS and CALIOP also show that iATB comparisons of opaque cirrus clouds agree to within 19 %. Overall, CATS has demonstrated that direct calibration of the 1064 nm channel is possible from a space-based lidar using the atmospheric normalization technique.
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    Separation of the optical and mass features of particle components in different aerosol mixtures by using POLIPHON retrievals in synergy with continuous polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sicard, Michaël; Ansmann, Albert; del Águila, Ana; Baars, Holger
    The application of the POLIPHON (POlarization-LIdar PHOtometer Networking) method is presented for the first time in synergy with continuous 24/7 polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements to derive the vertical separation of two or three particle components in different aerosol mixtures, and the retrieval of their particular optical properties. The procedure of extinction-to-mass conversion, together with an analysis of the mass extinction efficiency (MEE) parameter, is described, and the relative mass contribution of each aerosol component is also derived in a further step. The general POLIPHON algorithm is based on the specific particle linear depolarization ratio given for different types of aerosols and can be run in either 1-step (POL-1) or 2 steps (POL-2) versions with dependence on either the 2- or 3-component separation. In order to illustrate this procedure, aerosol mixing cases observed over Barcelona (NE Spain) are selected: a dust event on 5 July 2016, smoke plumes detected on 23 May 2016 and a pollination episode observed on 23 March 2016. In particular, the 3-component separation is just applied for the dust case: a combined POL-1 with POL-2 procedure (POL-1/2) is used, and additionally the fine-dust contribution to the total fine mode (fine dust plus non-dust aerosols) is estimated. The high dust impact before 12:00 UTC yields a mean mass loading of 0.6±0.1 g m'2 due to the prevalence of Saharan coarse-dust particles. After that time, the mean mass loading is reduced by two-thirds, showing a rather weak dust incidence. In the smoke case, the arrival of fine biomass-burning particles is detected at altitudes as high as 7 km. The smoke particles, probably mixed with less depolarizing non-smoke aerosols, are observed in air masses, having their origin from either North American fires or the Arctic area, as reported by HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis. The particle linear depolarization ratio for smoke shows values in the 0.10-0.15 range and even higher at given times, and the daily mean smoke mass loading is 0.017±0.008 g m'2, around 3 % of that found for the dust event. Pollen particles are detected up to 1.5 km in height from 10:00 UTC during an intense pollination event with a particle linear depolarization ratio ranging between 0.10 and 0.15. The maximal mass loading of Platanus pollen particles is 0.011±0.003 g m'2, representing around 2 % of the dust loading during the higher dust incidence. Regarding the MEE derived for each aerosol component, their values are in agreement with others referenced in the literature for the specific aerosol types examined in this work: 0.5±0.1 and 1.7±0.2 m2 g'1 are found for coarse and fine dust particles, 4.5±1.4 m2 g'1 is derived for smoke and 2.4±0.5 m2 g'1 for non-smoke aerosols with Arctic origin, and a MEE of 2.4±0.8 m2 g'1 is obtained for pollen particles, though it can reach higher or lower values depending on predominantly smaller or larger pollen grain sizes. Results reveal the high potential of the P-MPL system, a simple polarization-sensitive elastic backscatter lidar working in a 24/7 operation mode, to retrieve the relative optical and mass contributions of each aerosol component throughout the day, reflecting the daily variability of their properties. In fact, this procedure can be simply implemented in other P-MPLs that also operate within the worldwide Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), thus extending the aerosol discrimination at a global scale. Moreover, the method has the advantage of also being relatively easily applicable to space-borne lidars with an equivalent configuration such as the ongoing Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board NASA CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) and the forthcoming Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) on board the ESA EarthCARE mission.
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    On the application and grid-size sensitivity of the urban dispersion model CAIRDIO v2.0 under real city weather conditions
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Weger, Michael; Baars, Holger; Gebauer, Henriette; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Heinold, Bernd
    There is a gap between the need for city-wide air-quality simulations considering the intra-urban variability and mircoscale dispersion features and the computational capacities that conventional urban microscale models require. This gap can be bridged by targeting model applications on the gray zone situated between the mesoscale and large-eddy scale. The urban dispersion model CAIRDIO is a new contribution to the class of computational-fluid dynamics models operating in this scale range. It uses a diffuse-obstacle boundary method to represent buildings as physical obstacles at gray-zone resolutions in the order of tens of meters. The main objective of this approach is to find an acceptable compromise between computationally inexpensive grid sizes for spatially comprehensive applications and the required accuracy in the description of building and boundary-layer effects. In this paper, CAIRDIO is applied on the simulation of black carbon and particulate matter dispersion for an entire mid-size city using a uniform horizontal grid spacing of 40gm. For model evaluation, measurements from five operational air monitoring stations representative for the urban background and high-traffic roads are used. The comparison also includes the mesoscale host simulation, which provides the boundary conditions. The measurements show a dominant influence of the mixing layer evolution at background sites, and therefore both the mesoscale and large-eddy simulation (LES) results are in good agreement with the observed air pollution levels. In contrast, at the high-traffic sites the proximity to emissions and the interactions with the building environment lead to a significantly amplified diurnal variability in pollutant concentrations. These urban road conditions can only be reasonably well represented by CAIRDIO while the meosocale simulation indiscriminately reproduces a typical urban-background profile, resulting in a large positive model bias. Remaining model discrepancies are further addressed by a grid-spacing sensitivity study using offline-nested refined domains. The results show that modeled peak concentrations within street canyons can be further improved by decreasing the horizontal grid spacing down to 10gm, but not beyond. Obviously, the default grid spacing of 40gm is too coarse to represent the specific environment within narrow street canyons. The accuracy gains from the grid refinements are still only modest compared to the remaining model error, which to a large extent can be attributed to uncertainties in the emissions. Finally, the study shows that the proposed gray-scale modeling is a promising downscaling approach for urban air-quality applications. The results, however, also show that aspects other than the actual resolution of flow patterns and numerical effects can determine the simulations at the urban microscale.