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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
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    EARLINET instrument intercomparison campaigns: Overview on strategy and results
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Wandinger, Ulla; Freudenthaler, Volker; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Engelmann, Ronny; Mattis, Ina; Groß, Silke; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Giunta, Aldo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Osipenko, Fiodor; Slesar, Alexander; Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Talianu, Camelia; Serikov, Ilya; Linné, Holger; Jansen, Friedhelm; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; de Graaf, Martin; Trickl, Thomas; Giehl, Helmut; Adam, Mariana; Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sicard, Michaël; Tomás, Sergio; Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Pujadas, Manuel; Molero, Francisco; Fernández, Alfonso J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Granados-Muñoz, María José; Preißler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Gausa, Michael; Grigorov, Ivan; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenco; Spinelli, Nicola; Boselli, Antonella; Wang, Xuan; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Perrone, Maria Rita; De Tomas, Ferdinando; Burlizzi, Pasquale
    This paper introduces the recent European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) quality-assurance efforts at instrument level. Within two dedicated campaigns and five single-site intercomparison activities, 21 EARLINET systems from 18 EARLINET stations were intercompared between 2009 and 2013. A comprehensive strategy for campaign setup and data evaluation has been established. Eleven systems from nine EARLINET stations participated in the EARLINET Lidar Intercomparison 2009 (EARLI09). In this campaign, three reference systems were qualified which served as traveling standards thereafter. EARLINET systems from nine other stations have been compared against these reference systems since 2009. We present and discuss comparisons at signal and at product level from all campaigns for more than 100 individual measurement channels at the wavelengths of 355, 387, 532, and 607 nm. It is shown that in most cases, a very good agreement of the compared systems with the respective reference is obtained. Mean signal deviations in predefined height ranges are typically below ±2 %. Particle backscatter and extinction coefficients agree within ±2  ×  10−4 km−1 sr−1 and ± 0.01 km−1, respectively, in most cases. For systems or channels that showed larger discrepancies, an in-depth analysis of deficiencies was performed and technical solutions and upgrades were proposed and realized. The intercomparisons have reinforced confidence in the EARLINET data quality and allowed us to draw conclusions on necessary system improvements for some instruments and to identify major challenges that need to be tackled in the future.
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    EARLINET Single Calculus Chain – technical – Part 2: Calculation of optical products
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Mattis, Ina; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Madonna, Fabio; Iarlori, Marco
    In this paper we present the automated software tool ELDA (EARLINET Lidar Data Analyzer) for the retrieval of profiles of optical particle properties from lidar signals. This tool is one of the calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC) which allows for the analysis of the data of many different lidar systems of EARLINET in an automated, unsupervised way. ELDA delivers profiles of particle extinction coefficients from Raman signals as well as profiles of particle backscatter coefficients from combinations of Raman and elastic signals or from elastic signals only. Those analyses start from pre-processed signals which have already been corrected for background, range dependency and hardware specific effects. An expert group reviewed all algorithms and solutions for critical calculus subsystems which are used within EARLINET with respect to their applicability for automated retrievals. Those methods have been implemented in ELDA. Since the software was designed in a modular way, it is possible to add new or alternative methods in future. Most of the implemented algorithms are well known and well documented, but some methods have especially been developed for ELDA, e.g., automated vertical smoothing and temporal averaging or the handling of effective vertical resolution in the case of lidar ratio retrievals, or the merging of near-range and far-range products. The accuracy of the retrieved profiles was tested following the procedure of the EARLINET-ASOS algorithm inter-comparison exercise which is based on the analysis of synthetic signals. Mean deviations, mean relative deviations, and normalized root-mean-square deviations were calculated for all possible products and three height layers. In all cases, the deviations were clearly below the maximum allowed values according to the EARLINET quality requirements. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.
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    Experimental assessment of a micro-pulse lidar system in comparison with reference lidar measurements for aerosol optical properties retrieval
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Ansmann, Albert; Jiménez, Cristofer; Baars, Holger; López-Cayuela, María-Ángeles; Engelmann, Ronny
    Simultaneous observations of a polarized micro-pulse lidar (P-MPL) system and two reference European Aerosol Research Lidar Network lidars running at the Leipzig site Germany, 51.4g gN, 12.4g gE; 125gmga.s.l.) were performed during a comprehensive 2-month field intercomparison campaign in summer 2019. An experimental assessment regarding both the overlap (OVP) correction of the P-MPL signal profiles and the volume linear depolarization ratio (VLDR) analysis, together with its impact on the retrieval of the aerosol optical properties, is achieved; the experimental procedure used is also described. The optimal lidar-specific OVP function is experimentally determined, highlighting that the one delivered by the P-MPL manufacturer cannot be used long. Among the OVP functions examined, the averaged function between those obtained from the comparison of the P-MPL observations with those of the other two reference lidars seems to be the best proxy at both near- and far-field ranges. In addition, the impact of the OVP function on the accuracy of the retrieved profiles of the total particle backscatter coefficient (PBC) and the particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR) is examined. The VLDR profile is obtained and compared with that derived from the reference lidar, showing that it needs to be corrected by a small offset value with good accuracy. Once P-MPL measurements are optimally (OVP, VLDR) corrected, both the PBC and PLDR profiles can be accurately derived and are in good agreement with reference aerosol retrievals. Overall, as a systematic requirement for lidar systems, an adequate OVP function determination and VLDR testing analysis needs to be performed on a regular basis to correct the P-MPL measurements in order to derive suitable aerosol products. A dust event observed in Leipzig in June 2019 is used for illustration.
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    An EARLINET early warning system for atmospheric aerosol aviation hazards
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; D’Amico, Giuseppe; Gialitaki, Anna; Ajtai, Nicolae; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Amodeo, Aldo; Amiridis, Vassilis; Baars, Holger; Balis, Dimitris; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Comerón, Adolfo; Dionisi, Davide; Falconieri, Alfredo; Fréville, Patrick; Kampouri, Anna; Mattis, Ina; Mijić, Zoran; Molero, Francisco; Papayannis, Alex; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Rodríguez-Gómez, Alejandro; Solomos, Stavros; Mona, Lucia
    A stand-alone lidar-based method for detecting airborne hazards for aviation in near real time (NRT) is presented. A polarization lidar allows for the identification of irregular-shaped particles such as volcanic dust and desert dust. The Single Calculus Chain (SCC) of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) delivers high-resolution preprocessed data: the calibrated total attenuated backscatter and the calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio time series. From these calibrated lidar signals, the particle backscatter coefficient and the particle depolarization ratio can be derived in temporally high resolution and thus provide the basis of the NRT early warning system (EWS). In particular, an iterative method for the retrieval of the particle backscatter is implemented. This improved capability was designed as a pilot that will produce alerts for imminent threats for aviation. The method is applied to data during two diverse aerosol scenarios: first, a record breaking desert dust intrusion in March 2018 over Finokalia, Greece, and, second, an intrusion of volcanic particles originating from Mount Etna, Italy, in June 2019 over Antikythera, Greece. Additionally, a devoted observational period including several EARLINET lidar systems demonstrates the network's preparedness to offer insight into natural hazards that affect the aviation sector. © 2020 Author(s).
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    The automated multiwavelength Raman polarization and water-vapor lidar PollyXT: The neXT generation
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Engelmann, Ronny; Kanitz, Thomas; Baars, Holger; Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Skupin, Annett; Wandinger, Ulla; Komppula, Mika; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Mattis, Ina; Linné, Holger; Ansmann, Albert
    The atmospheric science community demands autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. For this purpose, a portable lidar called Polly was developed at TROPOS in 2003. The lidar system was continuously improved with gained experience from the EARLINET community, involvement in worldwide field campaigns, and international institute collaborations within the last 10 years. Here we present recent changes of the setup of the portable multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar PollyXT and discuss the improved capabilities of the system by means of a case study. The latest system developments include an additional near-range receiver unit for Raman measurements of the backscatter and extinction coefficient down to 120 m above ground, a water-vapor channel, and channels for simultaneous measurements of the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm. Quality improvements were achieved by systematically following the EARLINET guidelines and the international PollyNET quality assurance developments. A modified ship radar ensures measurements in agreement with air-traffic safety regulations and allows for 24∕7 monitoring of the atmospheric state with PollyXT.
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    EARLINET evaluation of the CATS Level 2 aerosol backscatter coefficient product
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Proestakis, Emmanouil; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla; Hofer, Julian; Yorks, John; Nowottnick, Edward; Makhmudov, Abduvosit; Papayannis, Alexandros; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Gialitaki, Anna; Apituley, Arnoud; Szkop, Artur; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Bortoli, Daniele; Dionisi, Davide; Althausen, Dietrich; Mamali, Dimitra; Balis, Dimitris; Nicolae, Doina; Tetoni, Eleni; Liberti, Gian Luigi; Baars, Holger; Mattis, Ina; Stachlewska, Iwona Sylwia; Voudouri, Kalliopi Artemis; Mona, Lucia; Mylonaki, Maria; Perrone, Maria Rita; Costa, Maria João; Sicard, Michael; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Siomos, Nikolaos; Burlizzi, Pasquale; Pauly, Rebecca; Engelmann, Ronny; Abdullaev, Sabur; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    We present the evaluation activity of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) for the quantitative assessment of the Level 2 aerosol backscatter coefficient product derived by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS; Rodier et al., 2015). The study employs correlative CATS and EARLINET backscatter measurements within a 50km distance between the ground station and the ISS overpass and as close in time as possible, typically with the starting time or stopping time of the EARLINET performed measurement time window within 90min of the ISS overpass, for the period from February 2015 to September 2016. The results demonstrate the good agreement of the CATS Level 2 backscatter coefficient and EARLINET. Three ISS overpasses close to the EARLINET stations of Leipzig, Germany; Évora, Portugal; and Dushanbe, Tajikistan, are analyzed here to demonstrate the performance of the CATS lidar system under different conditions. The results show that under cloud-free, relative homogeneous aerosol conditions, CATS is in good agreement with EARLINET, independent of daytime and nighttime conditions. CATS low negative biases are observed, partially attributed to the deficiency of lidar systems to detect tenuous aerosol layers of backscatter signal below the minimum detection thresholds; these are biases which may lead to systematic deviations and slight underestimations of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) in climate studies. In addition, CATS misclassification of aerosol layers as clouds, and vice versa, in cases of coexistent and/or adjacent aerosol and cloud features, occasionally leads to non-representative, unrealistic, and cloud-contaminated aerosol profiles. Regarding solar illumination conditions, low negative biases in CATS backscatter coefficient profiles, of the order of 6.1%, indicate the good nighttime performance of CATS. During daytime, a reduced signal-to-noise ratio by solar background illumination prevents retrievals of weakly scattering atmospheric layers that would otherwise be detectable during nighttime, leading to higher negative biases, of the order of 22.3%. © Author(s) 2019.
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    Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) 1064 nm calibration and validation
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2019) Pauly, Rebecca M.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; McGill, Matthew J.; Amiridis, Vassilis; Palm, Stephen P.; Rodier, Sharon D.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Selmer, Patrick A.; Kupchock, Andrew W.; Baars, Holger; Gialitaki, Anna
    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) lidar on board the International Space Station (ISS) operated from 10 February 2015 to 30 October 2017 providing range-resolved vertical backscatter profiles of Earth's atmosphere at 1064 and 532 nm. The CATS instrument design and ISS orbit lead to a higher 1064 nm signal-to-noise ratio than previous space-based lidars, allowing for direct atmospheric calibration of the 1064 nm signals. Nighttime CATS version 3-00 data were calibrated by scaling the measured data to a model of the expected atmospheric backscatter between 22 and 26 km a.m.s.l. (above mean sea level). The CATS atmospheric model is constructed using molecular backscatter profiles derived from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data and aerosol scattering ratios measured by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The nighttime normalization altitude region was chosen to simultaneously minimize aerosol loading and variability within the CATS data frame, which extends from 28 to −2 km a.m.s.l. Daytime CATS version 3-00 data were calibrated through comparisons with nighttime measurements of the layer-integrated attenuated total backscatter (iATB) from strongly scattering, rapidly attenuating opaque cirrus clouds. The CATS nighttime 1064 nm attenuated total backscatter (ATB) uncertainties for clouds and aerosols are primarily related to the uncertainties in the CATS nighttime calibration technique, which are estimated to be ∼9  %. Median CATS V3-00 1064 nm ATB relative uncertainty at night within cloud and aerosol layers is 7 %, slightly lower than these calibration uncertainty estimates. CATS median daytime 1064 nm ATB relative uncertainty is 21 % in cloud and aerosol layers, similar to the estimated 16 %–18 % uncertainty in the CATS daytime cirrus cloud calibration transfer technique. Coincident daytime comparisons between CATS and the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) during the CATS-CALIPSO Airborne Validation Experiment (CCAVE) project show good agreement in mean ATB profiles for clear-air regions. Eight nighttime comparisons between CATS and the PollyXT ground-based lidars also show good agreement in clear-air regions between 3 and 12 km, with CATS having a mean ATB of 19.7 % lower than PollyXT. Agreement between the two instruments (∼7 %) is even better within an aerosol layer. Six-month comparisons of nighttime ATB values between CATS and CALIOP also show that iATB comparisons of opaque cirrus clouds agree to within 19 %. Overall, CATS has demonstrated that direct calibration of the 1064 nm channel is possible from a space-based lidar using the atmospheric normalization technique.
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    Separation of the optical and mass features of particle components in different aerosol mixtures by using POLIPHON retrievals in synergy with continuous polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sicard, Michaël; Ansmann, Albert; del Águila, Ana; Baars, Holger
    The application of the POLIPHON (POlarization-LIdar PHOtometer Networking) method is presented for the first time in synergy with continuous 24/7 polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements to derive the vertical separation of two or three particle components in different aerosol mixtures, and the retrieval of their particular optical properties. The procedure of extinction-to-mass conversion, together with an analysis of the mass extinction efficiency (MEE) parameter, is described, and the relative mass contribution of each aerosol component is also derived in a further step. The general POLIPHON algorithm is based on the specific particle linear depolarization ratio given for different types of aerosols and can be run in either 1-step (POL-1) or 2 steps (POL-2) versions with dependence on either the 2- or 3-component separation. In order to illustrate this procedure, aerosol mixing cases observed over Barcelona (NE Spain) are selected: a dust event on 5 July 2016, smoke plumes detected on 23 May 2016 and a pollination episode observed on 23 March 2016. In particular, the 3-component separation is just applied for the dust case: a combined POL-1 with POL-2 procedure (POL-1/2) is used, and additionally the fine-dust contribution to the total fine mode (fine dust plus non-dust aerosols) is estimated. The high dust impact before 12:00 UTC yields a mean mass loading of 0.6±0.1 g m'2 due to the prevalence of Saharan coarse-dust particles. After that time, the mean mass loading is reduced by two-thirds, showing a rather weak dust incidence. In the smoke case, the arrival of fine biomass-burning particles is detected at altitudes as high as 7 km. The smoke particles, probably mixed with less depolarizing non-smoke aerosols, are observed in air masses, having their origin from either North American fires or the Arctic area, as reported by HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis. The particle linear depolarization ratio for smoke shows values in the 0.10-0.15 range and even higher at given times, and the daily mean smoke mass loading is 0.017±0.008 g m'2, around 3 % of that found for the dust event. Pollen particles are detected up to 1.5 km in height from 10:00 UTC during an intense pollination event with a particle linear depolarization ratio ranging between 0.10 and 0.15. The maximal mass loading of Platanus pollen particles is 0.011±0.003 g m'2, representing around 2 % of the dust loading during the higher dust incidence. Regarding the MEE derived for each aerosol component, their values are in agreement with others referenced in the literature for the specific aerosol types examined in this work: 0.5±0.1 and 1.7±0.2 m2 g'1 are found for coarse and fine dust particles, 4.5±1.4 m2 g'1 is derived for smoke and 2.4±0.5 m2 g'1 for non-smoke aerosols with Arctic origin, and a MEE of 2.4±0.8 m2 g'1 is obtained for pollen particles, though it can reach higher or lower values depending on predominantly smaller or larger pollen grain sizes. Results reveal the high potential of the P-MPL system, a simple polarization-sensitive elastic backscatter lidar working in a 24/7 operation mode, to retrieve the relative optical and mass contributions of each aerosol component throughout the day, reflecting the daily variability of their properties. In fact, this procedure can be simply implemented in other P-MPLs that also operate within the worldwide Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), thus extending the aerosol discrimination at a global scale. Moreover, the method has the advantage of also being relatively easily applicable to space-borne lidars with an equivalent configuration such as the ongoing Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board NASA CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) and the forthcoming Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) on board the ESA EarthCARE mission.