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Now showing 1 - 10 of 23
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    Tumor cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of a novel V-jet neon plasma source compared to the kINPen
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Horn, Stefan; Niessner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Clemen, Ramona; Schmidt, Anke; Gerling, Torsten; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent research indicated the potential of cold physical plasma in cancer therapy. The plethora of plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediate diverse antitumor effects after eliciting oxidative stress in cancer cells. We aimed at exploiting this principle using a newly designed dual-jet neon plasma source (Vjet) to treat colorectal cancer cells. A treatment time-dependent ROS/RNS generation induced oxidation, growth retardation, and cell death within 3D tumor spheroids were found. In TUM-CAM, a semi in vivo model, the Vjet markedly reduced vascularized tumors' growth, but an increase of tumor cell immunogenicity or uptake by dendritic cells was not observed. By comparison, the argon-driven single jet kINPen, known to mediate anticancer effects in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, generated less ROS/RNS and terminal cell death in spheroids. In the TUM-CAM model, however, the kINPen was equivalently effective and induced a stronger expression of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) markers, leading to increased phagocytosis of kINPen but not Vjet plasma-treated tumor cells by dendritic cells. Moreover, the Vjet was characterized according to the requirements of the DIN-SPEC 91315. Our results highlight the plasma device-specific action on cancer cells for evaluating optimal discharges for plasma cancer treatment.
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    Singlet-Oxygen-Induced Phospholipase A2 Inhibition: A Major Role for Interfacial Tryptophan Dioxidation
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Nasri, Zahra; Memari, Seyedali; Wenske, Sebastian; Clemen, Ramona; Martens, Ulrike; Delcea, Mihaela; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Wende, Kristian
    Several studies have revealed that various diseases such as cancer have been associated with elevated phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Therefore, the regulation of PLA2 catalytic activity is undoubtedly vital. In this study, effective inactivation of PLA2 due to reactive species produced from cold physical plasma as a source to model oxidative stress is reported. We found singlet oxygen to be the most relevant active agent in PLA2 inhibition. A more detailed analysis of the plasma-treated PLA2 identified tryptophan 128 as a hot spot, rich in double oxidation. The significant dioxidation of this interfacial tryptophan resulted in an N-formylkynurenine product via the oxidative opening of the tryptophan indole ring. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that the efficient interactions between the tryptophan residue and phospholipids are eliminated following tryptophan dioxidation. As interfacial tryptophan residues are predominantly involved in the attaching of membrane enzymes to the bilayers, tryptophan dioxidation and indole ring opening leads to the loss of essential interactions for enzyme binding and, consequently, enzyme inactivation. © 2021 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
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    Development of an electrochemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of reactive species produced by cold physical plasma
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2021) Nasri, Zahra; Bruno, Giuliana; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Wende, Kristian
    The extent of clinical applications of oxidative stress-based therapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or respiratory chain disruptors are increasing rapidly, with cold physical plasma (CPP) emerging as a further option. According to the current knowledge, the biological effects of CPP base on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) relevant in cell signaling. To monitor the safety and the biological impact of the CPP, determining the local generation of RONS in the same environment in which they are going to be applied is desirable. Here, for the first time, the development of an electrochemical sensor for the simple, quick, and parallel determination of plasma-generated reactive species is described. The proposed sensor consists of a toluidine blue redox system that is covalently attached to a gold electrode surface. By recording chronoamperometry at different potentials, it is possible to follow the in-situ production of the main long-lived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, hypochlorite, and chloramine with time. The applicability of this electrochemical sensor for the in-situ assessment of reactive species in redox-based therapies is demonstrated by the precise analysis of hydrogen peroxide dynamics in the presence of blood cancer cells.
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    Periodic Exposure of Plasma-Activated Medium Alters Fibroblast Cellular Homoeostasis
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022) Bhartiya, Pradeep; Kaushik, Neha; Nguyen, Linh N.; Bekeschus, Sander; Masur, Kai; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha
    Excess amounts of redox stress and failure to regulate homeostatic levels of reactive species are associated with several skin pathophysiologic conditions. Nonmalignant cells are assumed to cope better with higher reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) levels. However, the effect of periodic stress on this balance has not been investigated in fibroblasts in the field of plasma medicine. In this study, we aimed to investigate intrinsic changes with respect to cellular proliferation, cell cycle, and ability to neutralize the redox stress inside fibroblast cells following periodic redox stress in vitro. Soft jet plasma with air as feeding gas was used to generate plasma-activated medium (PAM) for inducing redox stress conditions. We assessed cellular viability, energetics, and cell cycle machinery under oxidative stress conditions at weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Fibroblasts retained their usual physiological properties until 6 weeks. Fibroblasts failed to overcome the redox stress induced by periodic PAM exposure after 6 weeks, indicating its threshold potential. Periodic stress above the threshold level led to alterations in fibroblast cellular processes. These include consistent increases in apoptosis, while RONS accumulation and cell cycle arrest were observed at the final stages. Currently, the use of NTP in clinical settings is limited due to a lack of knowledge about fibroblasts’ behavior in wound healing, scar formation, and other fibrotic disorders. Understanding fibroblasts’ physiology could help to utilize nonthermal plasma in redox-related skin diseases. Furthermore, these results provide new information about the threshold capacity of fibroblasts and an insight into the adaptation mechanism against periodic oxidative stress conditions in fibroblasts.
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    Oxygen atoms are critical in rendering THP-1 leukaemia cells susceptible to cold physical plasma-induced apoptosis
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2017-6-5) Bekeschus, Sander; Wende, Kristian; Hefny, Mohamed Mokhtar; Rödder, Katrin; Jablonowski, Helena; Schmidt, Anke; Woedtke, Thomas von; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Benedikt, Jan
    Cold physical plasma has been suggested as a powerful new tool in oncology. However, some cancer cells such as THP-1 leukaemia cells have been shown to be resistant towards plasma-induced cell death, thereby serving as a good model for optimizing plasmas in order to foster pro-apoptotic anticancer effects. A helium/oxygen radio frequency driven atmospheric plasma profoundly induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas helium, humidified helium, and humidified helium/oxygen plasmas were inefficient. Hydrogen peroxide – previously shown as central plasma-derived agent – did not participate in the killing reaction but our results suggest hypochlorous acid to be responsible for the effect observed. Proteomic analysis of THP-1 cells exposed to He/O2 plasma emphasized a prominent growth retardation, cell stress, apoptosis, and a pro-immunogenic profile. Altogether, a plasma setting that inactivates previously unresponsive leukaemia cells is presented. Crucial reactive species in the plasma and liquid environment were identified and discussed, deciphering the complexity of plasma from the gas phase into the liquid down to the cellular response mechanism. These results may help tailoring plasmas for clinical applications such as oxidation-insensitive types of cancer.
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    Plasma treatment limits cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development in vitro and in vivo
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Pasqual-Melo, Gabriella; Nascimento, Thiago; Sanches, Larissa Juliani; Blegniski, Fernanda Paschoal; Bianchi, Julya Karen; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Berner, Julia; Schmidt, Anke; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Woedtke, Thomas von; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço; Bekeschus, Sander
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, increasing the cost of healthcare services and with a high rate of morbidity. Its etiology is linked to chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure that leads to malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Invasive growth and metastasis are severe consequences of this process. Therapy-resistant and highly aggressive SCC is frequently fatal, exemplifying the need for novel treatment strategies. Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas, expelling therapeutic doses of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that were investigated for their anticancer capacity against SCC in vitro and SCC-like lesions in vivo. Using the kINPen argon plasma jet, a selective growth-reducing action of plasma treatment was identified in two SCC cell lines in 2D and 3D cultures. In vivo, plasma treatment limited the progression of UVB-induced SSC-like skin lesions and dermal degeneration without compromising lesional or non-lesional skin. In lesional tissue, this was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 following plasma treatment, while catalase expression was increased. Analysis of skin adjacent to the lesions and determination of global antioxidant parameters confirmed the local but not systemic action of the plasma anticancer therapy in vivo. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Combining Biocompatible and Biodegradable Scaffolds and Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Chronic Wound Regeneration
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021) Emmert, Steffen; Pantermehl, Sven; Foth, Aenne; Waletzko-Hellwig, Janine; Hellwig, Georg; Bader, Rainer; Illner, Sabine; Grabow, Niels; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Jung, Ole; Boeckmann, Lars
    Skin regeneration is a quite complex process. Epidermal differentiation alone takes about 30 days and is highly regulated. Wounds, especially chronic wounds, affect 2% to 3% of the elderly population and comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The prevailing reasons to develop skin wounds include venous and/or arterial circulatory disorders, diabetes, or constant pressure to the skin (decubitus). The hallmarks of modern wound treatment include debridement of dead tissue, disinfection, wound dressings that keep the wound moist but still allow air exchange, and compression bandages. Despite all these efforts there is still a huge treatment resistance and wounds will not heal. This calls for new and more efficient treatment options in combination with novel biocompatible skin scaffolds. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is such an innovative addition to the treatment armamentarium. In one CAP application, antimicrobial effects, wound acidification, enhanced microcirculations and cell stimulation can be achieved. It is evident that CAP treatment, in combination with novel bioengineered, biocompatible and biodegradable electrospun scaffolds, has the potential of fostering wound healing by promoting remodeling and epithelialization along such temporarily applied skin replacement scaffolds.
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    Activation of murine immune cells upon co-culture with plasma-treated B16F10 melanoma cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Rödder, Katrin; Moritz, Juliane; Miller, Vandana; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Gandhirajan, Rajesh; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent advances in melanoma therapy increased median survival in patients. However, death rates are still high, motivating the need of novel avenues in melanoma treatment. Cold physical plasma expels a cocktail of reactive species that have been suggested for cancer treatment. High species concentrations can be used to exploit apoptotic redox signaling pathways in tumor cells. Moreover, an immune-stimulatory role of plasma treatment, as well as plasma-killed tumor cells, was recently proposed, but studies using primary immune cells are scarce. To this end, we investigated the role of plasma-treated murine B16F10 melanoma cells in modulating murine immune cells' activation and marker profile. Melanoma cells exposed to plasma showed reduced metabolic and migratory activity, and an increased release of danger signals (ATP, CXCL1). This led to an altered cytokine profile with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CCL4 being significantly increased in plasma-treated mono- and co-cultures with immune cells. In T cells, plasma-treated melanoma cells induced extracellular signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and increased CD28 expression, suggesting their activation. In monocytes, CD115 expression was elevated as a marker for activation. In summary, here we provide proof of concept that plasma-killed tumor cells are recognized immunologically, and that plasma exerts stimulating effects on immune cells alone. © 2019 by the authors.
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    Ex Vivo Exposure of Human Melanoma Tissue to Cold Physical Plasma Elicits Apoptosis and Modulates Inflammation
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Bekeschus, Sander; Moritz, Juliane; Helfrich, Iris; Boeckmann, Lars; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Emmert, Steffen; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Stoffels, Ingo; von Woedtke, Thomas
    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a not-sufficient clinical outcome. High tumor mutation rates often hamper a remedial treatment, creating the need for palliative care in many patients. To reduce pain and burden, local palliation often includes cryo-ablation, immunotherapy via injection of IL2, or electrochemotherapy. Yet, a fraction of patients and lesions do not respond to those therapies. To reach even these resistances in a redox-mediated way, we treated skin biopsies from human melanoma ex vivo with cold physical plasma (kINPen MED plasma jet). This partially ionized gas generates a potent mixture of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physical plasmas have been shown to be potent antitumor agents in preclinical melanoma and clinical head and neck cancer research. The innovation of this technology lies in its ease-of-use without anesthesia, as the “cold” plasma temperature of the kINPen MED does not exceed 37 °C. In metastatic melanoma skin biopsies from six patients, we identified a marked increase of apoptosis with plasma treatment ex vivo. This had an impact on the chemokine/cytokine profile of the cultured biopsies, e.g., three of six patient-derived biopsy supernatants showed an apparent decrease in VEGF compared to non-plasma treated specimens. Moreover, the baseline release levels of 24 chemokines/cytokines investigated may serve as a useful tool for future research on melanoma skin biopsy treatments. Our findings suggest a clinically useful role of cold physical plasma therapy in palliation of cutaneous melanoma lesions, possibly in a combinatory setting with other immune therapies.
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    Cytochrome C oxidase Inhibition and Cold Plasma-derived Oxidants Synergize in Melanoma Cell Death Induction
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2018-8-24) Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Rödder, Katrin; Bodnar, Yana; Pasqual-Melo, Gabriella; Emmert, Steffen; Griguer, Corinne E.; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bekeschus, Sander
    Despite striking advances in the treatment of metastasized melanoma, the disease is often still fatal. Attention is therefore paid towards combinational regimens. Oxidants endogenously produced in mitochondria are currently targeted in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Cytotoxic synergism of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) inhibition in conjunction with addition of exogenous oxidants in 2D and 3D melanoma cell culture models were examined. Murine (B16) and human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells exposed to low-dose CcO inhibitors (potassium cyanide or sodium azide) or exogenous oxidants alone were non-toxic. However, we identified a potent cytotoxic synergism upon CcO inhibition and plasma-derived oxidants that led to rapid onset of caspase-independent melanoma cell death. This was mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction induced by superoxide elevation and ATP depletion. This observation was validated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of COX4I1 in SK-MEL-28 cells with cytotoxicity in the presence of exogenous oxidants. Similar effects were obtained with ADDA 5, a recently identified specific inhibitor of CcO activity showing low toxicity in vivo. Human keratinocytes were not affected by this combinational treatment, suggesting selective effects on melanoma cells. Hence, targeting mitochondrial CcO activity in conjunction with exogenous pro oxidant therapies may constitute a new and effective melanoma treatment modality.