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- ItemSinglet-Oxygen-Induced Phospholipase A2 Inhibition: A Major Role for Interfacial Tryptophan Dioxidation(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Nasri, Zahra; Memari, Seyedali; Wenske, Sebastian; Clemen, Ramona; Martens, Ulrike; Delcea, Mihaela; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Wende, KristianSeveral studies have revealed that various diseases such as cancer have been associated with elevated phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Therefore, the regulation of PLA2 catalytic activity is undoubtedly vital. In this study, effective inactivation of PLA2 due to reactive species produced from cold physical plasma as a source to model oxidative stress is reported. We found singlet oxygen to be the most relevant active agent in PLA2 inhibition. A more detailed analysis of the plasma-treated PLA2 identified tryptophan 128 as a hot spot, rich in double oxidation. The significant dioxidation of this interfacial tryptophan resulted in an N-formylkynurenine product via the oxidative opening of the tryptophan indole ring. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that the efficient interactions between the tryptophan residue and phospholipids are eliminated following tryptophan dioxidation. As interfacial tryptophan residues are predominantly involved in the attaching of membrane enzymes to the bilayers, tryptophan dioxidation and indole ring opening leads to the loss of essential interactions for enzyme binding and, consequently, enzyme inactivation. © 2021 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemNon-thermal plasma modulates cellular markers associated with immunogenicity in a model of latent HIV-1 infection(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Mohamed, Hager; Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Wende, Kristian; Connors, Jennifer; Haddad, Elias K.; Dampier, Will; Wigdahl, Brian; Miller, Vandana; Bekeschus, Sander; Krebs, Fred C.; Kashanchi, FatahEffective control of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), requires continuous and life-long use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). In the absence of ART, HIV-1 reemergence from latently infected cells is ineffectively suppressed due to suboptimal innate and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. However, ART-free control of HIV-1 infection may be possible if the inherent immunological deficiencies can be reversed or restored. Herein we present a novel approach for modulating the immune response to HIV-1 that involves the use of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which is an ionized gas containing various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). J-Lat cells were used as a model of latent HIV-1 infection to assess the effects of NTP application on viral latency and the expression of pro-phagocytic and pro-chemotactic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Exposure of J-Lat cells to NTP resulted in stimulation of HIV-1 gene expression, indicating a role in latency reversal, a necessary first step in inducing adaptive immune responses to viral antigens. This was accompanied by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); the display of pro-phagocytic markers calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90; and a correlated increase in macrophage phagocytosis of NTP-exposed J-Lat cells. In addition, modulation of surface molecules that promote or inhibit antigen presentation was also observed, along with an altered array of displayed peptides on MHC I, further suggesting methods by which NTP may modify recognition and targeting of cells in latent HIV-1 infection. These studies represent early progress toward an effective NTP-based ex vivo immunotherapy to resolve the dysfunctions of the immune system that enable HIV-1 persistence in PLWH.
- ItemShort- and long-term polystyrene nano- and microplastic exposure promotes oxidative stress and divergently affects skin cell architecture and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling(London : BioMed Central, 2023) Schmidt, Anke; da Silva Brito, Walison Augusto; Singer, Debora; Mühl, Melissa; Berner, Julia; Saadati, Fariba; Wolff, Christina; Miebach, Lea; Wende, Kristian; Bekeschus, SanderNano- and microplastic particles (NMP) are strong environmental contaminants affecting marine ecosystems and human health. The negligible use of biodegradable plastics and the lack of knowledge about plastic uptake, accumulation, and functional consequences led us to investigate the short- and long-term effects in freshly isolated skin cells from mice. Using fluorescent NMP of several sizes (200 nm to 6 µm), efficient cellular uptake was observed, causing, however, only minor acute toxicity as metabolic activity and apoptosis data suggested, albeit changes in intracellular reactive species and thiol levels were observed. The internalized NMP induced an altered expression of various targets of the nuclear factor-2-related transcription factor 2 pathway and were accompanied by changed antioxidant and oxidative stress signaling responses, as suggested by altered heme oxygenase 1 and glutathione peroxide 2 levels. A highly increased beta-catenin expression under acute but not chronic NMP exposure was concomitant with a strong translocation from membrane to the nucleus and subsequent transcription activation of Wnt signaling target genes after both single-dose and chronic long-term NMP exposure. Moreover, fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation accompanied by an increase of α smooth muscle actin and collagen expression was observed. Together with several NMP-induced changes in junctional and adherence protein expression, our study for the first time elucidates the acute and chronic effects of NMP of different sizes in primary skin cells' signaling and functional biology, contributing to a better understanding of nano- and microplastic to health risks in higher vertebrates.
- ItemDevelopment of an electrochemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of reactive species produced by cold physical plasma(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2021) Nasri, Zahra; Bruno, Giuliana; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Wende, KristianThe extent of clinical applications of oxidative stress-based therapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or respiratory chain disruptors are increasing rapidly, with cold physical plasma (CPP) emerging as a further option. According to the current knowledge, the biological effects of CPP base on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) relevant in cell signaling. To monitor the safety and the biological impact of the CPP, determining the local generation of RONS in the same environment in which they are going to be applied is desirable. Here, for the first time, the development of an electrochemical sensor for the simple, quick, and parallel determination of plasma-generated reactive species is described. The proposed sensor consists of a toluidine blue redox system that is covalently attached to a gold electrode surface. By recording chronoamperometry at different potentials, it is possible to follow the in-situ production of the main long-lived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, hypochlorite, and chloramine with time. The applicability of this electrochemical sensor for the in-situ assessment of reactive species in redox-based therapies is demonstrated by the precise analysis of hydrogen peroxide dynamics in the presence of blood cancer cells.
- ItemCell cycle-related genes associate with sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Liebelt, Grit; Menz, Jonas; Singer, Debora; Wende, Kristian; Schmidt, AnkeReactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are well-described agents in physiology and pathology. Chronic inflammation causes incessant H2O2 generation associated with disease occurrences such as diabetes, autoimmunity, and cancer. In cancer, conditioning of the tumor microenvironment, e.g., hypoxia and ROS generation, has been associated with disease outcomes and therapeutic efficacy. Many reports have investigated the roles of the action of H2O2 across many cell lines and disease models. The genes predisposing tumor cell lines to H2O2-mediated demise are less deciphered, however. To this end, we performed in-house transcriptional profiling of 35 cell lines and simultaneously investigated each cell line's H2O2 inhibitory concentration (IC25) based on metabolic activity. More than 100-fold differences were observed between the most resistant and sensitive cell lines. Correlation and gene ontology pathway analysis identified a rigid association with genes intertwined in cell cycle progression and proliferation, as such functional categories dominated the top ten significant processes. The ten most substantially correlating genes (Spearman r > 0.70 or < -0.70) were validated using qPCR, showing complete congruency with microarray analysis findings. Western blotting confirmed the correlation of cell cycle-related proteins negatively correlating with H2O2 IC25. Top genes related to ROS production or antioxidant defense were only modest in correlation (Spearman r > 0.40 or < -0.40). In conclusion, our in-house transcriptomic correlation analysis revealed a set of cell cycle-associated genes associated with a priori resistance or sensitivity to H2O2-induced cellular demise with the detailed and causative roles of individual genes remaining unclear.
- ItemOxygen atoms are critical in rendering THP-1 leukaemia cells susceptible to cold physical plasma-induced apoptosis([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2017-6-5) Bekeschus, Sander; Wende, Kristian; Hefny, Mohamed Mokhtar; Rödder, Katrin; Jablonowski, Helena; Schmidt, Anke; Woedtke, Thomas von; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Benedikt, JanCold physical plasma has been suggested as a powerful new tool in oncology. However, some cancer cells such as THP-1 leukaemia cells have been shown to be resistant towards plasma-induced cell death, thereby serving as a good model for optimizing plasmas in order to foster pro-apoptotic anticancer effects. A helium/oxygen radio frequency driven atmospheric plasma profoundly induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas helium, humidified helium, and humidified helium/oxygen plasmas were inefficient. Hydrogen peroxide – previously shown as central plasma-derived agent – did not participate in the killing reaction but our results suggest hypochlorous acid to be responsible for the effect observed. Proteomic analysis of THP-1 cells exposed to He/O2 plasma emphasized a prominent growth retardation, cell stress, apoptosis, and a pro-immunogenic profile. Altogether, a plasma setting that inactivates previously unresponsive leukaemia cells is presented. Crucial reactive species in the plasma and liquid environment were identified and discussed, deciphering the complexity of plasma from the gas phase into the liquid down to the cellular response mechanism. These results may help tailoring plasmas for clinical applications such as oxidation-insensitive types of cancer.
- ItemGas Plasma Exposure of Glioblastoma Is Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory in Patient-Derived GBM Tissue(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Ispirjan, Mikael; Freund, Eric; Kinnen, Frederik; Moritz, Juliane; Saadati, Fariba; Eckroth, Jacqueline; Singer, Debora; Stope, Matthias B.; Wende, Kristian; Ritter, Christoph A.; Schroeder, Henry W. S.; Marx, SaschaGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Therapeutic options for glioblastoma are maximal surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Therapy resistance and tumor recurrence demand, however, new strategies. Several experimental studies have suggested gas plasma technology, a partially ionized gas that generates a potent mixture of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as a future complement to the existing treatment arsenal. However, aspects such as immunomodulation, inflammatory consequences, and feasibility studies using GBM tissue have not been addressed so far. In vitro, gas plasma generated ROS that oxidized cells and led to a treatment time-dependent metabolic activity decline and G2 cell cycle arrest. In addition, peripheral blood-derived monocytes were co-cultured with glioblastoma cells, and immunomodulatory surface expression markers and cytokine release were screened. Gas plasma treatment of either cell type, for instance, decreased the expression of the M2-macrophage marker CD163 and the tolerogenic molecule SIGLEC1 (CD169). In patient-derived GBM tissue samples exposed to the plasma jet kINPen ex vivo, apoptosis was significantly increased. Quantitative chemokine/cytokine release screening revealed gas plasma exposure to significantly decrease 5 out of 11 tested chemokines and cytokines, namely IL-6, TGF-β, sTREM-2, b-NGF, and TNF-α involved in GBM apoptosis and immunomodulation. In summary, the immuno-modulatory and proapoptotic action shown in this study might be an important step forward to first clinical observational studies on the future discovery of gas plasma technology’s potential in neurosurgery and neuro-oncology especially in putative adjuvant or combinatory GBM treatment settings.
- ItemCold argon plasma as adjuvant tumour therapy on progressive head and neck cancer: A preclinical study(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Hasse, Sybille; Seebauer, Christian; Wende, Kristian; Schmidt, Anke; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Woedtke, Thomas von; Bekeschus, SanderInvestigating cold argon plasma (CAP) for medical applications is a rapidly growing, innovative field of research. The controllable supply of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through CAP has the potential for utilization in tumour treatment. Maxillofacial surgery is limited if tumours grow on vital structures such as the arteria carotis. Here CAP could be considered as an option for adjuvant intraoperative tumour therapy especially in the case of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Further preclinical research is necessary to investigate the efficacy of this technology for future clinical applications in cancer treatment. Initially, a variety of in vitro assays was performed on two cell lines that served as surrogate for the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and healthy tissue, respectively. Cell viability, motility and the activation of apoptosis in SCC cells (HNO97) was compared with those in normal HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, induction of apoptosis in ex vivo CAP treated human tissue biopsies of patients with tumours of the head and neck was monitored and compared to healthy control tissue of the same patient. In response to CAP treatment, normal HaCaT keratinocytes differed significantly from their malignant counterpart HNO97 cells in cell motility only whereas cell viability remained similar. Moreover, CAP treatment of tumour tissue induced more apoptotic cells than in healthy tissue that was accompanied by elevated extracellular cytochrome c levels. This study promotes a future role of CAP as an adjuvant intraoperative tumour therapy option in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Moreover, patient-derived tissue explants complement in vitro examinations in a meaningful way to reflect an antitumoral role of CAP. © 2019 by the authors.
- ItemIdentification of two kinase inhibitors with synergistic toxicity with low-dose hydrogen peroxide in colorectal cancer cells in vitro(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Freund, Eric; Liedtke, Kim-Rouven; Miebach, Lea; Wende, Kristian; Heidecke, Amanda; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; Bekeschus, SanderColorectal carcinoma is among the most common types of cancers. With this disease, diffuse scattering in the abdominal area (peritoneal carcinosis) often occurs before diagnosis, making surgical removal of the entire malignant tissue impossible due to a large number of tumor nodules. Previous treatment options include radiation and its combination with intraperitoneal heat-induced chemotherapy (HIPEC). Both options have strong side effects and are often poor in therapeutic efficacy. Tumor cells often grow and proliferate dysregulated, with enzymes of the protein kinase family often playing a crucial role. The present study investigated whether a combination of protein kinase inhibitors and low-dose induction of oxidative stress (using hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) has an additive cytotoxic effect on murine, colorectal tumor cells (CT26). Protein kinase inhibitors from a library of 80 substances were used to investigate colorectal cancer cells for their activity, morphology, and immunogenicity (immunogenic cancer cell death, ICD) upon mono or combination. Toxic compounds identified in 2D cultures were confirmed in 3D cultures, and additive cytotoxicity was identified for the substances lavendustin A, GF109203X, and rapamycin. Toxicity was concomitant with cell cycle arrest, but except HMGB1, no increased expression of immunogenic markers was identified with the combination treatment. The results were validated for GF109203X and rapamycin but not lavendustin A in the 3D model of different colorectal (HT29, SW480) and pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaca, Panc01). In conclusion, our in vitro data suggest that combining oxidative stress with chemotherapy would be conceivable to enhance antitumor efficacy in HIPEC. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemThe molecular and physiological consequences of cold plasma treatment in murine skin and its barrier function(New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Schmidt, Anke; Liebelt, Grit; Striesow, Johanna; Freund, Eric; Woedtke, Thomas von; Wende, Kristian; Bekeschus, SanderCold plasma technology is an emerging tool facilitating the spatially controlled delivery of a multitude of reactive species (ROS) to the skin. While the therapeutic efficacy of plasma treatment has been observed in several types of diseases, the fundamental consequences of plasma-derived ROS on skin physiology remain unknown. We aimed to bridge this gap since the epidermal skin barrier and perfusion plays a vital role in health and disease by maintaining homeostasis and protecting from environmental damage. The intact skin of SKH1 mice was plasma-treated in vivo. Gene and protein expression was analyzed utilizing transcriptomics, qPCR, and Western blot. Immunofluorescence aided the analysis of percutaneous skin penetration of curcumin. Tissue oxygenation, perfusion, hemoglobin, and water index was investigated using hyperspectral imaging. Reversed-phase liquid-chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed for the identification of changes in the lipid composition and oxidation. Transcriptomic analysis of plasma-treated skin revealed modulation of genes involved in regulating the junctional network (tight, adherence, and gap junctions), which was confirmed using qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence imaging. Plasma treatment increased the disaggregation of cells in the stratum corneum (SC) concomitant with increased tissue oxygenation, gap junctional intercellular communication, and penetration of the model drug curcumin into the SC preceded by altered oxidation of skin lipids and their composition in vivo. In summary, plasma-derived ROS modify the junctional network, which promoted tissue oxygenation, oxidation of SC-lipids, and restricted penetration of the model drug curcumin, implicating that plasma may provide a novel and sensitive tool of skin barrier regulation. © 2020 The Author(s)