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    Gas plasma–oxidized sodium chloride acts via hydrogen peroxide in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2022) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Clemen, Ramona; Kersting, Stephan; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; Bekeschus, Sander
    Gas plasma technology generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), inducing lethal oxidative damage in tumor cells. The transfer of gas plasma–derived ROS/RNS into liquids has been proposed as an innovative anti-cancer strategy targeting peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, the mechanism of action is under debate. To this end, we compared gas plasma–oxidized medical-grade sodium chloride (oxNaCl) with a concentration-matched control (cmc) of NaCl enriched with equivalent concentrations of H2O2 and NO32 in several cell lines and models of PC. Strikingly, oxNaCl and cmc performed equally well in oxidation and cytotoxic activity in tumor cells in two-dimensional cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids, vascularized 3D tumors grown on chicken-embryo chorioallantoic membranes, and a syngeneic PC mouse model in vivo. Given the importance of immunotherapies in oncology today, we focused on immunological consequences of the treatment. Again, to a similar extent, oxNaCl and cmc increased tumor cell immunogenicity and enhanced uptake by and maturation of peripheral blood monocyte–derived dendritic cells together with an inflammatory secretion profile. Furthermore, NanoString gene expression profiling revealed immune system processes and unfolded protein response-related pathways as being linked to the observed anti-tumor effects for both oxNaCl and cmc. In conclusion, gas plasma–generated oxNaCl and cmc showed equal therapeutic efficacy in our PC-related models. In light of the many promising anti-cancer studies of gas plasma–oxidized liquids and the convenient production of corresponding cmcs in large quantities as needed in clinics, our findings may spur research lines based on low-dose oxidants in peritoneal cancer therapy.