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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    Tumor cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of a novel V-jet neon plasma source compared to the kINPen
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Horn, Stefan; Niessner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Clemen, Ramona; Schmidt, Anke; Gerling, Torsten; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent research indicated the potential of cold physical plasma in cancer therapy. The plethora of plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediate diverse antitumor effects after eliciting oxidative stress in cancer cells. We aimed at exploiting this principle using a newly designed dual-jet neon plasma source (Vjet) to treat colorectal cancer cells. A treatment time-dependent ROS/RNS generation induced oxidation, growth retardation, and cell death within 3D tumor spheroids were found. In TUM-CAM, a semi in vivo model, the Vjet markedly reduced vascularized tumors' growth, but an increase of tumor cell immunogenicity or uptake by dendritic cells was not observed. By comparison, the argon-driven single jet kINPen, known to mediate anticancer effects in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, generated less ROS/RNS and terminal cell death in spheroids. In the TUM-CAM model, however, the kINPen was equivalently effective and induced a stronger expression of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) markers, leading to increased phagocytosis of kINPen but not Vjet plasma-treated tumor cells by dendritic cells. Moreover, the Vjet was characterized according to the requirements of the DIN-SPEC 91315. Our results highlight the plasma device-specific action on cancer cells for evaluating optimal discharges for plasma cancer treatment.
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    Non-thermal plasma modulates cellular markers associated with immunogenicity in a model of latent HIV-1 infection
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Mohamed, Hager; Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Wende, Kristian; Connors, Jennifer; Haddad, Elias K.; Dampier, Will; Wigdahl, Brian; Miller, Vandana; Bekeschus, Sander; Krebs, Fred C.; Kashanchi, Fatah
    Effective control of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), requires continuous and life-long use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). In the absence of ART, HIV-1 reemergence from latently infected cells is ineffectively suppressed due to suboptimal innate and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. However, ART-free control of HIV-1 infection may be possible if the inherent immunological deficiencies can be reversed or restored. Herein we present a novel approach for modulating the immune response to HIV-1 that involves the use of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which is an ionized gas containing various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). J-Lat cells were used as a model of latent HIV-1 infection to assess the effects of NTP application on viral latency and the expression of pro-phagocytic and pro-chemotactic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Exposure of J-Lat cells to NTP resulted in stimulation of HIV-1 gene expression, indicating a role in latency reversal, a necessary first step in inducing adaptive immune responses to viral antigens. This was accompanied by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); the display of pro-phagocytic markers calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90; and a correlated increase in macrophage phagocytosis of NTP-exposed J-Lat cells. In addition, modulation of surface molecules that promote or inhibit antigen presentation was also observed, along with an altered array of displayed peptides on MHC I, further suggesting methods by which NTP may modify recognition and targeting of cells in latent HIV-1 infection. These studies represent early progress toward an effective NTP-based ex vivo immunotherapy to resolve the dysfunctions of the immune system that enable HIV-1 persistence in PLWH.
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    Medical gas plasma augments bladder cancer cell toxicity in preclinical models and patient-derived tumor tissues
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Gelbrich, Nadine; Miebach, Lea; Berner, Julia; Freund, Eric; Saadati, Fariba; Schmidt, Anke; Stope, Matthias; Zimmermann, Uwe; Burchardt, Martin; Bekeschus, Sander
    Introduction: Medical gas plasma therapy has been successfully applied to several types of cancer in preclinical models. First palliative tumor patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer benefited from this novel therapeutic modality. The gas plasma-induced biological effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated in the plasma gas phase result in oxidation-induced lethal damage to tumor cells. Objectives: This study aimed to verify these anti-tumor effects of gas plasma exposure on urinary bladder cancer. Methods: 2D cell culture models, 3D tumor spheroids, 3D vascularized tumors grown on the chicken chorion-allantois-membrane (CAM) in ovo, and patient-derived primary cancer tissue gas plasma-treated ex vivo were used. Results: Gas plasma treatment led to oxidation, growth retardation, motility inhibition, and cell death in 2D and 3D tumor models. A marked decline in tumor growth was also observed in the tumors grown in ovo. In addition, results of gas plasma treatment on primary urothelial carcinoma tissues ex vivo highlighted the selective tumor-toxic effects as non-malignant tissue exposed to gas plasma was less affected. Whole-transcriptome gene expression analysis revealed downregulation of tumor-promoting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) accompanied by upregulation of apoptosis-inducing factor 2 (AIFm2), which plays a central role in caspase-independent cell death signaling. Conclusion: Gas plasma treatment induced cytotoxicity in patient-derived cancer tissue and slowed tumor growth in an organoid model of urinary bladder carcinoma, along with less severe effects in non-malignant tissues. Studies on the potential clinical benefits of this local and safe ROS therapy are awaited.
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    Gas plasma–oxidized sodium chloride acts via hydrogen peroxide in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis
    (Washington, DC : National Acad. of Sciences, 2022) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Clemen, Ramona; Kersting, Stephan; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; Bekeschus, Sander
    Gas plasma technology generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), inducing lethal oxidative damage in tumor cells. The transfer of gas plasma–derived ROS/RNS into liquids has been proposed as an innovative anti-cancer strategy targeting peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, the mechanism of action is under debate. To this end, we compared gas plasma–oxidized medical-grade sodium chloride (oxNaCl) with a concentration-matched control (cmc) of NaCl enriched with equivalent concentrations of H2O2 and NO32 in several cell lines and models of PC. Strikingly, oxNaCl and cmc performed equally well in oxidation and cytotoxic activity in tumor cells in two-dimensional cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids, vascularized 3D tumors grown on chicken-embryo chorioallantoic membranes, and a syngeneic PC mouse model in vivo. Given the importance of immunotherapies in oncology today, we focused on immunological consequences of the treatment. Again, to a similar extent, oxNaCl and cmc increased tumor cell immunogenicity and enhanced uptake by and maturation of peripheral blood monocyte–derived dendritic cells together with an inflammatory secretion profile. Furthermore, NanoString gene expression profiling revealed immune system processes and unfolded protein response-related pathways as being linked to the observed anti-tumor effects for both oxNaCl and cmc. In conclusion, gas plasma–generated oxNaCl and cmc showed equal therapeutic efficacy in our PC-related models. In light of the many promising anti-cancer studies of gas plasma–oxidized liquids and the convenient production of corresponding cmcs in large quantities as needed in clinics, our findings may spur research lines based on low-dose oxidants in peritoneal cancer therapy.
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    Gas Plasma Technology Augments Ovalbumin Immunogenicity and OT-II T Cell Activation Conferring Tumor Protection in Mice
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Mrochen, Daniel; Miebach, Lea; Schmidt, Anke; Rauch, Bernhard H.; Lackmann, Jan‐Wilm; Martens, Ulrike; Wende, Kristian; Lalk, Michael; Delcea, Mihaela; Bröker, Barbara M.; Bekeschus, Sander
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS/RNS) are produced during inflammation and elicit protein modifications, but the immunological consequences are largely unknown. Gas plasma technology capable of generating an unmatched variety of ROS/RNS is deployed to mimic inflammation and study the significance of ROS/RNS modifications using the model protein chicken ovalbumin (Ova vs oxOva). Dynamic light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy reveal structural modifications in oxOva compared to Ova. T cells from Ova-specific OT-II but not from C57BL/6 or SKH-1 wild type mice presents enhanced activation after Ova addition. OxOva exacerbates this activation when administered ex vivo or in vivo, along with an increased interferon-gamma production, a known anti-melanoma agent. OxOva vaccination of wild type mice followed by inoculation of syngeneic B16F10 Ova-expressing melanoma cells shows enhanced T cell number and activation, decreased tumor burden, and elevated numbers of antigen-presenting cells when compared to their Ova-vaccinated counterparts. Analysis of oxOva using mass spectrometry identifies three hot spots regions rich in oxidative modifications that are associated with the increased T cell activation. Using Ova as a model protein, the findings suggest an immunomodulating role of multi-ROS/RNS modifications that may spur novel research lines in inflammation research and for vaccination strategies in oncology.
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    Medical Gas Plasma Jet Technology Targets Murine Melanoma in an Immunogenic Fashion
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Bekeschus, Sander; Clemen, Ramona; Nießner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Freund, Eric; Schmidt, Anke
    Medical technologies from physics are imperative in the diagnosis and therapy of many types of diseases. In 2013, a novel cold physical plasma treatment concept was accredited for clinical therapy. This gas plasma jet technology generates large amounts of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS). Using a melanoma model, gas plasma technology is tested as a novel anticancer agent. Plasma technology derived ROS diminish tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Varying the feed gas mixture modifies the composition of ROS. Conditions rich in atomic oxygen correlate with killing activity and elevate intratumoral immune-infiltrates of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and dendritic cells. T-cells from secondary lymphoid organs of these mice stimulated with B16 melanoma cells ex vivo show higher activation levels as well. This correlates with immunogenic cancer cell death and higher calreticulin and heat-shock protein 90 expressions induced by gas plasma treatment in melanoma cells. To test the immunogenicity of gas plasma treated melanoma cells, 50% of mice vaccinated with these cells are protected from tumor growth compared to 1/6 and 5/6 mice negative control (mitomycin C) and positive control (mitoxantrone), respectively. Gas plasma jet technology is concluded to provide immunoprotection against malignant melanoma both in vitro and in vivo.