Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 106
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    Molecular mechanisms of the efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Semmler, Marie Luise; Bekeschus, Sander; Schäfer, Mirijam; Bernhardt, Thoralf; Fischer, Tobias; Witzke, Katharina; Seebauer, Christian; Rebl, Henrike; Grambow, Eberhard; Vollmar, Brigitte; Nebe, J. Barbara; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Woedtke, Thomas von; Emmert, Steffen; Boeckmann, Lars
    Recently, the potential use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment has gained increasing interest. Especially the enhanced selective killing of tumor cells compared to normal cells has prompted researchers to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for the efficacy of CAP in cancer treatment. This review summarizes the current understanding of how CAP triggers intracellular pathways that induce growth inhibition or cell death. We discuss what factors may contribute to the potential selectivity of CAP towards cancer cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts. Furthermore, the potential of CAP to trigger an immune response is briefly discussed. Finally, this overview demonstrates how these concepts bear first fruits in clinical applications applying CAP treatment in head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as actinic keratosis. Although significant progress towards understanding the underlying mechanisms regarding the efficacy of CAP in cancer treatment has been made, much still needs to be done with respect to different treatment conditions and comparison of malignant and non-malignant cells of the same cell type and same donor. Furthermore, clinical pilot studies and the assessment of systemic effects will be of tremendous importance towards bringing this innovative technology into clinical practice. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Tumor cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of a novel V-jet neon plasma source compared to the kINPen
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Horn, Stefan; Niessner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Clemen, Ramona; Schmidt, Anke; Gerling, Torsten; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent research indicated the potential of cold physical plasma in cancer therapy. The plethora of plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediate diverse antitumor effects after eliciting oxidative stress in cancer cells. We aimed at exploiting this principle using a newly designed dual-jet neon plasma source (Vjet) to treat colorectal cancer cells. A treatment time-dependent ROS/RNS generation induced oxidation, growth retardation, and cell death within 3D tumor spheroids were found. In TUM-CAM, a semi in vivo model, the Vjet markedly reduced vascularized tumors' growth, but an increase of tumor cell immunogenicity or uptake by dendritic cells was not observed. By comparison, the argon-driven single jet kINPen, known to mediate anticancer effects in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, generated less ROS/RNS and terminal cell death in spheroids. In the TUM-CAM model, however, the kINPen was equivalently effective and induced a stronger expression of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) markers, leading to increased phagocytosis of kINPen but not Vjet plasma-treated tumor cells by dendritic cells. Moreover, the Vjet was characterized according to the requirements of the DIN-SPEC 91315. Our results highlight the plasma device-specific action on cancer cells for evaluating optimal discharges for plasma cancer treatment.
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    Acquired cancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance: ROS as critical determinants
    (London : Macmillan Publishers, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander
    [No abstract available]
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    Argon Humidification Exacerbates Antimicrobial and Anti-MRSA kINPen Plasma Activity
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Clemen, Ramona; Singer, Debora; Skowski, Henry; Bekeschus, Sander
    Gas plasma is a medical technology with antimicrobial properties. Its main mode of action is oxidative damage via reactive species production. The clinical efficacy of gas plasma-reduced bacterial burden has been shown to be hampered in some cases. Since the reactive species profile produced by gas plasma jets, such as the kINPen used in this study, are thought to determine antimicrobial efficacy, we screened an array of feed gas settings in different types of bacteria. Antimicrobial analysis was performed by single-cell analysis using flow cytometry. We identified humidified feed gas to mediate significantly greater toxicity compared to dry argon and many other gas plasma conditions. The results were confirmed by inhibition zone analysis on gas-plasma-treated microbial lawns grown on agar plates. Our results may have vital implications for clinical wound management and potentially enhance antimicrobial efficacy of medical gas plasma therapy in patient treatment.
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    Biological Risk Assessment of Three Dental Composite Materials following Gas Plasma Exposure
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Miebach, Lea; Pommerening, Jonas; Clemen, Ramona; Witzke, Katharina
    Gas plasma is an approved technology that generates a plethora of reactive oxygen species, which are actively applied for chronic wound healing. Its particular antimicrobial action has spurred interest in other medical fields, such as periodontitis in dentistry. Recent work has indicated the possibility of performing gas plasma-mediated biofilm removal on teeth. Teeth frequently contain restoration materials for filling cavities, e.g., resin-based composites. However, it is unknown if such materials are altered upon gas plasma exposure. To this end, we generated a new in-house workflow for three commonly used resin-based composites following gas plasma treatment and incubated the material with human HaCaT keratinocytes in vitro. Cytotoxicity was investigated by metabolic activity analysis, flow cytometry, and quantitative high-content fluorescence imaging. The inflammatory consequences were assessed using quantitative analysis of 13 different chemokines and cytokines in the culture supernatants. Hydrogen peroxide served as the control condition. A modest but significant cytotoxic effect was observed in the metabolic activity and viability after plasma treatment for all three composites. This was only partially treatment time-dependent and the composites alone affected the cells to some extent, as evident by differential secretion profiles of VEGF, for example. Gas plasma composite modification markedly elevated the secretion of IL6, IL8, IL18, and CCL2, with the latter showing the highest correlation with treatment time (Pearson’s r > 0.95). Cell culture media incubated with gas plasma-treated composite chips and added to cells thereafter could not replicate the effects, pointing to the potential that surface modifications elicited the findings. In conclusion, our data suggest that gas plasma treatment modifies composite material surfaces to a certain extent, leading to measurable but overall modest biological effects.
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    Singlet-Oxygen-Induced Phospholipase A2 Inhibition: A Major Role for Interfacial Tryptophan Dioxidation
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Nasri, Zahra; Memari, Seyedali; Wenske, Sebastian; Clemen, Ramona; Martens, Ulrike; Delcea, Mihaela; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Wende, Kristian
    Several studies have revealed that various diseases such as cancer have been associated with elevated phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Therefore, the regulation of PLA2 catalytic activity is undoubtedly vital. In this study, effective inactivation of PLA2 due to reactive species produced from cold physical plasma as a source to model oxidative stress is reported. We found singlet oxygen to be the most relevant active agent in PLA2 inhibition. A more detailed analysis of the plasma-treated PLA2 identified tryptophan 128 as a hot spot, rich in double oxidation. The significant dioxidation of this interfacial tryptophan resulted in an N-formylkynurenine product via the oxidative opening of the tryptophan indole ring. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that the efficient interactions between the tryptophan residue and phospholipids are eliminated following tryptophan dioxidation. As interfacial tryptophan residues are predominantly involved in the attaching of membrane enzymes to the bilayers, tryptophan dioxidation and indole ring opening leads to the loss of essential interactions for enzyme binding and, consequently, enzyme inactivation. © 2021 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
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    Non-thermal plasma modulates cellular markers associated with immunogenicity in a model of latent HIV-1 infection
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Mohamed, Hager; Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Wende, Kristian; Connors, Jennifer; Haddad, Elias K.; Dampier, Will; Wigdahl, Brian; Miller, Vandana; Bekeschus, Sander; Krebs, Fred C.; Kashanchi, Fatah
    Effective control of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), requires continuous and life-long use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). In the absence of ART, HIV-1 reemergence from latently infected cells is ineffectively suppressed due to suboptimal innate and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. However, ART-free control of HIV-1 infection may be possible if the inherent immunological deficiencies can be reversed or restored. Herein we present a novel approach for modulating the immune response to HIV-1 that involves the use of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which is an ionized gas containing various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). J-Lat cells were used as a model of latent HIV-1 infection to assess the effects of NTP application on viral latency and the expression of pro-phagocytic and pro-chemotactic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Exposure of J-Lat cells to NTP resulted in stimulation of HIV-1 gene expression, indicating a role in latency reversal, a necessary first step in inducing adaptive immune responses to viral antigens. This was accompanied by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); the display of pro-phagocytic markers calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90; and a correlated increase in macrophage phagocytosis of NTP-exposed J-Lat cells. In addition, modulation of surface molecules that promote or inhibit antigen presentation was also observed, along with an altered array of displayed peptides on MHC I, further suggesting methods by which NTP may modify recognition and targeting of cells in latent HIV-1 infection. These studies represent early progress toward an effective NTP-based ex vivo immunotherapy to resolve the dysfunctions of the immune system that enable HIV-1 persistence in PLWH.
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    Short- and long-term polystyrene nano- and microplastic exposure promotes oxidative stress and divergently affects skin cell architecture and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling
    (London : BioMed Central, 2023) Schmidt, Anke; da Silva Brito, Walison Augusto; Singer, Debora; Mühl, Melissa; Berner, Julia; Saadati, Fariba; Wolff, Christina; Miebach, Lea; Wende, Kristian; Bekeschus, Sander
    Nano- and microplastic particles (NMP) are strong environmental contaminants affecting marine ecosystems and human health. The negligible use of biodegradable plastics and the lack of knowledge about plastic uptake, accumulation, and functional consequences led us to investigate the short- and long-term effects in freshly isolated skin cells from mice. Using fluorescent NMP of several sizes (200 nm to 6 µm), efficient cellular uptake was observed, causing, however, only minor acute toxicity as metabolic activity and apoptosis data suggested, albeit changes in intracellular reactive species and thiol levels were observed. The internalized NMP induced an altered expression of various targets of the nuclear factor-2-related transcription factor 2 pathway and were accompanied by changed antioxidant and oxidative stress signaling responses, as suggested by altered heme oxygenase 1 and glutathione peroxide 2 levels. A highly increased beta-catenin expression under acute but not chronic NMP exposure was concomitant with a strong translocation from membrane to the nucleus and subsequent transcription activation of Wnt signaling target genes after both single-dose and chronic long-term NMP exposure. Moreover, fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation accompanied by an increase of α smooth muscle actin and collagen expression was observed. Together with several NMP-induced changes in junctional and adherence protein expression, our study for the first time elucidates the acute and chronic effects of NMP of different sizes in primary skin cells' signaling and functional biology, contributing to a better understanding of nano- and microplastic to health risks in higher vertebrates.
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    Immunophenotyping of Circulating and Intratumoral Myeloid and T Cells in Glioblastoma Patients
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Marx, Sascha; Wilken, Fabian; Miebach, Lea; Ispirjan, Mikael; Kinnen, Frederik; Paul, Sebastian; Bien-Möller, Sandra; Freund, Eric; Baldauf, Jörg; Fleck, Steffen; Siebert, Nikolai; Lode, Holger; Stahl, Andreas; Rauch, Bernhard H.; Singer, Stephan; Ritter, Christoph; Schroeder, Henry W. S.; Bekeschus, Sander
    Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary brain malignancy that almost inevitably recurs as therapy-refractory cancer. While the success of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) revealed the immense potential of immune-targeted therapies in several types of cancers outside the central nervous system, it failed to show objective responses in glioblastoma patients as of now. The ability of glioblastoma cells to drive multiple modes of T cell dysfunction while exhibiting low-quality neoepitopes, low-mutational load, and poor antigen priming limits anti-tumor immunity and efficacy of antigen-unspecific immunotherapies such as ICB. An in-depth understanding of the GBM immune landscape is essential to delineate and reprogram such immunosuppressive circuits during disease progression. In this view, the present study aimed to characterize the peripheral and intratumoral immune compartments of 35 glioblastoma patients compared to age- and sex-matched healthy control probands, particularly focusing on exhaustion signatures on myeloid and T cell subsets. Compared to healthy control participants, different immune signatures were already found in the peripheral circulation, partially related to the steroid medication the patients received. Intratumoral CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells (CD62Llow/CD45ROhigh) revealed a high expression of PD1, which was also increased on intratumoral, pro-tumorigenic macrophages/microglia. Histopathological analysis further identified high PSGL-1 expression levels of the latter, which has recently been linked to increased metastasis in melanoma and colon cancer via P-selectin-mediated platelet activation. Overall, the present study comprises immunophenotyping of a patient cohort to give implications for eligible immunotherapeutic targets in neurooncology in the future.
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    Oxidized Proteins Differentially Affect Maturation and Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived Cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Clemen, Ramona; Arlt, Kevin; Miebach, Lea; von Woedtke, Thomas; Bekeschus, Sander
    In cancer, antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DCs), take up and process proteins to mount adaptive antitumor immune responses. This often happens in the context of inflamed cancer, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ubiquitous to modify proteins. However, the inflammatory consequences of oxidized protein uptake in DCs are understudied. To this end, we investigated human monocyte-derived cell surface marker expression and cytokine release profiles when exposed to oxidized and native proteins. Seventeen proteins were analyzed, including viral proteins (e.g., CMV and HBV), inflammation-related proteins (e.g., HO1 and HMGB1), matrix proteins (e.g., Vim and Coll), and vastly in the laboratory used proteins (e.g., BSA and Ova). The multifaceted nature of inflammation-associated ROS was mimicked using gas plasma technology, generating reactive species cocktails for protein oxidation. Fourteen oxidized proteins led to elevated surface marker expression levels of CD25, CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II as well as strongly modified release of IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL23, MCP-1, and TNFα compared to their native counterparts. Especially IL8, heme oxygenase 2, and vimentin oxidation gave pronounced effects. Furthermore, protein kinase phospho-array studies in monocyte-derived cells pulsed with native vs. oxidized IL8 and insulin showed enhanced AKT and RSK2 phosphorylation. In summary, our data provide for the first time an overview of the functional consequences of oxidized protein uptake by human monocyte-derived cells and could therefore be a starting point for exploiting such principle in anticancer therapy in the future.