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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    Cell cycle-related genes associate with sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Liebelt, Grit; Menz, Jonas; Singer, Debora; Wende, Kristian; Schmidt, Anke
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are well-described agents in physiology and pathology. Chronic inflammation causes incessant H2O2 generation associated with disease occurrences such as diabetes, autoimmunity, and cancer. In cancer, conditioning of the tumor microenvironment, e.g., hypoxia and ROS generation, has been associated with disease outcomes and therapeutic efficacy. Many reports have investigated the roles of the action of H2O2 across many cell lines and disease models. The genes predisposing tumor cell lines to H2O2-mediated demise are less deciphered, however. To this end, we performed in-house transcriptional profiling of 35 cell lines and simultaneously investigated each cell line's H2O2 inhibitory concentration (IC25) based on metabolic activity. More than 100-fold differences were observed between the most resistant and sensitive cell lines. Correlation and gene ontology pathway analysis identified a rigid association with genes intertwined in cell cycle progression and proliferation, as such functional categories dominated the top ten significant processes. The ten most substantially correlating genes (Spearman r > 0.70 or < -0.70) were validated using qPCR, showing complete congruency with microarray analysis findings. Western blotting confirmed the correlation of cell cycle-related proteins negatively correlating with H2O2 IC25. Top genes related to ROS production or antioxidant defense were only modest in correlation (Spearman r > 0.40 or < -0.40). In conclusion, our in-house transcriptomic correlation analysis revealed a set of cell cycle-associated genes associated with a priori resistance or sensitivity to H2O2-induced cellular demise with the detailed and causative roles of individual genes remaining unclear.
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    Medical gas plasma augments bladder cancer cell toxicity in preclinical models and patient-derived tumor tissues
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Gelbrich, Nadine; Miebach, Lea; Berner, Julia; Freund, Eric; Saadati, Fariba; Schmidt, Anke; Stope, Matthias; Zimmermann, Uwe; Burchardt, Martin; Bekeschus, Sander
    Introduction: Medical gas plasma therapy has been successfully applied to several types of cancer in preclinical models. First palliative tumor patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer benefited from this novel therapeutic modality. The gas plasma-induced biological effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated in the plasma gas phase result in oxidation-induced lethal damage to tumor cells. Objectives: This study aimed to verify these anti-tumor effects of gas plasma exposure on urinary bladder cancer. Methods: 2D cell culture models, 3D tumor spheroids, 3D vascularized tumors grown on the chicken chorion-allantois-membrane (CAM) in ovo, and patient-derived primary cancer tissue gas plasma-treated ex vivo were used. Results: Gas plasma treatment led to oxidation, growth retardation, motility inhibition, and cell death in 2D and 3D tumor models. A marked decline in tumor growth was also observed in the tumors grown in ovo. In addition, results of gas plasma treatment on primary urothelial carcinoma tissues ex vivo highlighted the selective tumor-toxic effects as non-malignant tissue exposed to gas plasma was less affected. Whole-transcriptome gene expression analysis revealed downregulation of tumor-promoting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) accompanied by upregulation of apoptosis-inducing factor 2 (AIFm2), which plays a central role in caspase-independent cell death signaling. Conclusion: Gas plasma treatment induced cytotoxicity in patient-derived cancer tissue and slowed tumor growth in an organoid model of urinary bladder carcinoma, along with less severe effects in non-malignant tissues. Studies on the potential clinical benefits of this local and safe ROS therapy are awaited.
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    xCT (SLC7A11) expression confers intrinsic resistance to physical plasma treatment in tumor cells
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Bekeschus, Sander; Eisenmann, Sebastian; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bodnar, Yana; Moritz, Juliane; Poschkamp, Broder; Stoffels, Ingo; Emmert, Steffen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar
    Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas investigated as a new anticancer tool in selectively targeting cancer cells in monotherapy or in combination with therapeutic agents. Here, we investigated the intrinsic resistance mechanisms of tumor cells towards physical plasma treatment. When analyzing the dose-response relationship to cold plasma-derived oxidants in 11 human cancer cell lines, we identified four 'resistant' and seven 'sensitive' cell lines. We observed stable intracellular glutathione levels following plasma treatment only in the 'resistant' cell lines indicative of altered antioxidant mechanisms. Assessment of proteins involved in GSH metabolism revealed cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT (SLC7A11) to be significantly more abundant in the 'resistant' cell lines as compared to 'sensitive' cell lines. This decisive role of xCT was confirmed by pharmacological and genetic inhibition, followed by cold physical plasma treatment. Finally, microscopy analysis of ex vivo plasma-treated human melanoma punch biopsies suggested a correlation between apoptosis and basal xCT protein abundance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that xCT holds the potential as a biomarker predicting the sensitivity of tumor cells towards plasma treatment.
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    Gas plasma-spurred wound healing is accompanied by regulation of focal adhesion, matrix remodeling, and tissue oxygenation
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Schmidt, Anke; Liebelt, Grit; Nießner, Felix; von Woedtke, Thomas; Bekeschus, Sander
    In response to injury, efficient migration of skin cells to rapidly close the wound and restore barrier function requires a range of coordinated processes in cell spreading and migration. Gas plasma technology produces therapeutic reactive species that promote skin regeneration by driving proliferation and angiogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating gas plasma-aided cell adhesion and matrix remodeling essential for wound closure remain elusive. Here, we combined in vitro analyses in primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from murine skin with in vivo studies in a murine wound model to demonstrate that gas plasma treatment changed phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as focal adhesion kinase and paxillin α in adhesion-associated complexes. In addition to cell spreading and migration, gas plasma exposure affected cell surface adhesion receptors (e.g., integrinα5β1, syndecan 4), structural proteins (e.g., vinculin, talin, actin), and transcription of genes associated with differentiation markers of fibroblasts-to-myofibroblasts and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cellular protrusions, fibronectin fibrillogenesis, matrix metabolism, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Finally, we documented that gas plasma exposure increased tissue oxygenation and skin perfusion during ROS-driven wound healing. Altogether, these results provide critical insights into the molecular machinery of gas plasma-assisted wound healing mechanisms.
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    Medical gas plasma-stimulated wound healing: Evidence and mechanisms
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Schmidt, Anke
    Defective wound healing poses a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. In recent years, a novel reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) based therapy has received considerable attention among dermatologists for targeting chronic wounds. The multifaceted ROS/RNS are generated using gas plasma technology, a partially ionized gas operated at body temperature. This review integrates preclinical and clinical evidence into a set of working hypotheses mainly based on redox processes aiding in elucidating the mechanisms of action and optimizing gas plasmas for therapeutic purposes. These hypotheses include increased wound tissue oxygenation and vascularization, amplified apoptosis of senescent cells, redox signaling, and augmented microbial inactivation. Instead of a dominant role of a single effector, it is proposed that all mechanisms act in concert in gas plasma-stimulated healing, rationalizing the use of this technology in therapy-resistant wounds. Finally, addressable current challenges and future concepts are outlined, which may further promote the clinical utilization, efficacy, and safety of gas plasma technology in wound care in the future.
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    Medical gas plasma promotes blood coagulation via platelet activation
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander; Poschkamp, Broder; van der Linde, Julia
    Major blood loss still is a risk factor during surgery. Electrocauterization often is used for necrotizing the tissue and thereby halts bleeding (hemostasis). However, the carbonized tissue is prone to falling off, putting patients at risk of severe side effects, such as dangerous internal bleeding many hours after surgery. We have developed a medical gas plasma jet technology as an alternative to electrocauterization and investigated its hemostatic (blood clotting) effects and mechanisms of action using whole human blood. The gas plasma efficiently coagulated anticoagulated donor blood, which resulted from the local lysis of red blood cells (hemolysis). Image cytometry further showed enhanced platelet aggregation. Gas plasmas release reactive oxygen species (ROS), but neither scavenging of long-lived ROS nor addition of chemically-generated ROS were able to abrogate or recapitulate the gas plasma effect, respectively. However, platelet activation was markedly impaired in platelet-rich plasma when compared to gas plasma-treated whole blood that moreover contained significant amounts of hemoglobin indicative of red blood cell lysis (hemolysis). Finally, incubation of whole blood with concentration-matched hemolysates phenocopied the gas plasmas-mediated platelet activation. These results will spur the translation of plasma systems for hemolysis into clinical practice.