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Now showing 1 - 10 of 24
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    Molecular mechanisms of the efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Semmler, Marie Luise; Bekeschus, Sander; Schäfer, Mirijam; Bernhardt, Thoralf; Fischer, Tobias; Witzke, Katharina; Seebauer, Christian; Rebl, Henrike; Grambow, Eberhard; Vollmar, Brigitte; Nebe, J. Barbara; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Woedtke, Thomas von; Emmert, Steffen; Boeckmann, Lars
    Recently, the potential use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment has gained increasing interest. Especially the enhanced selective killing of tumor cells compared to normal cells has prompted researchers to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for the efficacy of CAP in cancer treatment. This review summarizes the current understanding of how CAP triggers intracellular pathways that induce growth inhibition or cell death. We discuss what factors may contribute to the potential selectivity of CAP towards cancer cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts. Furthermore, the potential of CAP to trigger an immune response is briefly discussed. Finally, this overview demonstrates how these concepts bear first fruits in clinical applications applying CAP treatment in head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as actinic keratosis. Although significant progress towards understanding the underlying mechanisms regarding the efficacy of CAP in cancer treatment has been made, much still needs to be done with respect to different treatment conditions and comparison of malignant and non-malignant cells of the same cell type and same donor. Furthermore, clinical pilot studies and the assessment of systemic effects will be of tremendous importance towards bringing this innovative technology into clinical practice. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Plasma treatment limits human melanoma spheroid growth and metastasis independent of the ambient gas composition
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Hasse, Sybille; Meder, Tita; Freund, Eric; Woedtke, Thomas von; Bekeschus, Sander
    Melanoma skin cancer is still a deadly disease despite recent advances in therapy. Previous studies have suggested medical plasma technology as a promising modality for melanoma treatment. However, the efficacy of plasmas operated under different ambient air conditions and the comparison of direct and indirect plasma treatments are mostly unexplored for this tumor entity. Moreover, exactly how plasma treatment affects melanoma metastasis has still not been explained. Using 3D tumor spheroid models and high-content imaging technology, we addressed these questions by utilizing one metastatic and one non-metastatic human melanoma cell line targeted with an argon plasma jet. Plasma treatment was toxic in both cell lines. Modulating the oxygen and nitrogen ambient air composition (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100) gave similar toxicity and reduced the spheroid growth for all conditions. This was the case for both direct and indirect treatments, with the former showing a treatment time-dependent response while the latter resulted in cytotoxicity with the longest treatment time investigated. Live-cell imaging of in-gel cultured spheroids indicated that plasma treatment did not enhance metastasis, and flow cytometry showed a significant modulation of S100A4 but not in any of the five other metastasis-related markers (β-catenin, E-cadherin, LEF1, SLUG, and ZEB1) investigated. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Plasma Medicine Technologies
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Bekeschus, Sander; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Lin, Abraham; Choi, Eun Ha
    This Special Issue, entitled “Plasma Medicine Technologies”, covers the latest remarkable developments in the field of plasma bioscience and medicine. Plasma medicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of plasma physics, material science, bioscience, and medicine, towards the development of therapeutic strategies. A study on plasma medicine has yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in medical and dental sciences. An important aspect of this issue is the presentation of research underlying new therapeutic methods that are useful in medicine, dentistry, sterilization, and, in the current scenario, that challenge perspectives in biomedical sciences. This issue is focused on basic research on the characterization of the bioplasma sources applicable to living cells, especially to the human body, and fundamental research on the mutual interactions between bioplasma and organic–inorganic liquids, and bio or nanomaterials.
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    Physical plasma-treated skin cancer cells amplify tumor cytotoxicity of human natural killer (NK) cells
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Clemen, Ramona; Heirman, Pepijn; Lin, Abraham; Bogaerts, Annemie; Bekeschus, Sander
    Skin cancers have the highest prevalence of all human cancers, with the most lethal forms being squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Besides the conventional local treatment approaches like surgery and radiotherapy, cold physical plasmas are emerging anticancer tools. Plasma technology is used as a therapeutic agent by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence shows that inflammation and adaptive immunity are involved in cancer-reducing effects of plasma treatment, but the role of innate immune cells is still unclear. Natural killer (NK)-cells interact with target cells via activating and inhibiting surface receptors and kill in case of dominating activating signals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cold physical plasma (kINPen) on two skin cancer cell lines (A375 and A431), with non-malignant HaCaT keratinocytes as control, and identified a plasma treatment time-dependent toxicity that was more pronounced in the cancer cells. Plasma treatment also modulated the expression of activating and inhibiting receptors more profoundly in skin cancer cells compared to HaCaT cells, leading to significantly higher NK-cell killing rates in the tumor cells. Together with increased pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and IL-8, we conclude that plasma treatment spurs stress responses in skin cancer cells, eventually augmenting NK-cell activity. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Plasma treatment limits cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development in vitro and in vivo
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Pasqual-Melo, Gabriella; Nascimento, Thiago; Sanches, Larissa Juliani; Blegniski, Fernanda Paschoal; Bianchi, Julya Karen; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Berner, Julia; Schmidt, Anke; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Woedtke, Thomas von; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço; Bekeschus, Sander
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, increasing the cost of healthcare services and with a high rate of morbidity. Its etiology is linked to chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure that leads to malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Invasive growth and metastasis are severe consequences of this process. Therapy-resistant and highly aggressive SCC is frequently fatal, exemplifying the need for novel treatment strategies. Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas, expelling therapeutic doses of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that were investigated for their anticancer capacity against SCC in vitro and SCC-like lesions in vivo. Using the kINPen argon plasma jet, a selective growth-reducing action of plasma treatment was identified in two SCC cell lines in 2D and 3D cultures. In vivo, plasma treatment limited the progression of UVB-induced SSC-like skin lesions and dermal degeneration without compromising lesional or non-lesional skin. In lesional tissue, this was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 following plasma treatment, while catalase expression was increased. Analysis of skin adjacent to the lesions and determination of global antioxidant parameters confirmed the local but not systemic action of the plasma anticancer therapy in vivo. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Combining Biocompatible and Biodegradable Scaffolds and Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Chronic Wound Regeneration
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021) Emmert, Steffen; Pantermehl, Sven; Foth, Aenne; Waletzko-Hellwig, Janine; Hellwig, Georg; Bader, Rainer; Illner, Sabine; Grabow, Niels; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Jung, Ole; Boeckmann, Lars
    Skin regeneration is a quite complex process. Epidermal differentiation alone takes about 30 days and is highly regulated. Wounds, especially chronic wounds, affect 2% to 3% of the elderly population and comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The prevailing reasons to develop skin wounds include venous and/or arterial circulatory disorders, diabetes, or constant pressure to the skin (decubitus). The hallmarks of modern wound treatment include debridement of dead tissue, disinfection, wound dressings that keep the wound moist but still allow air exchange, and compression bandages. Despite all these efforts there is still a huge treatment resistance and wounds will not heal. This calls for new and more efficient treatment options in combination with novel biocompatible skin scaffolds. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is such an innovative addition to the treatment armamentarium. In one CAP application, antimicrobial effects, wound acidification, enhanced microcirculations and cell stimulation can be achieved. It is evident that CAP treatment, in combination with novel bioengineered, biocompatible and biodegradable electrospun scaffolds, has the potential of fostering wound healing by promoting remodeling and epithelialization along such temporarily applied skin replacement scaffolds.
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    Combined toxicity of gas plasma treatment and nanoparticles exposure in melanoma cells in vitro
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander
    Despite continuous advances in therapy, cancer remains a deadly disease. Over the past years, gas plasma technology emerged as a novel tool to target tumors, especially skin. Another promising anticancer approach are nanoparticles. Since combination therapies are becoming increas-ingly relevant in oncology, both gas plasma treatment and nanoparticle exposure were combined. A series of nanoparticles were investigated in parallel, namely, silica, silver, iron oxide, cerium oxide, titanium oxide, and iron-doped titanium oxide. For gas plasma treatment, the atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet kINPen was utilized. Using three melanoma cell lines, the two murine non-metastatic B16F0 and metastatic B16F10 cells and the human metastatic B-Raf mutant cell line SK-MEL-28, the combined cytotoxicity of both approaches was identified. The combined cytotoxicity of gas plasma treatment and nanoparticle exposure was consistent across all three cell lines for silica, silver, iron oxide, and cerium oxide. In contrast, for titanium oxide and iron-doped titanium oxide, significantly combined cytotoxicity was only observed in B16F10 cells.
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    Lack of Adverse Effects of Cold Physical Plasma-Treated Blood from Leukemia Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Study
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Golpour, Monireh; Alimohammadi, Mina; Mohseni, Alireza; Zaboli, Ehsan; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Bekeschus, Sander; Rafiei, Alireza
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common blood malignancy with multiple therapeutic challenges. Cold physical plasma has been considered a promising approach in cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of cold plasma or plasma-treated solutions (PTS) on hematologic parameters in the whole blood of CLL patients. The mean red blood cell count, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet and hemoglobin counts, and peripheral blood smear images did not significantly differ between treated and untreated samples in either CLL or healthy individuals. However, both direct plasma and indirect PTS treatment increased lipid peroxidation and RNS deposition in the whole blood of CLL patients and in healthy subjects. In addition, the metabolic activity of WBCs was decreased with 120 s of cold plasma or PTS treatment after 24 h and 48 h. However, cold plasma and PTS treatment did not affect the prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, nor hemolysis in either CLL patients or in healthy individuals. The present study identifies the components of cold plasma to reach the blood without disturbing the basic parameters important in hematology, confirming the idea that the effect of cold plasma may not be limited to solid tumors and possibly extends to hematological disorders. Further cellular and molecular studies are needed to determine which cells in CLL patients are targeted by cold plasma or PTS.
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    Ex Vivo Exposure of Human Melanoma Tissue to Cold Physical Plasma Elicits Apoptosis and Modulates Inflammation
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Bekeschus, Sander; Moritz, Juliane; Helfrich, Iris; Boeckmann, Lars; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Emmert, Steffen; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Stoffels, Ingo; von Woedtke, Thomas
    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a not-sufficient clinical outcome. High tumor mutation rates often hamper a remedial treatment, creating the need for palliative care in many patients. To reduce pain and burden, local palliation often includes cryo-ablation, immunotherapy via injection of IL2, or electrochemotherapy. Yet, a fraction of patients and lesions do not respond to those therapies. To reach even these resistances in a redox-mediated way, we treated skin biopsies from human melanoma ex vivo with cold physical plasma (kINPen MED plasma jet). This partially ionized gas generates a potent mixture of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physical plasmas have been shown to be potent antitumor agents in preclinical melanoma and clinical head and neck cancer research. The innovation of this technology lies in its ease-of-use without anesthesia, as the “cold” plasma temperature of the kINPen MED does not exceed 37 °C. In metastatic melanoma skin biopsies from six patients, we identified a marked increase of apoptosis with plasma treatment ex vivo. This had an impact on the chemokine/cytokine profile of the cultured biopsies, e.g., three of six patient-derived biopsy supernatants showed an apparent decrease in VEGF compared to non-plasma treated specimens. Moreover, the baseline release levels of 24 chemokines/cytokines investigated may serve as a useful tool for future research on melanoma skin biopsy treatments. Our findings suggest a clinically useful role of cold physical plasma therapy in palliation of cutaneous melanoma lesions, possibly in a combinatory setting with other immune therapies.
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    Multimodal imaging techniques to evaluate the anticancer effect of cold atmospheric pressure plasma
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Kordt, Marcel; Trautmann, Isabell; Schlie, Christin; Lindner, Tobias; Stenzel, Jan; Schildt, Anna; Boeckmann, Lars; Bekeschus, Sander; Kurth, Jens; Krause, Bernd J.; Vollmar, Brigitte; Grambow, Eberhard
    Background: Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer worldwide and is divided into non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, as well as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Methods: This study evaluates the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) on SCC and MM in vivo, employing a comprehensive approach using multi-modal imaging techniques. Longitudinal MR and PET/CT imaging were performed to determine the anatomic and metabolic tumour volume over three‐weeks in vivo. Additionally, the formation of reactive species after CAP treatment was assessed by non‐invasive chemiluminescence imaging of L‐012. Histological analysis and immunohistochemical staining for Ki‐67, ApopTag®, F4/80, CAE, and CD31, as well as protein expression of PCNA, caspase‐3 and cleaved‐caspase‐3, were performed to study proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis in CAP‐treated tumours. Results: As the main result, multimodal in vivo imaging revealed a substantial reduction in tumour growth and an increase in reactive species after CAP treatment, in comparison to untreated tu-mours. In contrast, neither the markers for apoptosis, nor the metabolic activity of both tumour entities was affected by CAP. Conclusions: These findings propose CAP as a potential adjuvant therapy option to established standard therapies of skin cancer.