Search Results

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Item
    Argon Plasma Exposure Augments Costimulatory Ligands and Cytokine Release in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021) Bekeschus, Sander; Meyer, Dorothee; Arlt, Kevin; von Woedtke, Thomas; Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Clemen, Ramona
    Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas expelling many reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Several plasma devices have been licensed for medical use in dermatology, and recent experimental studies suggest their putative role in cancer treatment. In cancer therapies with an immunological dimension, successful antigen presentation and inflammation modulation is a key hallmark to elicit antitumor immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for this task. However, the inflammatory consequences of DCs following plasma exposure are unknown. To this end, human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were expanded from isolated human primary monocytes; exposed to plasma; and their metabolic activity, surface marker expression, and cytokine profiles were analyzed. As controls, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and peroxynitrite were used. Among all types of ROS/RNS-mediated treatments, plasma exposure exerted the most notable increase of activation markers at 24 h such as CD25, CD40, and CD83 known to be crucial for T cell costimulation. Moreover, the treatments increased interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and IL-23. Altogether, this study suggests plasma treatment augmenting costimulatory ligand and cytokine expression in human moDCs, which might exert beneficial effects in the tumor microenvironment.
  • Item
    Periodic Exposure of Plasma-Activated Medium Alters Fibroblast Cellular Homoeostasis
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022) Bhartiya, Pradeep; Kaushik, Neha; Nguyen, Linh N.; Bekeschus, Sander; Masur, Kai; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha
    Excess amounts of redox stress and failure to regulate homeostatic levels of reactive species are associated with several skin pathophysiologic conditions. Nonmalignant cells are assumed to cope better with higher reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) levels. However, the effect of periodic stress on this balance has not been investigated in fibroblasts in the field of plasma medicine. In this study, we aimed to investigate intrinsic changes with respect to cellular proliferation, cell cycle, and ability to neutralize the redox stress inside fibroblast cells following periodic redox stress in vitro. Soft jet plasma with air as feeding gas was used to generate plasma-activated medium (PAM) for inducing redox stress conditions. We assessed cellular viability, energetics, and cell cycle machinery under oxidative stress conditions at weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Fibroblasts retained their usual physiological properties until 6 weeks. Fibroblasts failed to overcome the redox stress induced by periodic PAM exposure after 6 weeks, indicating its threshold potential. Periodic stress above the threshold level led to alterations in fibroblast cellular processes. These include consistent increases in apoptosis, while RONS accumulation and cell cycle arrest were observed at the final stages. Currently, the use of NTP in clinical settings is limited due to a lack of knowledge about fibroblasts’ behavior in wound healing, scar formation, and other fibrotic disorders. Understanding fibroblasts’ physiology could help to utilize nonthermal plasma in redox-related skin diseases. Furthermore, these results provide new information about the threshold capacity of fibroblasts and an insight into the adaptation mechanism against periodic oxidative stress conditions in fibroblasts.
  • Item
    Combining Biocompatible and Biodegradable Scaffolds and Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Chronic Wound Regeneration
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021) Emmert, Steffen; Pantermehl, Sven; Foth, Aenne; Waletzko-Hellwig, Janine; Hellwig, Georg; Bader, Rainer; Illner, Sabine; Grabow, Niels; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Jung, Ole; Boeckmann, Lars
    Skin regeneration is a quite complex process. Epidermal differentiation alone takes about 30 days and is highly regulated. Wounds, especially chronic wounds, affect 2% to 3% of the elderly population and comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The prevailing reasons to develop skin wounds include venous and/or arterial circulatory disorders, diabetes, or constant pressure to the skin (decubitus). The hallmarks of modern wound treatment include debridement of dead tissue, disinfection, wound dressings that keep the wound moist but still allow air exchange, and compression bandages. Despite all these efforts there is still a huge treatment resistance and wounds will not heal. This calls for new and more efficient treatment options in combination with novel biocompatible skin scaffolds. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is such an innovative addition to the treatment armamentarium. In one CAP application, antimicrobial effects, wound acidification, enhanced microcirculations and cell stimulation can be achieved. It is evident that CAP treatment, in combination with novel bioengineered, biocompatible and biodegradable electrospun scaffolds, has the potential of fostering wound healing by promoting remodeling and epithelialization along such temporarily applied skin replacement scaffolds.
  • Item
    Synergistic In Vitro Anticancer Toxicity of Pulsed Electric Fields and Glutathione
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022) Wolff, Christina M.; Bekeschus, Sander
    Despite continuous advancement in skin cancer therapy, the disease is still fatal in many patients, demonstrating the need to improve existing therapies, such as electrochemotherapy (ECT). ECT can be applied in the palliative or curative setting and is based on the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF), which by themselves exerts none to low cancer toxicity but become potently toxic when combined with low-dosed chemotherapeutics such as bleomycin and cisplatin. Albeit their favorable side-effect profiles, not all patients respond to standard ECT, and some responders experience tumor recurrence. To identify potential adjuvant or alternative agents to standard electrochemotherapy, we explored the possibility of combining PEF with a physiological compound, glutathione (GSH), to amplify anticancer toxicity. GSH is an endogenous antioxidant and is available as a dietary supplement. Surprisingly, neither GSH nor PEF mono treatment but GSH + PEF combination treatment exerted strong cytotoxic effects and declined metabolic activity in four skin cancer cell lines in vitro. The potential applicability to other tumor cells was verified by corroborating results in two leukemia cell lines. Strikingly, GSH + PEF treatment did not immediately increase intracellular GSH levels, while levels 24 h following treatment were enhanced. Similar tendencies were made for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, while extracellular ROS increased following combination treatment. ROS levels and the degree of cytotoxicity could be partially reversed by pre-incubating cells with the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase. Collectively, our findings suggest a promising new “endogenous” drug to be combined with PEF for future anticancer research approaches.
  • Item
    Biocompatible Gas Plasma Treatment Affects Secretion Profiles but Not Osteogenic Differentiation in Patient-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022) Fischer, Maximilian; Schoon, Janosch; Freund, Eric; Miebach, Lea; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bekeschus, Sander; Wassilew, Georgi I.
    Cold physical plasma (CPP), a partially ionized gas that simultaneously generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is suggested to provide advantages in regenerative medicine. Intraoperative CPP therapy targeting pathologies related to diminished bone quality could be promising in orthopedic surgery. Assessment of a clinically approved plasma jet regarding cellular effects on primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) from relevant arthroplasty patient cohorts is needed to establish CPP-based therapeutic approaches for bone regeneration. Thus, the aim of this study was to derive biocompatible doses of CPP and subsequent evaluation of human primary hBM-MSCs’ osteogenic and immunomodulatory potential. Metabolic activity and cell proliferation were affected in a treatment-time-dependent manner. Morphometric high content imaging analyses revealed a decline in mitochondria and nuclei content and increased cytoskeletal compactness following CPP exposure. Employing a nontoxic exposure regime, investigation on osteogenic differentiation did not enhance osteogenic capacity of hBM-MSCs. Multiplex analysis of major hBM-MSC cytokines, chemokines and growth factors revealed an anti-inflammatory, promatrix-assembling and osteoclast-regulating secretion profile following CPP treatment and osteogenic stimulus. This study can be noted as the first in vitro study addressing the influence of CPP on hBM-MSCs from individual donors of an arthroplasty clientele.