Search Results

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Item
    ROS Pleiotropy in Melanoma and Local Therapy with Physical Modalities
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bekeschus, Sander
    Metabolic energy production naturally generates unwanted products such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing oxidative damage. Oxidative damage has been linked to several pathologies, including diabetes, premature aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. ROS were therefore originally anticipated as an imperative evil, a product of an imperfect system. More recently, however, the role of ROS in signaling and tumor treatment is increasingly acknowledged. This review addresses the main types, sources, and pathways of ROS in melanoma by linking their pleiotropic roles in antioxidant and oxidant regulation, hypoxia, metabolism, and cell death. In addition, the implications of ROS in various physical therapy modalities targeting melanoma, such as radiotherapy, electrochemotherapy, hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy, and medical gas plasma, are also discussed. By including ROS in the main picture of melanoma skin cancer and as an integral part of cancer therapies, a greater understanding of melanoma cell biology is presented, which ultimately may elucidate additional clues on targeting therapy resistance of this most deadly form of skin cancer.
  • Item
    Cold Physical Plasma in Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms, Signaling, and Immunity
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Faramarzi, Fatemeh; Zafari, Parisa; Alimohammadi, Mina; Moonesi, Mohammadreza; Rafiei, Alireza; Bekeschus, Sander
    Despite recent advances in therapy, cancer still is a devastating and life-threatening disease, motivating novel research lines in oncology. Cold physical plasma, a partially ionized gas, is a new modality in cancer research. Physical plasma produces various physicochemical factors, primarily reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), causing cancer cell death when supplied at supraphysiological concentrations. This review outlines the biomedical consequences of plasma treatment in experimental cancer therapy, including cell death modalities. It also summarizes current knowledge on intracellular signaling pathways triggered by plasma treatment to induce cancer cell death. Besides the inactivation of tumor cells, an equally important aspect is the inflammatory context in which cell death occurs to suppress or promote the responses of immune cells. This is mainly governed by the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to provoke immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) that, in turn, activates cells of the innate immune system to promote adaptive antitumor immunity. The pivotal role of the immune system in cancer treatment, in general, is highlighted by many clinical trials and success stories on using checkpoint immunotherapy. Hence, the potential of plasma treatment to induce ICD in tumor cells to promote immunity targeting cancer lesions systemically is also discussed.
  • Item
    Combining Nanotechnology and Gas Plasma as an Emerging Platform for Cancer Therapy: Mechanism and Therapeutic Implication
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Rasouli, Milad; Fallah, Nadia; Bekeschus, Sander
    Nanomedicine and plasma medicine are innovative and multidisciplinary research fields aiming to employ nanotechnology and gas plasma to improve health-related treatments. Especially cancer treatment has been in the focus of both approaches because clinical response rates with traditional methods that remain improvable for many types of tumor entities. Here, we discuss the recent progress of nanotechnology and gas plasma independently as well as in the concomitant modality of nanoplasma as multimodal platforms with unique capabilities for addressing various therapeutic issues in oncological research. The main features, delivery vehicles, and nexus between reactivity and therapeutic outcomes of nanoparticles and the processes, efficacy, and mechanisms of gas plasma are examined. Especially that the unique feature of gas plasma technology, the local and temporally controlled deposition of a plethora of reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species released simultaneously might be a suitable additive treatment to the use of systemic nanotechnology therapy approaches. Finally, we focus on the convergence of plasma and nanotechnology to provide a suitable strategy that may lead to the required therapeutic outcomes.
  • Item
    H2A.X Phosphorylation in Oxidative Stress and Risk Assessment in Plasma Medicine
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Schütz, Clarissa S.; Stope, Matthias B.; Bekeschus, Sander
    At serine139-phosphorylated gamma histone H2A.X (γH2A.X) has been established over the decades as sensitive evidence of radiation-induced DNA damage, especially DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in radiation biology. Therefore, γH2A.X has been considered a suitable marker for biomedical applications and a general indicator of direct DNA damage with other therapeutic agents, such as cold physical plasma. Medical plasma technology generates a partially ionized gas releasing a plethora of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS) simultaneously that have been used for therapeutic purposes such as wound healing and cancer treatment. The quantification of γH2A.X as a surrogate parameter of direct DNA damage has often been used to assess genotoxicity in plasma-treated cells, whereas no sustainable mutagenic potential of the medical plasma treatment could be identified despite H2A.X phosphorylation. However, phosphorylated H2A.X occurs during apoptosis, which is associated with exposure to cold plasma and ROS. This review summarizes the current understanding of γH2A.X induction and function in oxidative stress in general and plasma medicine in particular. Due to the progress towards understanding the mechanisms of H2A.X phosphorylation in the absence of DSB and ROS, observations of γH2A.X in medical fields should be carefully interpreted.