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Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
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    Tumor cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of a novel V-jet neon plasma source compared to the kINPen
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Horn, Stefan; Niessner, Felix; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; von Woedtke, Thomas; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Clemen, Ramona; Schmidt, Anke; Gerling, Torsten; Bekeschus, Sander
    Recent research indicated the potential of cold physical plasma in cancer therapy. The plethora of plasma-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediate diverse antitumor effects after eliciting oxidative stress in cancer cells. We aimed at exploiting this principle using a newly designed dual-jet neon plasma source (Vjet) to treat colorectal cancer cells. A treatment time-dependent ROS/RNS generation induced oxidation, growth retardation, and cell death within 3D tumor spheroids were found. In TUM-CAM, a semi in vivo model, the Vjet markedly reduced vascularized tumors' growth, but an increase of tumor cell immunogenicity or uptake by dendritic cells was not observed. By comparison, the argon-driven single jet kINPen, known to mediate anticancer effects in vitro, in vivo, and in patients, generated less ROS/RNS and terminal cell death in spheroids. In the TUM-CAM model, however, the kINPen was equivalently effective and induced a stronger expression of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) markers, leading to increased phagocytosis of kINPen but not Vjet plasma-treated tumor cells by dendritic cells. Moreover, the Vjet was characterized according to the requirements of the DIN-SPEC 91315. Our results highlight the plasma device-specific action on cancer cells for evaluating optimal discharges for plasma cancer treatment.
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    Acquired cancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance: ROS as critical determinants
    (London : Macmillan Publishers, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander
    [No abstract available]
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    Non-thermal plasma modulates cellular markers associated with immunogenicity in a model of latent HIV-1 infection
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Mohamed, Hager; Clemen, Ramona; Freund, Eric; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Wende, Kristian; Connors, Jennifer; Haddad, Elias K.; Dampier, Will; Wigdahl, Brian; Miller, Vandana; Bekeschus, Sander; Krebs, Fred C.; Kashanchi, Fatah
    Effective control of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), requires continuous and life-long use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) by people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). In the absence of ART, HIV-1 reemergence from latently infected cells is ineffectively suppressed due to suboptimal innate and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. However, ART-free control of HIV-1 infection may be possible if the inherent immunological deficiencies can be reversed or restored. Herein we present a novel approach for modulating the immune response to HIV-1 that involves the use of non-thermal plasma (NTP), which is an ionized gas containing various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). J-Lat cells were used as a model of latent HIV-1 infection to assess the effects of NTP application on viral latency and the expression of pro-phagocytic and pro-chemotactic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Exposure of J-Lat cells to NTP resulted in stimulation of HIV-1 gene expression, indicating a role in latency reversal, a necessary first step in inducing adaptive immune responses to viral antigens. This was accompanied by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); the display of pro-phagocytic markers calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and 90; and a correlated increase in macrophage phagocytosis of NTP-exposed J-Lat cells. In addition, modulation of surface molecules that promote or inhibit antigen presentation was also observed, along with an altered array of displayed peptides on MHC I, further suggesting methods by which NTP may modify recognition and targeting of cells in latent HIV-1 infection. These studies represent early progress toward an effective NTP-based ex vivo immunotherapy to resolve the dysfunctions of the immune system that enable HIV-1 persistence in PLWH.
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    Periodic Exposure of Keratinocytes to Cold Physical Plasma: An In Vitro Model for Redox-Related Diseases of the Skin
    (London: Hindawi, 2016) Schmidt, Anke; von Woedtke, Thomas; Bekeschus, Sander
    Oxidative stress illustrates an imbalance between radical formation and removal. Frequent redox stress is critically involved in many human pathologies including cancer, psoriasis, and chronic wounds. However, reactive species pursue a dual role being involved in signaling on the one hand and oxidative damage on the other. Using a HaCaT keratinocyte cell culture model, we investigated redox regulation and inflammation to periodic, low-dose oxidative stress after two, six, eight, ten, and twelve weeks. Chronic redox stress was generated by recurrent incubation with cold physical plasma-treated cell culture medium. Using transcriptome microarray technology, we identified both acute ROS-stress responses as well as numerous adaptions after several weeks of redox challenge. We determined a differential expression (2-fold, FDR < 0.01, p < 0.05) of 260 genes that function in inflammation and redox homeostasis, such as cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), growth factors (e.g., CSF2, FGF, and IGF-2), and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., HMOX, NQO1, GPX, and PRDX). Apoptotic signaling was affected rather modestly, especially in p53 downstream targets (e.g., BCL2, BBC3, and GADD45). Strikingly, the cell-protective heat shock protein HSP27 was strongly upregulated (p < 0.001). These results suggested cellular adaptions to frequent redox stress and may help to better understand the inflammatory responses in redox-related diseases.
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    Oxygen atoms are critical in rendering THP-1 leukaemia cells susceptible to cold physical plasma-induced apoptosis
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2017-6-5) Bekeschus, Sander; Wende, Kristian; Hefny, Mohamed Mokhtar; Rödder, Katrin; Jablonowski, Helena; Schmidt, Anke; Woedtke, Thomas von; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Benedikt, Jan
    Cold physical plasma has been suggested as a powerful new tool in oncology. However, some cancer cells such as THP-1 leukaemia cells have been shown to be resistant towards plasma-induced cell death, thereby serving as a good model for optimizing plasmas in order to foster pro-apoptotic anticancer effects. A helium/oxygen radio frequency driven atmospheric plasma profoundly induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas helium, humidified helium, and humidified helium/oxygen plasmas were inefficient. Hydrogen peroxide – previously shown as central plasma-derived agent – did not participate in the killing reaction but our results suggest hypochlorous acid to be responsible for the effect observed. Proteomic analysis of THP-1 cells exposed to He/O2 plasma emphasized a prominent growth retardation, cell stress, apoptosis, and a pro-immunogenic profile. Altogether, a plasma setting that inactivates previously unresponsive leukaemia cells is presented. Crucial reactive species in the plasma and liquid environment were identified and discussed, deciphering the complexity of plasma from the gas phase into the liquid down to the cellular response mechanism. These results may help tailoring plasmas for clinical applications such as oxidation-insensitive types of cancer.
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    ROS Pleiotropy in Melanoma and Local Therapy with Physical Modalities
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bekeschus, Sander
    Metabolic energy production naturally generates unwanted products such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing oxidative damage. Oxidative damage has been linked to several pathologies, including diabetes, premature aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. ROS were therefore originally anticipated as an imperative evil, a product of an imperfect system. More recently, however, the role of ROS in signaling and tumor treatment is increasingly acknowledged. This review addresses the main types, sources, and pathways of ROS in melanoma by linking their pleiotropic roles in antioxidant and oxidant regulation, hypoxia, metabolism, and cell death. In addition, the implications of ROS in various physical therapy modalities targeting melanoma, such as radiotherapy, electrochemotherapy, hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy, and medical gas plasma, are also discussed. By including ROS in the main picture of melanoma skin cancer and as an integral part of cancer therapies, a greater understanding of melanoma cell biology is presented, which ultimately may elucidate additional clues on targeting therapy resistance of this most deadly form of skin cancer.
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    Non-thermal plasma-treated solution demonstrates antitumor activity against pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2017) Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Bekeschus, Sander; Kaeding, André; Hackbarth, Christine; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars Ivo
    Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high mortality rate. In advanced stage, patients often experience peritoneal carcinomatosis. Using a syngeneic murine pancreatic cancer cell tumor model, the effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) on peritoneal metastatic lesions was studied. NTP generates reactive species of several kinds which have been proven to be of relevance in cancer. In vitro, exposure to both plasma and plasma-treated solution significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation of 6606PDA cancer cells, whereas mouse fibroblasts were less affected. Repeated intraperitoneal treatment of NTP-conditioned medium decreased tumor growth in vivo as determined by magnetic resonance imaging, leading to reduced tumor mass and improved median survival (61 vs 52 days; p < 0.024). Tumor nodes treated by NTP-conditioned medium demonstrated large areas of apoptosis with strongly inhibited cell proliferation. Contemporaneously, no systemic effects were found. Apoptosis was neither present in the liver nor in the gut. Also, the concentration of different cytokines in splenocytes or blood plasma as well as the distribution of various hematological parameters remained unchanged following treatment with NTP-conditioned medium. These results suggest an anticancer role of NTP-treated solutions with little to no systemic side effects being present, making NTP-treated solutions a potential complementary therapeutic option for advanced tumors.
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    Cytochrome C oxidase Inhibition and Cold Plasma-derived Oxidants Synergize in Melanoma Cell Death Induction
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2018-8-24) Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Rödder, Katrin; Bodnar, Yana; Pasqual-Melo, Gabriella; Emmert, Steffen; Griguer, Corinne E.; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bekeschus, Sander
    Despite striking advances in the treatment of metastasized melanoma, the disease is often still fatal. Attention is therefore paid towards combinational regimens. Oxidants endogenously produced in mitochondria are currently targeted in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Cytotoxic synergism of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) inhibition in conjunction with addition of exogenous oxidants in 2D and 3D melanoma cell culture models were examined. Murine (B16) and human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells exposed to low-dose CcO inhibitors (potassium cyanide or sodium azide) or exogenous oxidants alone were non-toxic. However, we identified a potent cytotoxic synergism upon CcO inhibition and plasma-derived oxidants that led to rapid onset of caspase-independent melanoma cell death. This was mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction induced by superoxide elevation and ATP depletion. This observation was validated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of COX4I1 in SK-MEL-28 cells with cytotoxicity in the presence of exogenous oxidants. Similar effects were obtained with ADDA 5, a recently identified specific inhibitor of CcO activity showing low toxicity in vivo. Human keratinocytes were not affected by this combinational treatment, suggesting selective effects on melanoma cells. Hence, targeting mitochondrial CcO activity in conjunction with exogenous pro oxidant therapies may constitute a new and effective melanoma treatment modality.
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    Combining Nanotechnology and Gas Plasma as an Emerging Platform for Cancer Therapy: Mechanism and Therapeutic Implication
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2021) Rasouli, Milad; Fallah, Nadia; Bekeschus, Sander
    Nanomedicine and plasma medicine are innovative and multidisciplinary research fields aiming to employ nanotechnology and gas plasma to improve health-related treatments. Especially cancer treatment has been in the focus of both approaches because clinical response rates with traditional methods that remain improvable for many types of tumor entities. Here, we discuss the recent progress of nanotechnology and gas plasma independently as well as in the concomitant modality of nanoplasma as multimodal platforms with unique capabilities for addressing various therapeutic issues in oncological research. The main features, delivery vehicles, and nexus between reactivity and therapeutic outcomes of nanoparticles and the processes, efficacy, and mechanisms of gas plasma are examined. Especially that the unique feature of gas plasma technology, the local and temporally controlled deposition of a plethora of reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species released simultaneously might be a suitable additive treatment to the use of systemic nanotechnology therapy approaches. Finally, we focus on the convergence of plasma and nanotechnology to provide a suitable strategy that may lead to the required therapeutic outcomes.
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    Oxidants and Redox Signaling: Perspectives in Cancer Therapy, Inflammation, and Plasma Medicine
    (Austin, Tex. : Landes Bioscience, 2017) Bekeschus, Sander; Bräutigam, Lars; Wende, Kristian; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria
    [No abstract available]