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- ItemMolecular mechanisms of the efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Semmler, Marie Luise; Bekeschus, Sander; Schäfer, Mirijam; Bernhardt, Thoralf; Fischer, Tobias; Witzke, Katharina; Seebauer, Christian; Rebl, Henrike; Grambow, Eberhard; Vollmar, Brigitte; Nebe, J. Barbara; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Woedtke, Thomas von; Emmert, Steffen; Boeckmann, LarsRecently, the potential use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment has gained increasing interest. Especially the enhanced selective killing of tumor cells compared to normal cells has prompted researchers to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for the efficacy of CAP in cancer treatment. This review summarizes the current understanding of how CAP triggers intracellular pathways that induce growth inhibition or cell death. We discuss what factors may contribute to the potential selectivity of CAP towards cancer cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts. Furthermore, the potential of CAP to trigger an immune response is briefly discussed. Finally, this overview demonstrates how these concepts bear first fruits in clinical applications applying CAP treatment in head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as actinic keratosis. Although significant progress towards understanding the underlying mechanisms regarding the efficacy of CAP in cancer treatment has been made, much still needs to be done with respect to different treatment conditions and comparison of malignant and non-malignant cells of the same cell type and same donor. Furthermore, clinical pilot studies and the assessment of systemic effects will be of tremendous importance towards bringing this innovative technology into clinical practice. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemCold Atmospheric Plasma in the Treatment of Osteosarcoma(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International, 2017-9-19) Gümbel, Denis; Bekeschus, Sander; Gelbrich, Nadine; Napp, Matthias; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Kramer, Axel; Stope, Matthias B.Human osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. Major improvements in disease-free survival have been achieved by implementing a combination therapy consisting of radical surgical resection of the tumor and systemic multi-agent chemotherapy. However, long-term survival remains poor, so novel targeted therapies to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma remains an area of active research. This includes immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or treatment with nanoparticles. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), a highly reactive (partially) ionized physical state, has been shown to inherit a significant anticancer capacity, leading to a new field in medicine called “plasma oncology.” The current article summarizes the potential of CAP in the treatment of human OS and reviews the underlying molecular mode of action.
- ItemCold argon plasma as adjuvant tumour therapy on progressive head and neck cancer: A preclinical study(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Hasse, Sybille; Seebauer, Christian; Wende, Kristian; Schmidt, Anke; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Woedtke, Thomas von; Bekeschus, SanderInvestigating cold argon plasma (CAP) for medical applications is a rapidly growing, innovative field of research. The controllable supply of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through CAP has the potential for utilization in tumour treatment. Maxillofacial surgery is limited if tumours grow on vital structures such as the arteria carotis. Here CAP could be considered as an option for adjuvant intraoperative tumour therapy especially in the case of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Further preclinical research is necessary to investigate the efficacy of this technology for future clinical applications in cancer treatment. Initially, a variety of in vitro assays was performed on two cell lines that served as surrogate for the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and healthy tissue, respectively. Cell viability, motility and the activation of apoptosis in SCC cells (HNO97) was compared with those in normal HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, induction of apoptosis in ex vivo CAP treated human tissue biopsies of patients with tumours of the head and neck was monitored and compared to healthy control tissue of the same patient. In response to CAP treatment, normal HaCaT keratinocytes differed significantly from their malignant counterpart HNO97 cells in cell motility only whereas cell viability remained similar. Moreover, CAP treatment of tumour tissue induced more apoptotic cells than in healthy tissue that was accompanied by elevated extracellular cytochrome c levels. This study promotes a future role of CAP as an adjuvant intraoperative tumour therapy option in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Moreover, patient-derived tissue explants complement in vitro examinations in a meaningful way to reflect an antitumoral role of CAP. © 2019 by the authors.
- ItemPlasma treatment limits human melanoma spheroid growth and metastasis independent of the ambient gas composition(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Hasse, Sybille; Meder, Tita; Freund, Eric; Woedtke, Thomas von; Bekeschus, SanderMelanoma skin cancer is still a deadly disease despite recent advances in therapy. Previous studies have suggested medical plasma technology as a promising modality for melanoma treatment. However, the efficacy of plasmas operated under different ambient air conditions and the comparison of direct and indirect plasma treatments are mostly unexplored for this tumor entity. Moreover, exactly how plasma treatment affects melanoma metastasis has still not been explained. Using 3D tumor spheroid models and high-content imaging technology, we addressed these questions by utilizing one metastatic and one non-metastatic human melanoma cell line targeted with an argon plasma jet. Plasma treatment was toxic in both cell lines. Modulating the oxygen and nitrogen ambient air composition (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100) gave similar toxicity and reduced the spheroid growth for all conditions. This was the case for both direct and indirect treatments, with the former showing a treatment time-dependent response while the latter resulted in cytotoxicity with the longest treatment time investigated. Live-cell imaging of in-gel cultured spheroids indicated that plasma treatment did not enhance metastasis, and flow cytometry showed a significant modulation of S100A4 but not in any of the five other metastasis-related markers (β-catenin, E-cadherin, LEF1, SLUG, and ZEB1) investigated. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemPlasma Medicine Technologies(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Bekeschus, Sander; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Lin, Abraham; Choi, Eun HaThis Special Issue, entitled “Plasma Medicine Technologies”, covers the latest remarkable developments in the field of plasma bioscience and medicine. Plasma medicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of plasma physics, material science, bioscience, and medicine, towards the development of therapeutic strategies. A study on plasma medicine has yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in medical and dental sciences. An important aspect of this issue is the presentation of research underlying new therapeutic methods that are useful in medicine, dentistry, sterilization, and, in the current scenario, that challenge perspectives in biomedical sciences. This issue is focused on basic research on the characterization of the bioplasma sources applicable to living cells, especially to the human body, and fundamental research on the mutual interactions between bioplasma and organic–inorganic liquids, and bio or nanomaterials.
- ItemPhysical plasma-treated skin cancer cells amplify tumor cytotoxicity of human natural killer (NK) cells(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Clemen, Ramona; Heirman, Pepijn; Lin, Abraham; Bogaerts, Annemie; Bekeschus, SanderSkin cancers have the highest prevalence of all human cancers, with the most lethal forms being squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Besides the conventional local treatment approaches like surgery and radiotherapy, cold physical plasmas are emerging anticancer tools. Plasma technology is used as a therapeutic agent by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence shows that inflammation and adaptive immunity are involved in cancer-reducing effects of plasma treatment, but the role of innate immune cells is still unclear. Natural killer (NK)-cells interact with target cells via activating and inhibiting surface receptors and kill in case of dominating activating signals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cold physical plasma (kINPen) on two skin cancer cell lines (A375 and A431), with non-malignant HaCaT keratinocytes as control, and identified a plasma treatment time-dependent toxicity that was more pronounced in the cancer cells. Plasma treatment also modulated the expression of activating and inhibiting receptors more profoundly in skin cancer cells compared to HaCaT cells, leading to significantly higher NK-cell killing rates in the tumor cells. Together with increased pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and IL-8, we conclude that plasma treatment spurs stress responses in skin cancer cells, eventually augmenting NK-cell activity. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemPlasma treatment limits cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development in vitro and in vivo(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Pasqual-Melo, Gabriella; Nascimento, Thiago; Sanches, Larissa Juliani; Blegniski, Fernanda Paschoal; Bianchi, Julya Karen; Sagwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Berner, Julia; Schmidt, Anke; Emmert, Steffen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Woedtke, Thomas von; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço; Bekeschus, SanderCutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, increasing the cost of healthcare services and with a high rate of morbidity. Its etiology is linked to chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure that leads to malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Invasive growth and metastasis are severe consequences of this process. Therapy-resistant and highly aggressive SCC is frequently fatal, exemplifying the need for novel treatment strategies. Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas, expelling therapeutic doses of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that were investigated for their anticancer capacity against SCC in vitro and SCC-like lesions in vivo. Using the kINPen argon plasma jet, a selective growth-reducing action of plasma treatment was identified in two SCC cell lines in 2D and 3D cultures. In vivo, plasma treatment limited the progression of UVB-induced SSC-like skin lesions and dermal degeneration without compromising lesional or non-lesional skin. In lesional tissue, this was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 following plasma treatment, while catalase expression was increased. Analysis of skin adjacent to the lesions and determination of global antioxidant parameters confirmed the local but not systemic action of the plasma anticancer therapy in vivo. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemCombining Biocompatible and Biodegradable Scaffolds and Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Chronic Wound Regeneration(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021) Emmert, Steffen; Pantermehl, Sven; Foth, Aenne; Waletzko-Hellwig, Janine; Hellwig, Georg; Bader, Rainer; Illner, Sabine; Grabow, Niels; Bekeschus, Sander; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Jung, Ole; Boeckmann, LarsSkin regeneration is a quite complex process. Epidermal differentiation alone takes about 30 days and is highly regulated. Wounds, especially chronic wounds, affect 2% to 3% of the elderly population and comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The prevailing reasons to develop skin wounds include venous and/or arterial circulatory disorders, diabetes, or constant pressure to the skin (decubitus). The hallmarks of modern wound treatment include debridement of dead tissue, disinfection, wound dressings that keep the wound moist but still allow air exchange, and compression bandages. Despite all these efforts there is still a huge treatment resistance and wounds will not heal. This calls for new and more efficient treatment options in combination with novel biocompatible skin scaffolds. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is such an innovative addition to the treatment armamentarium. In one CAP application, antimicrobial effects, wound acidification, enhanced microcirculations and cell stimulation can be achieved. It is evident that CAP treatment, in combination with novel bioengineered, biocompatible and biodegradable electrospun scaffolds, has the potential of fostering wound healing by promoting remodeling and epithelialization along such temporarily applied skin replacement scaffolds.
- ItemActivation of murine immune cells upon co-culture with plasma-treated B16F10 melanoma cells(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Rödder, Katrin; Moritz, Juliane; Miller, Vandana; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Gandhirajan, Rajesh; Bekeschus, SanderRecent advances in melanoma therapy increased median survival in patients. However, death rates are still high, motivating the need of novel avenues in melanoma treatment. Cold physical plasma expels a cocktail of reactive species that have been suggested for cancer treatment. High species concentrations can be used to exploit apoptotic redox signaling pathways in tumor cells. Moreover, an immune-stimulatory role of plasma treatment, as well as plasma-killed tumor cells, was recently proposed, but studies using primary immune cells are scarce. To this end, we investigated the role of plasma-treated murine B16F10 melanoma cells in modulating murine immune cells' activation and marker profile. Melanoma cells exposed to plasma showed reduced metabolic and migratory activity, and an increased release of danger signals (ATP, CXCL1). This led to an altered cytokine profile with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CCL4 being significantly increased in plasma-treated mono- and co-cultures with immune cells. In T cells, plasma-treated melanoma cells induced extracellular signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and increased CD28 expression, suggesting their activation. In monocytes, CD115 expression was elevated as a marker for activation. In summary, here we provide proof of concept that plasma-killed tumor cells are recognized immunologically, and that plasma exerts stimulating effects on immune cells alone. © 2019 by the authors.
- ItemCombined toxicity of gas plasma treatment and nanoparticles exposure in melanoma cells in vitro(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Bekeschus, SanderDespite continuous advances in therapy, cancer remains a deadly disease. Over the past years, gas plasma technology emerged as a novel tool to target tumors, especially skin. Another promising anticancer approach are nanoparticles. Since combination therapies are becoming increas-ingly relevant in oncology, both gas plasma treatment and nanoparticle exposure were combined. A series of nanoparticles were investigated in parallel, namely, silica, silver, iron oxide, cerium oxide, titanium oxide, and iron-doped titanium oxide. For gas plasma treatment, the atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet kINPen was utilized. Using three melanoma cell lines, the two murine non-metastatic B16F0 and metastatic B16F10 cells and the human metastatic B-Raf mutant cell line SK-MEL-28, the combined cytotoxicity of both approaches was identified. The combined cytotoxicity of gas plasma treatment and nanoparticle exposure was consistent across all three cell lines for silica, silver, iron oxide, and cerium oxide. In contrast, for titanium oxide and iron-doped titanium oxide, significantly combined cytotoxicity was only observed in B16F10 cells.