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Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
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    Argon Humidification Exacerbates Antimicrobial and Anti-MRSA kINPen Plasma Activity
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Clemen, Ramona; Singer, Debora; Skowski, Henry; Bekeschus, Sander
    Gas plasma is a medical technology with antimicrobial properties. Its main mode of action is oxidative damage via reactive species production. The clinical efficacy of gas plasma-reduced bacterial burden has been shown to be hampered in some cases. Since the reactive species profile produced by gas plasma jets, such as the kINPen used in this study, are thought to determine antimicrobial efficacy, we screened an array of feed gas settings in different types of bacteria. Antimicrobial analysis was performed by single-cell analysis using flow cytometry. We identified humidified feed gas to mediate significantly greater toxicity compared to dry argon and many other gas plasma conditions. The results were confirmed by inhibition zone analysis on gas-plasma-treated microbial lawns grown on agar plates. Our results may have vital implications for clinical wound management and potentially enhance antimicrobial efficacy of medical gas plasma therapy in patient treatment.
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    Biological Risk Assessment of Three Dental Composite Materials following Gas Plasma Exposure
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Bekeschus, Sander; Miebach, Lea; Pommerening, Jonas; Clemen, Ramona; Witzke, Katharina
    Gas plasma is an approved technology that generates a plethora of reactive oxygen species, which are actively applied for chronic wound healing. Its particular antimicrobial action has spurred interest in other medical fields, such as periodontitis in dentistry. Recent work has indicated the possibility of performing gas plasma-mediated biofilm removal on teeth. Teeth frequently contain restoration materials for filling cavities, e.g., resin-based composites. However, it is unknown if such materials are altered upon gas plasma exposure. To this end, we generated a new in-house workflow for three commonly used resin-based composites following gas plasma treatment and incubated the material with human HaCaT keratinocytes in vitro. Cytotoxicity was investigated by metabolic activity analysis, flow cytometry, and quantitative high-content fluorescence imaging. The inflammatory consequences were assessed using quantitative analysis of 13 different chemokines and cytokines in the culture supernatants. Hydrogen peroxide served as the control condition. A modest but significant cytotoxic effect was observed in the metabolic activity and viability after plasma treatment for all three composites. This was only partially treatment time-dependent and the composites alone affected the cells to some extent, as evident by differential secretion profiles of VEGF, for example. Gas plasma composite modification markedly elevated the secretion of IL6, IL8, IL18, and CCL2, with the latter showing the highest correlation with treatment time (Pearson’s r > 0.95). Cell culture media incubated with gas plasma-treated composite chips and added to cells thereafter could not replicate the effects, pointing to the potential that surface modifications elicited the findings. In conclusion, our data suggest that gas plasma treatment modifies composite material surfaces to a certain extent, leading to measurable but overall modest biological effects.
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    Oxidized Proteins Differentially Affect Maturation and Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived Cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Clemen, Ramona; Arlt, Kevin; Miebach, Lea; von Woedtke, Thomas; Bekeschus, Sander
    In cancer, antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DCs), take up and process proteins to mount adaptive antitumor immune responses. This often happens in the context of inflamed cancer, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ubiquitous to modify proteins. However, the inflammatory consequences of oxidized protein uptake in DCs are understudied. To this end, we investigated human monocyte-derived cell surface marker expression and cytokine release profiles when exposed to oxidized and native proteins. Seventeen proteins were analyzed, including viral proteins (e.g., CMV and HBV), inflammation-related proteins (e.g., HO1 and HMGB1), matrix proteins (e.g., Vim and Coll), and vastly in the laboratory used proteins (e.g., BSA and Ova). The multifaceted nature of inflammation-associated ROS was mimicked using gas plasma technology, generating reactive species cocktails for protein oxidation. Fourteen oxidized proteins led to elevated surface marker expression levels of CD25, CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II as well as strongly modified release of IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL23, MCP-1, and TNFα compared to their native counterparts. Especially IL8, heme oxygenase 2, and vimentin oxidation gave pronounced effects. Furthermore, protein kinase phospho-array studies in monocyte-derived cells pulsed with native vs. oxidized IL8 and insulin showed enhanced AKT and RSK2 phosphorylation. In summary, our data provide for the first time an overview of the functional consequences of oxidized protein uptake by human monocyte-derived cells and could therefore be a starting point for exploiting such principle in anticancer therapy in the future.
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    Zebrafish larvae as a toxicity model in plasma medicine
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley Interscience, 2021) Gandhirajan, Rajesh K.; Endlich, Nicole; Bekeschus, Sander
    Plasma technology has emerged as a promising tool in medicine that, however, requires not only efficacy but also toxicological assessments. Traditional cell culture systems are fast and economical, but they lack in vivo relevance; however, rodent models are highly complex and necessitate extended facilities. Zebrafish larvae bridge this gap, and many larvae can be analyzed in well plates in a single run, giving results in 1–2 days. Using the kINPen, we found plasma exposure to reduce hedging rates and viability in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease of glutathione in plasma-treated fish. Modest growth alterations were also observed. Altogether, zebrafish larvae constitute a fast, reliable, and relevant model for testing the toxicity of plasma sources.
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    Combined toxicity of indirubins with cold physical plasma in skin cancer cells in vitro
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2022) Berner, Julia; Bekeschus, Sander
    Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas that generates various components identified as potential anticancer compounds. Due to its topical application, cold plasmas are suitable, especially in dermatological applications. We, therefore, tested the cold plasma effects in skin cancer cells in vitro. An atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet was used as the plasma source. The plasma exposure alone reduced the metabolic activity and induced lethal effects in a treatment time-dependent fashion in both cell lines investigated. This was accompanied by executioner caspases 3 and 7, cleavage indicative of apoptosis and reduced cell migration and proliferation. Recent research also indicated roles of novel indirubin derivatives with potent anticancer effects. Three candidates were tested, and reduced metabolic activity and viability in a dose-dependent manner were found. Strikingly, one compound exerted notable synergistic toxicity when combined with plasma in skin cancer cells, which may be promising for future in vivo experiments.
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    Plasma-Treated Solutions (PTS) in Cancer Therapy
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Tanaka, Hiromasa; Bekeschus, Sander; Yan, Dayun; Hori, Masaru; Keidar, Michael; Laroussi, Mounir
    Cold physical plasma is a partially ionized gas generating various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) simultaneously. ROS/RNS have therapeutic effects when applied to cells and tissues either directly from the plasma or via exposure to solutions that have been treated beforehand using plasma processes. This review addresses the challenges and opportunities of plasma-treated solutions (PTSs) for cancer treatment. These PTSs include plasma-treated cell culture media in experimental research as well as clinically approved solutions such as saline and Ringer’s lactate, which, in principle, already qualify for testing in therapeutic settings. Several types of cancers were found to succumb to the toxic action of PTSs, suggesting a broad mechanism of action based on the tumor-toxic activity of ROS/RNS stored in these solutions. Moreover, it is indi-cated that the PTS has immuno-stimulatory properties. Two different routes of application are cur-rently envisaged in the clinical setting. One is direct injection into the bulk tumor, and the other is lavage in patients suffering from peritoneal carcinomatosis adjuvant to standard chemotherapy. While many promising results have been achieved so far, several obstacles, such as the standardized generation of large volumes of sterile PTS, remain to be addressed. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Gas Flow Shaping via Novel Modular Nozzle System (MoNoS) Augments kINPen-Mediated Toxicity and Immunogenicity in Tumor Organoids
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Berner, Julia; Miebach, Lea; Herold, Luise; Höft, Hans; Gerling, Torsten; Mattern, Philipp; Bekeschus, Sander
    Medical gas plasma is an experimental technology for anticancer therapy. Here, partial gas ionization yielded reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, placing the technique at the heart of applied redox biomedicine. Especially with the gas plasma jet kINPen, anti-tumor efficacy was demonstrated. This study aimed to examine the potential of using passive flow shaping to enhance the medical benefits of atmospheric plasma jets (APPJ). We used an in-house developed, proprietary Modular Nozzle System (MoNoS; patent-pending) to modify the flow properties of a kINPen. MoNoS increased the nominal plasma jet-derived reactive species deposition area and stabilized the air-plasma ratio within the active plasma zone while shielding it from external flow disturbances or gas impurities. At modest flow rates, dynamic pressure reduction (DPR) adapters did not augment reactive species deposition in liquids or tumor cell killing. However, MoNoS operated at kINPen standard argon fluxes significantly improved cancer organoid growth reduction and increased tumor immunogenicity, as seen by elevated calreticulin and heat-shock protein expression, along with a significantly spurred cytokine secretion profile. Moreover, the safe application of MoNoS gas plasma jet adapters was confirmed by their similar-to-superior safety profiles assessed in the hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) coagulation and scar formation irritation assay.
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    Therapeutic ROS and Immunity in Cancer-The TRIC-21 Meeting
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Bekeschus, Sander; Emmert, Steffen; Clemen, Ramona; Boeckmann, Lars
    The first Therapeutic ROS and Immunity in Cancer (TRIC) meeting was organized by the excellence research center ZIK plasmatis (with its previous Frontiers in Redox Biochemistry and Medicine (FiRBaM) and Young Professionals' Workshop in Plasma Medicine (YPWPM) workshop series in Northern Germany) and the excellence research program ONKOTHER-H (Rostock/Greifswald, Germany). The meeting showcased cutting-edge research and liberated discussions on the application of therapeutic ROS and immunology in cancer treatment, primarily focusing on gas plasma technology. The 2-day hybrid meeting took place in Greifswald and online from 15-16 July 2021, facilitating a wide range of participants totaling 66 scientists from 12 countries and 5 continents. The meeting aimed at bringing together researchers from a variety of disciplines, including chemists, biochemists, biologists, engineers, immunologists, physicists, and physicians for interdisciplinary discussions on using therapeutic ROS and medical gas plasma technology in cancer therapy with the four main sessions: "Plasma, Cancer, Immunity", "Plasma combination therapies", "Plasma risk assessment and patients studies", and "Plasma mechanisms and treated liquids in cancer". This conference report outlines the abstracts of attending scientists submitted to this meeting.
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    Conductive Gas Plasma Treatment Augments Tumor Toxicity of Ringer’s Lactate Solutions in a Model of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Miebach, Lea; Freund, Eric; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço; Bekeschus, Sander
    Reactive species generated by medical gas plasma technology can be enriched in liquids for use in oncology targeting disseminated malignancies, such as metastatic colorectal cancer. Notwithstanding, reactive species quantities depend on the treatment mode, and we recently showed gas plasma exposure in conductive modes to be superior for cancer tissue treatment. However, evidence is lacking that such a conductive mode also equips gas plasma-treated liquids to confer augmented intraperitoneal anticancer activity. To this end, employing atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet kINPen-treated Ringer’s lactate (oxRilac) in a CT26-model of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis, we tested repeated intraabdominal injection of such remotely or conductively oxidized liquid for antitumor control and immunomodulation. Enhanced reactive species formation in conductive mode correlated with reduced tumor burden in vivo, emphasizing the advantage of conduction over the free mode for plasma-conditioned liquids. Interestingly, the infiltration of lymphocytes into the tumors was equally enhanced by both treatments. However, significantly lower levels of interleukin (IL)4 and IL13 and increased levels of IL2 argue for a shift in intratumoral T-helper cell subpopulations correlating with disease control. In conclusion, our data argue for using conductively over remotely prepared plasma-treated liquids for anticancer treatment.
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    Medical Gas Plasma—A Potent ROS-Generating Technology for Managing Intraoperative Bleeding Complications
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Miebach, Lea; Poschkamp, Broder; van der Linde, Julia; Bekeschus, Sander
    Cold medical gas plasmas are under pre-clinical investigation concerning their hemostatic activity and could be applied for intra-operative bleeding control in the future. The technological leap innovation was their generation at body temperature, thereby causing no thermal harm to the tissue and ensuring tissue integrity. This directly contrasts with current techniques such as electrocautery, which induces hemostasis by carbonizing the tissue using a heated electrode. However, the necrotized tissue is prone to fall, raising the risk of post-operative complications such as secondary bleedings or infection. In recent years, various studies have reported on the ability of medical gas plasmas to induce blood coagulation, including several suggestions concerning their mode of action. As non-invasive and gentle hemostatic agents, medical gas plasmas could be particularly eligible for vulnerable tissues, e.g., colorectal surgery and neurosurgery. Further, their usage could be beneficial regarding the prevention of post-operative bleedings due to the absence or sloughing of eschar. However, no clinical trials or individual healing attempts for medical gas plasmas have been reported to pave the way for clinical approvement until now, despite promising results in experimental animal models. In this light, the present mini-review aims to emphasize the potential of medical gas plasmas to serve as a hemostatic agent in clinical procedures. Providing a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge, feasible application fields are discussed, and possible obstacles are addressed.