Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Item
    Saharan Mineral Dust Experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: What have we learned?
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2011) Ansmann, Albert; Petzold, Andreas; Kandler, Konrad; Tegen, Ina; Wendisch, Manfred; Müller, Detlef; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Müller, Thomas; Heintzenberg, Jost
    Two comprehensive field campaigns were conducted in 2006 and 2008 in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) project. The relationship between chemical composition, shape morphology, size distribution and optical effects of the dust particles was investigated. The impact of Saharan dust on radiative transfer and the feedback of radiative effects upon dust emission and aerosol transport were studied. Field observations (ground-based, airborne and remote sensing) and modelling results were compared within a variety of dust closure experiments with a strong focus on vertical profiling. For the first time, multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidars and an airborne high spectral resolution lidar were involved in major dust field campaigns and provided profiles of the volume extinction coefficient of the particles at ambient conditions (for the full dust size distribution), of particle-shape-sensitive optical properties at several wavelengths, and a clear separation of dust and smoke profiles allowing for an estimation of the single-scattering albedo of the biomass-burning aerosol. SAMUM–1 took place in southern Morocco close to the Saharan desert in the summer of 2006, whereas SAMUM–2 was conducted in Cape Verde in the outflow region of desert dust and biomass-burning smoke from western Africa in the winter of 2008. This paper gives an overview of the SAMUM concept, strategy and goals, provides snapshots (highlights) of SAMUM–2 observations and modelling efforts, summarizes main findings of SAMUM–1 and SAMUM–2 and finally presents a list of remaining problems and unsolved questions.
  • Item
    New particle formation and sub-10nm size distribution measurements during the A-LIFE field experiment in Paphos, Cyprus
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Brilke, Sophia; Fölker, Nikolaus; Kandler, Konrad; Müller, Thomas; Gong, Xianda; Peischl, Jeff; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Winkler, Paul M.
    Atmospheric particle size distributions were measured in Paphos, Cyprus, during the A-LIFE (absorbing aerosol layers in a changing climate: ageing, lifetime and dynamics) field experiment from 3 to 30 April 2017. The newly developed differential mobility analyser train (DMAtrain) was deployed for the first time in an atmospheric environment for the direct measurement of the nucleation mode size range between 1.8 and 10 nm diameter. The DMA-train set-up consists of seven size channels, of which five are set to fixed particle mobility diameters and two additional diameters are obtained by alternating voltage settings in one DMA every 10 s. In combination with a conventional mobility particle size spectrometer (MPSS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) the complete atmospheric aerosol size distribution from 1.8 nm to 10 μ m was covered. The focus of the A-LIFE study was to characterize new particle formation (NPF) in the eastern Mediterranean region at a measurement site with strong local pollution sources. The nearby Paphos airport was found to be a large emission source for nucleation mode particles, and we analysed the size distribution of the airport emission plumes at approximately 500 m from the main runway. The analysis yielded nine NPF events in 27 measurement days from the combined analysis of the DMAtrain, MPSS and trace gas monitors. Growth rate calculations were performed, and a size dependency of the initial growth rate (< 10 nm) was observed for one event case. Fast changes of the sub-10 nm size distribution on a timescale of a few minutes were captured by the DMA-train measurement during early particle growth and are discussed in a second event case. In two cases, particle formation and growth were detected in the nucleation mode size range which did not exceed the 10 nm threshold. This finding implies that NPF likely occurs more frequently than estimated from studies where the lower nanometre size regime is not covered by the size distribution measurements. © 2020 Author(s).