Search Results

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Item
    When optimization for governing human-environment tipping elements is neither sustainable nor safe
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Barfuss, W.; Donges, J.F.; Lade, S.J.; Kurths, J.
    Optimizing economic welfare in environmental governance has been criticized for delivering short-term gains at the expense of long-term environmental degradation. Different from economic optimization, the concepts of sustainability and the more recent safe operating space have been used to derive policies in environmental governance. However, a formal comparison between these three policy paradigms is still missing, leaving policy makers uncertain which paradigm to apply. Here, we develop a better understanding of their interrelationships, using a stylized model of human-environment tipping elements. We find that no paradigm guarantees fulfilling requirements imposed by another paradigm and derive simple heuristics for the conditions under which these trade-offs occur. We show that the absence of such a master paradigm is of special relevance for governing real-world tipping systems such as climate, fisheries, and farming, which may reside in a parameter regime where economic optimization is neither sustainable nor safe.
  • Item
    Cardio-respiratory coordination increases during sleep apnea
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014) Riedl, M.; Müller, A.; Kraemer, J.F.; Penzel, T.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.
    Cardiovascular diseases are the main source of morbidity and mortality in the United States with costs of more than $170 billion. Repetitive respiratory disorders during sleep are assumed to be a major cause of these diseases. Therefore, the understanding of the cardio-respiratory regulation during these events is of high public interest. One of the governing mechanisms is the mutual influence of the cardiac and respiratory oscillations on their respective onsets, the cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC). We analyze this mechanism based on nocturnal measurements of 27 males suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we find, by using an advanced analysis technique, the coordigram, not only that the occurrence of CRC is significantly more frequent during respiratory sleep disturbances than in normal respiration (p-value<10-51) but also more frequent after these events (p-value<10-15). Especially, the latter finding contradicts the common assumption that spontaneous CRC can only be observed in epochs of relaxed conditions, while our newly discovered epochs of CRC after disturbances are characterized by high autonomic stress. Our findings on the connection between CRC and the appearance of sleep-disordered events require a substantial extension of the current understanding of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas.
  • Item
    Noise-Aided Logic in an Electronic Analog of Synthetic Genetic Networks
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2013) Hellen, E.H.; Dana, S.K.; Kurths, J.; Kehler, E.; Sinha, S.
    We report the experimental verification of noise-enhanced logic behaviour in an electronic analog of a synthetic genetic network, composed of two repressors and two constitutive promoters. We observe good agreement between circuit measurements and numerical prediction, with the circuit allowing for robust logic operations in an optimal window of noise. Namely, the input-output characteristics of a logic gate is reproduced faithfully under moderate noise, which is a manifestation of the phenomenon known as Logical Stochastic Resonance. The two dynamical variables in the system yield complementary logic behaviour simultaneously. The system is easily morphed from AND/NAND to OR/NOR logic.
  • Item
    Identifying controlling nodes in neuronal networks in different scales
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2012) Tang, Y.; Gao, H.; Zou, W.; Kurths, J.
    Recent studies have detected hubs in neuronal networks using degree, betweenness centrality, motif and synchronization and revealed the importance of hubs in their structural and functional roles. In addition, the analysis of complex networks in different scales are widely used in physics community. This can provide detailed insights into the intrinsic properties of networks. In this study, we focus on the identification of controlling regions in cortical networks of cats' brain in microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, based on single-objective evolutionary computation methods. The problem is investigated by considering two measures of controllability separately. The impact of the number of driver nodes on controllability is revealed and the properties of controlling nodes are shown in a statistical way. Our results show that the statistical properties of the controlling nodes display a concave or convex shape with an increase of the allowed number of controlling nodes, revealing a transition in choosing driver nodes from the areas with a large degree to the areas with a low degree. Interestingly, the community Auditory in cats' brain, which has sparse connections with other communities, plays an important role in controlling the neuronal networks.
  • Item
    Analysing dynamical behavior of cellular networks via stochastic bifurcations
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011) Zakharova, A.; Kurths, J.; Vadivasova, T.; Koseska, A.
    The dynamical structure of genetic networks determines the occurrence of various biological mechanisms, such as cellular differentiation. However, the question of how cellular diversity evolves in relation to the inherent stochasticity and intercellular communication remains still to be understood. Here, we define a concept of stochastic bifurcations suitable to investigate the dynamical structure of genetic networks, and show that under stochastic influence, the expression of given proteins of interest is defined via the probability distribution of the phase variable, representing one of the genes constituting the system. Moreover, we show that under changing stochastic conditions, the probabilities of expressing certain concentration values are different, leading to different functionality of the cells, and thus to differentiation of the cells in the various types.
  • Item
    Order patterns networks (orpan) - A method to estimate time-evolving functional connectivity from multivariate time series
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Research Foundation, 2012) Schinkel, S.; Zamora-López, G.; Dimigen, O.; Sommer, W.; Kurths, J.
    Complex networks provide an excellent framework for studying the function of the human brain activity. Yet estimating functional networks from measured signals is not trivial, especially if the data is non-stationary and noisy as it is often the case with physiological recordings. In this article we propose a method that uses the local rank structure of the data to define functional links in terms of identical rank structures. The method yields temporal sequences of networks which permits to trace the evolution of the functional connectivity during the time course of the observation. We demonstrate the potentials of this approach with model data as well as with experimental data from an electrophysiological study on language processing.
  • Item
    An electronic analog of synthetic genetic networks
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011) Hellen, E.H.; Volkov, E.; Kurths, J.; Dana, S.K.
    An electronic analog of a synthetic genetic network known as the repressilator is proposed. The repressilator is a synthetic biological clock consisting of a cyclic inhibitory network of three negative regulatory genes which produces oscillations in the expressed protein concentrations. Compared to previous circuit analogs of the repressilator, the circuit here takes into account more accurately the kinetics of gene expression, inhibition, and protein degradation. A good agreement between circuit measurements and numerical prediction is observed. The circuit allows for easy control of the kinetic parameters thereby aiding investigations of large varieties of potential dynamics.
  • Item
    Timing cellular decision making under noise via cell-cell communication
    (San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2009) Koseska, A.; Zaikin, A.; Kurths, J.; García-Ojalvo, J.
    Many cellular processes require decision making mechanisms, which must act reliably even in the unavoidable presence of substantial amounts of noise. However, the multistable genetic switches that underlie most decision-making processes are dominated by fluctuations that can induce random jumps between alternative cellular states. Here we show, via theoretical modeling of a population of noise-driven bistable genetic switches, that reliable timing of decision-making processes can be accomplished for large enough population sizes, as long as cells are globally coupled by chemical means. In the light of these results, we conjecture that cell proliferation, in the presence of cell-cell communication, could provide a mechanism for reliable decision making in the presence of noise, by triggering cellular transitions only when the whole cell population reaches a certain size. In other words, the summation performed by the cell population would average out the noise and reduce its detrimental impact.