Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 31
  • Item
    Complex refractive indices of Saharan dust samples at visible and near UV wavelengths: A laboratory study
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Wagner, R.; Ajtai, T.; Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.; Linke, C.; Müller, T.; Schnaiter, M.; Vragel, M.
    We have retrieved the wavelength-dependent imaginary parts of the complex refractive index for five different Saharan dust aerosol particles of variable mineralogical composition at wavelengths between 305 and 955 nm. The dust particles were generated by dispersing soil samples into a laboratory aerosol chamber, typically yielding particle sizes with mean diameters ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 μm and maximum diameters from 2 to 4 μm. The extinction and absorption coefficients as well as the number size distribution of the dust particles were simultaneously measured by various established techniques. An inversion scheme based on a spheroidal dust model was employed to deduce the refractive indices. The retrieved imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were in the range from 0.003 to 0.005, 0.005 to 0.011, and 0.016 to 0.050 at the wavelengths 955, 505, and 305 nm. The hematite content of the dust particles was determined by electron-microscopical single particle analysis. Hematite volume fractions in the range from 1.1 to 2.7% were found for the different dusts, a range typical for atmospheric mineral dust. We have performed a sensitivity study to assess how accurately the retrieved imaginary refractive indices could be reproduced by calculations with mixing rule approximations using the experimentally determined hematite contents as input.
  • Item
    A European aerosol phenomenology-5: Climatology of black carbon optical properties at 9 regional background sites across Europe
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2016) Zanatta, M.; Gysel, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Müller, T.; Weingartner, E.; Areskoug, H.; Fiebig, M.; Yttri, K.E.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R.M.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J.P.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Alastuey, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Sellegri, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Jaffrezo, J.L.; Baltensperger, U.; Laj, P.
    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigated the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (σap) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (mEC). σap and mEC have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. σap was determined using filter based absorption photometers and mEC using a thermal-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data-set was ensured by harmonization of all involved methods and instruments during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration (ECAC). Annual mean values of σap at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.66 and 1.3 Mm−1 in southern Scandinavia, 3.7–11 Mm−1 in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 2.3–2.8 Mm−1 in the Mediterranean. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.084 and 0.23 μg m−3 in southern Scandinavia, 0.28–1.1 in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 0.22–0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both σap and mEC in southern Scandinavia and Central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites. Consequently, a MAC value of 10.0 m2 g−1 (geometric standard deviation = 1.33) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites, where BC is expected to be internally mixed to a large extent. The observed spatial variability is rather small compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However, absolute uncertainties of the reported MAC values remain as high as ± 30–70% due to the lack of appropriate reference methods and calibration materials. The mass ratio between elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing matter was used as a proxy for the thickness of coatings around the BC cores, in order to assess the influence of the mixing state on the MAC of BC. Indeed, the MAC was found to increase with increasing values of the coating thickness proxy. This provides evidence that coatings do increase the MAC of atmospheric BC to some extent, which is commonly referred to as lensing effect.
  • Item
    Influence of annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Ti45Nb
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Völker, B.; Maier-Kiener, V.; Werbach, K.; Müller, T.; Pilz, S.; Calin, M.; Eckert, J.; Hohenwarter, A.
    Beta-Ti alloys have been intensively investigated in the last years because of their favorable low Young's moduli, biocompatibility and bio-inertness, making these alloys interesting candidates for implant materials. Due to their low mechanical strength, efforts are currently devoted to increasing it. A promising way to improve the strength is to tailor the microstructure using severe plastic deformation (SPD). In this investigation high pressure torsion was used to refine the microstructure of a Ti-45wt.%Nb alloy inducing a grain size of ~50 nm. The main focus of the subsequent investigations was devoted to the thermal stability of the microstructure. Isochronal heat-treatments performed for 30 min in a temperature range up to 500 °C caused an increase of hardness with a peak value at 300 °C before the hardness decreased at higher temperatures. Simultaneously, a distinct temperature-dependent variation of the Young's modulus was also measured. Tensile tests revealed an increase in strength after annealing compared to the SPD-state. Microstructural investigations showed that annealing causes the formation of α-Ti. The findings suggest that the combination of severe plastic deformation with subsequent heat treatment provides a feasible way to improve the mechanical properties of SPD-deformed β-Ti alloys making them suitable for higher strength applications.
  • Item
    Characterization of aerosol properties at Cyprus, focusing on cloud condensation nuclei and ice-nucleating particles
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Gong, X.; Wex, H.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Höhler, K.; Kandler, K.; Ma, N.; Dietel, B.; Schiebel, T.; Möhler, O.; Stratmann, F.
    As part of the A-LIFE (Absorbing aerosol layers in a changing climate: aging, LIFEtime and dynamics) campaign, ground-based measurements were carried out in Paphos, Cyprus, to characterize the abundance, properties, and sources of aerosol particles in general and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particles (INP) in particular. New particle formation (NPF) events with subsequent growth of the particles into the CCN size range were observed. Aitken mode particles featured k values of 0.21 to 0.29, indicating the presence of organic materials. Accumulation mode particles featured a higher hygroscopicity parameter, with a median k value of 0.57, suggesting the presence of sulfate and maybe sea salt particles mixed with organic carbon. A clear downward trend of k with increasing supersaturation and decreasing dcrit was found. Super-micron particles originated mainly from sea-spray aerosol (SSA) and partly from mineral dust. INP concentrations (NINP) were measured in the temperature range from-6:5 to-26:5 °C, using two freezing array-type instruments. NINP at a particular temperature span around 1 order of magnitude below-20 °C and about 2 orders of magnitude at warmer temperatures (T >-18 °C). Few samples showed elevated concentrations at temperatures >-15 °C, which suggests a significant contribution of biological particles to the INP population, which possibly could originate from Cyprus. Both measured temperature spectra and NINP probability density functions (PDFs) indicate that the observed INP (ice active in the temperature range between-15 and-20 °C) mainly originate from long-range transport. There was no correlation between NINP and particle number concentration in the size range> 500 nm (N>500 nm). Parameterizations based on N>500 nm were found to overestimate NINP by about 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. There was also no correlation between NINP and particle surface area concentration. The ice active surface site density (ns) for the polluted aerosol encountered in the eastern Mediterranean in this study is about 1 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the ns found for dust aerosol particles in previous studies. This suggests that observed NINP PDFs such as those derived here could be a better choice for modeling NINP if the aerosol particle composition is unknown or uncertain.
  • Item
    Mobility particle size spectrometers: Calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties
    (Philadelphia, Pa : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Wiedensohler, A.; Wiesner, A.; Weinhold, K.; Birmili, W.; Hermann, M.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Schmidt, A.; Tuch, T.; Velarde, F.; Quincey, P.; Seeger, S.; Nowak, A.
    Mobility particle size spectrometers (MPSS) belong to the essential instruments in aerosol science that determine the particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the submicrometer size range. Following calibration procedures and target uncertainties against standards and reference instruments are suggested for a complete MPSS quality assurance program: (a) calibration of the CPC counting efficiency curve (within 5% for the plateau counting efficiency; within 1 nm for the 50% detection efficiency diameter), (b) sizing calibration of the MPSS, using a certified polystyrene latex (PSL) particle size standard at 203 nm (within 3%), (c) intercomparison of the PNSD of the MPSS (within 10% and 20% of the dN/dlogDP concentration for the particle size range 20–200 and 200–800 nm, respectively), and (d) intercomparison of the integral PNC of the MPSS (within 10%). Furthermore, following measurement uncertainties have been investigated: (a) PSL particle size standards in the range from 100 to 500 nm match within 1% after sizing calibration at 203 nm. (b) Bipolar diffusion chargers based on the radioactive nuclides Kr85, Am241, and Ni63 and a new ionizer based on corona discharge follow the recommended bipolar charge distribution, while soft X-ray-based charges may alter faster than expected. (c) The use of a positive high voltage supply show a 10% better performance than a negative one. (d) The intercomparison of the integral PNC of an MPSS against the total number concentration is still within the target uncertainty at an ambient pressure of approximately 500 hPa. Copyright © 2018 Published with license by American Association for Aerosol Research.
  • Item
    The spectral aerosol extinction monitoring system (SÇMS): Setup, observational products, and comparisons
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Skupin, A.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Baars, H.; Müller, T.
    The Spectral Aerosol Extinction Monitoring System (SÇMS) is presented that allows us to continuously measure the spectral extinction coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles along an approximately 2.7 km long optical path at 30–50 m height above ground in Leipzig (51.3° N, 12.4° E), Germany. The fully automated instrument measures the ambient aerosol extinction coefficients from 300 to 1000 nm. The main goal of (SÇMS) observations are long-term studies of the relationship between particle extinction and relative humidity from below 40% to almost 100%. The setup is presented and observations (a case study and statistical results for 2009) are discussed in terms of time series of 550 nm particle optical depth, Ångström exponent, and particle size distribution retrieved from the spectrally resolved extinction. The SǼMS measurements are compared with simultaneously performed EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) lidar, AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun photometer, and in situ aerosol observations of particle size distribution and related extinction coefficients on the roof of our institute. Consistency between the different measurements is found, which corroborates the quality of the SǼMS observations. Statistical results of a period of 1 yr (2009) show mode extinction values of 0.09 km−1 (SÇMS), 0.075 km−1 (AERONET), and 0.03 km−1 (in situ). Ångström exponents for this period are 0.19 (390–880 nm,(SÇMS) and 1.55 (440–870 nm, AERONET).
  • Item
    Black carbon emission and transport mechanisms to the free troposphere at the La Paz/El Alto (Bolivia) metropolitan area based on the Day of Census (2012)
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2018) Wiedensohler, A.; Andrade, M.; Weinhold, K.; Müller, T.; Birmili, W.; Velarde, F.; Moreno, I.; Forno, R.; Sanchez, M.F.; Laj, P.; Ginot, P.; Whiteman, D.N.; Krejci, R.; Sellegri, K.; Reichler, T.
    Urban development, growing industrialization, and increasing demand for mobility have led to elevated levels of air pollution in many large cities in Latin America, where air quality standards and WHO guidelines are frequently exceeded. The conurbation of the metropolitan area of La Paz/El Alto is one of the fastest growing urban settlements in South America with the particularity of being located in a very complex terrain at a high altitude. As many large cities or metropolitan areas, the metropolitan area of La Paz/El Alto and the Altiplano region are facing air quality deterioration. Long-term measurement data of the equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations and particle number size distributions (PNSD) from the Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory Chacaltaya (CHC; 5240 m a.s.l., above sea level) indicated a systematic transport of particle matter from the metropolitan area of La Paz/El Alto to this high altitude station and subsequently to the lower free troposphere. To better understand the sources and the transport mechanisms, we conducted eBC and PNSDs measurements during an intensive campaign at two locations in the urban area of La Paz/El Alto from September to November 2012. While the airport of El Alto site (4040 m a.s.l.) can be seen as representative of the urban and Altiplano background, the road site located in Central La Paz (3590 m a.s.l.) is representative for heavy traffic-dominated conditions. Peaks of eBC mass concentrations up to 5 μg m−3 were observed at the El Alto background site in the early morning and evening, while minimum values were detected in the early afternoon, mainly due to thermal convection and change of the planetary boundary layer height. The traffic-related eBC mass concentrations at the road site reached maximum values of 10–20 μg m−3. A complete traffic ban on the specific Bolivian Day of Census (November 21, 2012) led to a decrease of eBC below 1 μg m−3 at the road site for the entire day. Compared to the day before and after, particle number concentrations decreased by a factor between 5 and 25 over the particle size range from 10 to 800 nm, while the submicrometer particle mass concentration dropped by approximately 80%. These results indicate that traffic is the dominating source of BC and particulate air pollution in the metropolitan area of La Paz/El Alto. In general, the diurnal cycle of eBC mass concentration at the Chacaltaya observatory is anti-correlated to the observations at the El Alto background site. This pattern indicates that the traffic-related particulate matter, including BC, is transported to higher altitudes with the developing of the boundary layer during daytime. The metropolitan area of La Paz/El Alto seems to be a significant source for BC of the regional lower free troposphere. From there, BC can be transported over long distances and exert impact on climate and composition of remote southern hemisphere.
  • Item
    A new method to determine the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous using the measured aerosol optical properties and number size distributions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Ma, N.; Zhao, C.S.; Müller, T.; Cheng, Y.F.; Liu, P.F.; Deng, Z.Z.; Xu, W.Y.; Ran, L.; Nekat, B.; van Pinxteren, D.; Gnauk, T.; Müller, K.; Herrmann, H.; Yan, P.; Zhou, X.J.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In this paper, the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) was investigated with a two-parameter aerosol optical model and in situ aerosol measurements at a regional site in the North China Plain (NCP). A closure study between the hemispheric backscattering fraction (HBF) measured by an integrating nephelometer and that calculated with a modified Mie model was conducted. A new method was proposed to retrieve the ratio of the externally mixed LAC mass to the total mass of LAC (rext-LAC) based on the assumption that the ambient aerosol particles were externally mixed and consisted of a pure LAC material and a core-shell morphology in which the core is LAC and the shell is a less absorbing material. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to estimate the overall influences of input parameters of the algorithm to the retrieved rext-LAC. The diurnal variation of rext-LAC was analyzed and the PartMC-MOSAIC model was used to simulate the variation of the aerosol mixing state. Results show that, for internally mixed particles, the assumption of core-shell mixture is more appropriate than that of homogenous mixture which has been widely used in aerosol optical calculations. A significant diurnal pattern of the retrieved rext-LAC was found, with high values during the daytime and low values at night. The consistency between the retrieved rext-LAC and the model results indicates that the diurnal variation of LAC mixing state is mainly caused by the diurnal evolution of the mixing layer.
  • Item
    In situ measurements of optical properties at Tinfou (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Kaaden, N.; Massling, A.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Deutscher, C.; Wiedensohler, A.
    In situ measurements of optical and physical properties of mineral dust were performed at the outskirts of the Saharan Desert in the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment part 1 (SAMUM-1). Goals of the field study were to achieve information on the extent and composition of the dust particle size distribution and the optical properties of dust at the ground. For the particle number size distribution, measured with a DMPS/APS, a size dependent dynamic shape factor was considered. The mean refractive index of the particles in this field study is 1.53–4.1 × 10-3i at 537 nm wavelength and 1.53–3.1 × 10-3i at 637 nm wavelength derived from measurements of scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the particle size distribution. Whereas the real part of the refractive index is rather constant, the imaginary part varies depending on the mineral dust concentrations. For high dust concentration the single scattering albedo is primarily influenced by iron oxide and is 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.01 at 537 nm and 637 nm wavelength, respectively. During low dust concentration the single scattering albedo is more influenced by a soot-type absorber and is 0.89 ± 0.02 and 0.93 ± 0.01 for the same wavelengths.
  • Item
    A fast and easy-to-implement inversion algorithm for mobility particle size spectrometers considering particle number size distribution information outside of the detection range
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Pfeifer, S.; Birmili, W.; Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Multiple-charge inversion is an essential procedure to convert the raw mobility distributions recorded by mobility particle size spectrometers, such as the DMPS or SMPS (differential or scanning mobility particle sizers), into true particle number size distributions. In this work, we present a fast and easy-to-implement multiple-charge inversion algorithm with sufficient precision for atmospheric conditions, but extended functionality. The algorithm can incorporate size distribution information from sensors that measure beyond the upper sizing limit of the mobility spectrometer, such as an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or an optical particle counter (OPC). This feature can considerably improve the multiple-charge inversion result in the upper size range of the mobility spectrometer, for example, when substantial numbers of coarse particles are present. The program also yields a continuous size distribution from both sensors as an output. The algorithm is able to calculate the propagation of measurement errors, such as those based on counting statistics, into on the final particle number size distribution. As an additional aspect, the algorithm can perform all inversion steps under the assumption of non-spherical particle shape, including constant or size-dependent shape factors.