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Now showing 1 - 10 of 95
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    Effect of additives on MWCNT dispersion and electrical percolation in polyamide 12 composites
    (Melville, NY : AIP, 2017) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra
    The aim of this study was to decrease the electrical percolation threshold of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polyamide 12 matrix by the use of additives. Different kinds of additives were selected which either interact with the π-system of the MWCNTs (imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)) or improve the MWCNT wettability (cyclic butylene terephthalate, CBT). The composites were melt mixed using a DACA microcompounder. The electrical percolation threshold for PA12/MWCNT without additives, measured on compression molded plates, was found between 2.0 and 2.25 wt%. With all used additives, a significant reduction of the electrical percolation threshold could be achieved. Whereas the addition of IL and CBT resulted in MWCNT percolation at around 1.0 wt%, a slightly higher percolation threshold between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% was found for PTCDA as an additive. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity at higher loadings was decreased by nearly two decades when using CBT and one decade after application of PTCDA, whereas IL did not contribute to lower values in this range. In all cases macrodispersion as assessed by light microscopy was not improved and even worse as compared to non-modified composites. In summary, the results illustrate that these kinds of additives are able to improve the performance of PA12 based MWCNT nanocomposites.
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    Melt-mixed PP/MWCNT composites: Influence of CNT incorporation strategy and matrix viscosity on filler dispersion and electrical resistivity
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Pötschke, Petra; Mothes, Fanny; Krause, Beate; Voit, Brigitte
    Small-scale melt mixing was performed for composites based on polypropylene (PP) and 0.5–7.5 wt % multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to determine if masterbatch (MB) dilution is a more effective form of nanofiller dispersion than direct nanotube incorporation. The methods were compared using composites of five different PP types, each filled with 2 wt % MWCNTs. After the determination of the specific mechanical energy (SME) input in the MB dilution process, the direct-incorporation mixing time was adjusted to achieve comparable SME values. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of MB-prepared samples with 2 wt % MWCNTs was higher than that of those prepared using direct incorporation—despite their better dispersion—suggesting more pronounced MWCNT shortening in the two-step procedure. In summary, this study on PP suggests that the masterbatch approach is suitable for the dispersion of MWCNTs and holds advantages in nanotube dispersion, albeit at the cost of slightly increased electrical resistivity.
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    The Localization Behavior of Different CNTs in PC/SAN Blends Containing a Reactive Component
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021-3-1) Gültner, Marén; Boldt, Regine; Formanek, Petr; Fischer, Dieter; Simon, Frank; Pötschke, Petra
    Co-continuous blend systems of polycarbonate (PC), poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN), commercial non-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or various types of commercial and laboratory functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and a reactive component (RC, N-phenylmaleimide styrene maleic anhydride copolymer) were melt compounded in one step in a microcompounder. The blend system is immiscible, while the RC is miscible with SAN and contains maleic anhydride groups that have the potential to reactively couple with functional groups on the surface of the nanotubes. The influence of the RC on the localization of MWCNTs and SWCNTs (0.5 wt.%) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-filtered TEM. In PC/SAN blends without RC, MWCNTs are localized in the PC component. In contrast, in PC/SAN-RC, the MWCNTs localize in the SAN-RC component, depending on the RC concentration. By adjusting the MWCNT/RC ratio, the localization of the MWCNTs can be tuned. The SWCNTs behave differently compared to the MWCNTs in PC/SAN-RC blends and their localization occurs either only in the PC or in both blend components, depending on the type of the SWCNTs. CNT defect concentration and surface functionalities seem to be responsible for the localization differences.
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    Characterization of highly filled PP/graphite composites for adhesive joining in fuel cell applications
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Rzeczkowski, Piotr; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra
    In order to evaluate the suitability of graphite composite materials for use as bipolar plates in fuel cells, polypropylene (PP) was melt compounded with expanded graphite as conductive filler to form composites with different filler contents of 10–80 wt %. Electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties were measured and evaluated as a function of filler content. The electrical and thermal conductivities increased with filler content. Tensile and flexural strengths decreased with the incorporation of expanded graphite in PP. With higher graphite contents, however, both strength values remained more or less unchanged and were below the values of pure PP. Young’s-modulus and flexural modulus increased almost linearly with increasing filler content. The results of the thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the actual filler content in the composite materials. In order to evaluate the wettability and suitability for adhesive joining of graphite composites, contact angle measurements were conducted and surface tensions of composite surfaces were calculated. The results showed a significant increase in the surface tension of graphite composites with increasing filler content. Furthermore, graphite composites were adhesively joined and the strength of the joints was evaluated in the lap-shear test. Increasing filler content in the substrate material resulted in higher tensile lap-shear strength. Additionally, the influence of surface treatment (plasma and chemical) on surface tension and tensile lap-shear strength was investigated. The surface treatment led to a significant improvement of both properties.
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    Comparison of nanotubes produced by fixed bed and aerosol-CVD methods and their electrical percolation behaviour in melt mixed polyamide 6.6 composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2010) Krause, Beate; Ritschel, M.; Täschner, C.; Oswald, S.; Gruner, W.; Leonhardt, A.; Pötschke, Petra
    The electrical percolation behaviour of five different kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesised by two CVD techniques was investigated on melt mixed composites based on an insulating polyamide 6.6 matrix. The electrical percolation behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on the properties of CNTs which varied with the synthesis conditions. The lowest electrical percolation threshold (0.04 wt.%) was determined for as grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes without any purification or chemical treatment. Such carbon nanotubes were synthesised by the aerosol method using acetonitrile as ferrocene containing solvent and show relatively low oxygen content near the surface, high aspect ratio, and good dispersability. Similar properties could be found for nanotubes produced by the aerosol method using cyclohexane, whereas CNTs produced by the fixed bed method using different iron contents in the catalyst material showed much higher electrical percolation thresholds between 0.35 and 1.02 wt.%. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Lightweight polymer-carbon composite current collector for lithium-ion batteries
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Fritsch, Marco; Coeler, Matthias; Kunz, Karina; Krause, Beate; Marcinkowski, Peter; Pötschke, Petra; Wolter, Mareike; Michaelis, Alexander
    A hermetic dense polymer-carbon composite-based current collector foil (PCCF) for lithium-ion battery applications was developed and evaluated in comparison to state-of-the-art aluminum (Al) foil collector. Water-processed LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO) cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode coatings with the integration of a thin carbon primer at the interface to the collector were prepared. Despite the fact that the laboratory manufactured PCCF shows a much higher film thickness of 55 µm compared to Al foil of 19 µm, the electrode resistance was measured to be by a factor of 5 lower compared to the Al collector, which was attributed to the low contact resistance between PCCF, carbon primer and electrode microstructure. The PCCF-C-primer collector shows a sufficient voltage stability up to 5 V vs. Li/Li+ and a negligible Li-intercalation loss into the carbon primer. Electrochemical cell tests demonstrate the applicability of the developed PCCF for LMNO and LTO electrodes, with no disadvantage compared to state-of-the-art Al collector. Due to a 50% lower material density, the lightweight and hermetic dense PCCF polymer collector offers the possibility to significantly decrease the mass loading of the collector in battery cells, which can be of special interest for bipolar battery architectures. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion in thermoplastic composites using a three roll mill at elevated temperatures
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2013) Pötschke, Petra; Krause, Beate; Buschhorn, Samuel T.; Köpke, Ulf; Müller, Michael T.; Villmow, Tobias; Schulte, Karl
    The paper reports the effect of using of a three roll mill as additional dispersion step after twin-screw melt extrusion of nanocomposites containing thermoplastic polymers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The three roll milling technology was adapted to elevated temperatures of up to 180 °C and examples are shown for its use in processing of different pre-compounded thermoplastic polymer composites based on polypropylene, polycaprolactone and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The aim is to enhance the state of dispersion achieved by the previous melt extrusion step. In particular, depending on the state of dispersion before three roll milling and the adapted conditions, like number of runs and gap sizes, a reduction of number and size of remaining primary nanotube agglomerates was found. This was studied using light microscopy. The resulting improvements in mechanical properties were assessed and could be attributed to the improved dispersion. In some cases agglomerate free samples could be achieved after the three roll milling process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Development of joining methods for highly filled Graphite/PP composite based bipolar plates for fuel cells: Adhesive joining and welding
    (Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Rzeczkowski, P.; Lucia, M.; Müller, A.; Facklam, M.; Cohnen, A.; Schäfer, P.; Hopmann, C.; Hickmann, T.; Pötschke, Petra; Krause, Beate
    Novel material solutions for bipolar plates in fuel cells require adapted ways of joining and sealing technologies. Safe and life time enduring leak-tight contacts must be achieved by automatic processes using reasonable joint forces. A proper sealing should manage such challenges as good ageing properties, excellent leaktightness, high thermal conductivity and low gas permeability. Hence in this work, adhesive bonding and welding are considered as suitable methods, which can fulfill the requirements mentioned above. Adhesive systems seem to be more easy to apply than conventional sealing (hand layed-up rubber gaskets), e.g. with automatic dispensers. Additionally, the properties of an adhesive joint can be enhanced by a process-specific surface pre-treatment. This work focuses on the characterization of adhesive systems and their joints with highly filled graphite composites. Mechanical properties of the joints were characterized through lap-shear tests. The influence of ageing caused by humidity or acidic solvent at increased temperature on the bond line properties as well as neat adhesive was examined. The thermal conductivities of neat adhesives and through the entire joint were examined. In order to improve above conductivities, roughening, substrate pre-heating, post-curing and various contact pressure weights were applied. Plasma treatment was chosen as surface pre-treatment method for improving substrate's surface energy. An alternative to bonding is plastic welding, which does not require the use of sealants and adhesives. Based on former study of influences of filler content on the welding process using ultrasonic, hot plate or infrared welding, a welding method for joining the graphite compounds was derived.
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    Thermoelectric Performance of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube/Ionic Liquid Composites and Its Dependence on Electron Beam Irradiation
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022-1-11) Voigt, Oliver; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Müller, Michael T.; Wießner, Sven
    The thermoelectric behavior of polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposites containing single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and five kinds of ionic liquids (Ils) dependent on composite composition and electron beam irradiation (EB) was studied. Therefore, several samples were melt-mixed in a micro compounder, while five Ils with sufficiently different anions and/or cations were incorporated into the PP/SWCNT composites followed by an EB treatment for selected composites. Extensive investigations were carried out considering the electrical, thermal, mechanical, rheological, morphological and, most significantly, thermoelectric properties. It was found that it is possible to prepare n-type melt-mixed polymer composites from p-type commercial SWCNTs with relatively high Seebeck coefficients when adding four of the selected Ils. The highest Seebeck coefficients achieved in this study were +49.3 µV/K (PP/2 wt.% SWCNT) for p-type composites and −27.6 µV/K (PP/2 wt.% SWCNT/4 wt.% IL type AMIM Cl) for n-type composites. Generally, the type of IL is decisive whether p-or n-type thermoelectric behavior is achieved. After IL addition higher volume conductivity could be reached. Electron beam treatment of PP/SWCNT leads to increased values of the Seebeck coefficient, whereas the EB treated sample with IL (AMIM Cl) shows a less negative Seebeck coefficient value.
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    A successful approach to disperse MWCNTs in polyethylene by melt mixing using polyethylene glycol as additive
    (Oxford : Elsevier Science, 2012) Müller, Michael Thomas; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra
    An additive-assisted one-step melt mixing approach was developed to produce nanocomposites based on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The polymer granules, nanotube powder (2 wt% Nanocyl™ NC7000) and 1-10 wt% of the non-ionic additives poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with molar masses between 100 g/mol and 100,000 g/mol were simply fed together in the hopper of a small-scale DSM Xplore 15 twin-screw microcompounder. The produced MWCNT/LLDPE composites showed excellent MWCNT dispersion and highly improved electrical properties as compared to samples without the additive, whereas the effects depend on the amount and molar mass of the additive. When 7 wt% PEG (2000 g/mol) were used, a reduction of the electrical percolation threshold from 2.5 wt% to 1.5 wt% was achieved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.