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    Mobility particle size spectrometers: Calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties
    (Philadelphia, Pa : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Wiedensohler, A.; Wiesner, A.; Weinhold, K.; Birmili, W.; Hermann, M.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Schmidt, A.; Tuch, T.; Velarde, F.; Quincey, P.; Seeger, S.; Nowak, A.
    Mobility particle size spectrometers (MPSS) belong to the essential instruments in aerosol science that determine the particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the submicrometer size range. Following calibration procedures and target uncertainties against standards and reference instruments are suggested for a complete MPSS quality assurance program: (a) calibration of the CPC counting efficiency curve (within 5% for the plateau counting efficiency; within 1 nm for the 50% detection efficiency diameter), (b) sizing calibration of the MPSS, using a certified polystyrene latex (PSL) particle size standard at 203 nm (within 3%), (c) intercomparison of the PNSD of the MPSS (within 10% and 20% of the dN/dlogDP concentration for the particle size range 20–200 and 200–800 nm, respectively), and (d) intercomparison of the integral PNC of the MPSS (within 10%). Furthermore, following measurement uncertainties have been investigated: (a) PSL particle size standards in the range from 100 to 500 nm match within 1% after sizing calibration at 203 nm. (b) Bipolar diffusion chargers based on the radioactive nuclides Kr85, Am241, and Ni63 and a new ionizer based on corona discharge follow the recommended bipolar charge distribution, while soft X-ray-based charges may alter faster than expected. (c) The use of a positive high voltage supply show a 10% better performance than a negative one. (d) The intercomparison of the integral PNC of an MPSS against the total number concentration is still within the target uncertainty at an ambient pressure of approximately 500 hPa. Copyright © 2018 Published with license by American Association for Aerosol Research.
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    A fast and easy-to-implement inversion algorithm for mobility particle size spectrometers considering particle number size distribution information outside of the detection range
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Pfeifer, S.; Birmili, W.; Schladitz, A.; Müller, T.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Multiple-charge inversion is an essential procedure to convert the raw mobility distributions recorded by mobility particle size spectrometers, such as the DMPS or SMPS (differential or scanning mobility particle sizers), into true particle number size distributions. In this work, we present a fast and easy-to-implement multiple-charge inversion algorithm with sufficient precision for atmospheric conditions, but extended functionality. The algorithm can incorporate size distribution information from sensors that measure beyond the upper sizing limit of the mobility spectrometer, such as an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or an optical particle counter (OPC). This feature can considerably improve the multiple-charge inversion result in the upper size range of the mobility spectrometer, for example, when substantial numbers of coarse particles are present. The program also yields a continuous size distribution from both sensors as an output. The algorithm is able to calculate the propagation of measurement errors, such as those based on counting statistics, into on the final particle number size distribution. As an additional aspect, the algorithm can perform all inversion steps under the assumption of non-spherical particle shape, including constant or size-dependent shape factors.
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    Design and performance of an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer for continuous operation at monitoring sites
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Tuch, T.M.; Haudek, A.; Müller, T.; Nowak, A.; Wex, H.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Sizes of aerosol particles depend on the relative humidity of their carrier gas. Most monitoring networks require therefore that the aerosol is dried to a relative humidity below 50% r.H. to ensure comparability of measurements at different sites. Commercially available aerosol dryers are often not suitable for this purpose at remote monitoring sites. Adsorption dryers need to be regenerated frequently and maintenance-free single column Nafion dryers are not designed for high aerosol flow rates. We therefore developed an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer with a design flow rate of 1 m3/h. Particle transmission efficiency of this dryer has been determined during a 3 week experiment. The lower 50% cut-off was found to be smaller than 3 nm at the design flow rate of the instrument. Measured transmission efficiencies are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. One dryer has been successfully deployed in the Amazon river basin. We present data from this monitoring site for the first 6 months of measurements (February 2008–August 2008). Apart from one unscheduled service, this dryer did not require any maintenance during this time period. The average relative humidity of the dried aerosol was 27.1+/−7.5% r.H. compared to an average ambient relative humidity of nearly 80% and temperatures around 30°C. This initial deployment demonstrated that these dryers are well suitable for continuous operation at remote monitoring sites under adverse ambient conditions.
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    Aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain during HaChi campaign: An in-situ optical closure study
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Ma, N.; Zhao, C.S.; Nowak, A.; Müller, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Cheng, Y.F.; Deng, Z.Z.; Liu, P.F.; Xu, W.Y.; Ran, L.; Yan, P.; Göbel, T.; Hallbauer, E.; Mildenberger, K.; Henning, S.; Yu, J.; Chen, L.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Stratmann, F.; Wiedensohler, A.
    The largest uncertainty in the estimation of climate forcing stems from atmospheric aerosols. In early spring and summer of 2009, two periods of in-situ measurements on aerosol physical and chemical properties were conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China) project at Wuqing, a town between Beijing and Tianjin in the North China Plain (NCP). Aerosol optical properties, including the scattering coefficient (σsp), the hemispheric back scattering coefficient (σbsp), the absorption coefficient (σap), as well as the single scattering albedo (ω), are presented. The diurnal and seasonal variations are analyzed together with meteorology and satellite data. The mean values of σsp, 550 nm of the dry aerosol in spring and summer are 280±253 and 379±251 Mm−1, respectively. The average σap for the two periods is respectively 47±38 and 43±27 Mm−1. The mean values of ω at the wavelength of 637 nm are 0.82±0.05 and 0.86±0.05 for spring and summer, respectively. The relative high levels of σsp and σbsp are representative of the regional aerosol pollution in the NCP. Pronounced diurnal cycle of $σsp, σap and ω are found, mainly influenced by the evolution of boundary layer and the accumulation of local emissions during nighttime. The pollutants transported from the southwest of the NCP are more significant than that from the two megacities, Beijing and Tianjin, in both spring and summer. An optical closure experiment is conducted to better understand the uncertainties of the measurements. Good correlations (R>0.98) are found between the values measured by the nephelometer and the values calculated with a modified Mie model. The Monte Carlo simulation shows an uncertainty of about 30 % for the calculations. Considering all possible uncertainties of measurements, calculated σsp and σbsp agree well with the measured values, indicating a stable performance of instruments and thus reliable aerosol optical data.
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    Characterization and intercomparison of aerosol absorption photometers: Result of two intercomparison workshops
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Müller, T.; Henzing, J.S.; de Leeuw, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Alastuey, A.; Angelov, H.; Bizjak, M.; Collaud Coen, M.; Engström, J.E.; Gruening, C.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Imre, K.; Ivanow, P.; Jennings, G.; Sun, J.Y.; Kalivitis, N.; Karlsson, H.; Komppula, M.; Laj, P.; Li, S.-M.; Lunder, C.; Marinoni, A.; Martins dos Santos, S.; Moerman, M.; Nowak, A.; Ogren, J.A.; Petzold, A.; Pichon, J.M.; Rodriquez, S.; Sharma, S.; Sheridan, P.J.; Teinilä, K.; Tuch, T.; Viana, M.; Virkkula, A.; Weingartner, E.; Wilhelm, R.; Wang, Y.Q.
    Absorption photometers for real time application have been available since the 1980s, but the use of filter-based instruments to derive information on aerosol properties (absorption coefficient and black carbon, BC) is still a matter of debate. Several workshops have been conducted to investigate the performance of individual instruments over the intervening years. Two workshops with large sets of aerosol absorption photometers were conducted in 2005 and 2007. The data from these instruments were corrected using existing methods before further analysis. The inter-comparison shows a large variation between the responses to absorbing aerosol particles for different types of instruments. The unit to unit variability between instruments can be up to 30% for Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAPs) and Aethalometers. Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAPs) showed a variability of less than 5%. Reasons for the high variability were identified to be variations in sample flow and spot size. It was observed that different flow rates influence system performance with respect to response to absorption and instrumental noise. Measurements with non absorbing particles showed that the current corrections of a cross sensitivity to particle scattering are not sufficient. Remaining cross sensitivities were found to be a function of the total particle load on the filter. The large variation between the response to absorbing aerosol particles for different types of instruments indicates that current correction functions for absorption photometers are not adequate.