Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 24
  • Item
    Variation of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions at the urban and downwind regional sites in the Pearl River Delta during summertime pollution episodes
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2010) Yue, D.L.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z.J.; Guo, S.; Wen, M.T.; Nowak, A.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Wang, X.S.; Li, Y.P.; Zeng, L.M.; Zhang, Y.H.
    In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ) and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG) in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8)×104 cm−3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1)×104 cm−3. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm−3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm−3. More 20–100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100–660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were similar at GZ (69±43 μg m−3) and BG (69±58 μg m−3) with R2 of 0.71 for the daily average PM2.5 at these two sites, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformation are the main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO42−, NO3− accounted for about 60% in 100–660 nm particle mass and PM2.5 increase. When south or southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants took place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase rates of secondary ions in PM1.0 than other species and shifting the peaks of sulfate and ammonium mass size distributions to larger sizes. SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for about 70% and 40% of PM1.0 and PM2.5, respectively.
  • Item
    Observations of turbulence-induced new particle formation in the residual layer
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2010) Wehner, B.; Siebert, H.; Ansmann, A.; Ditas, F.; Seifert, P.; Stratmann, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Apituley, A.; Shaw, R.A.; Manninen, H.E.; Kulmala, M.
    Aerosol particle measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer performed by a helicopter-borne measurement payload and by a lidar system from a case study during the IMPACT field campaign in Cabauw (NL) are presented. Layers of increased number concentrations of ultrafine particles were observed in the residual layer, indicating relatively recent new-particle formation. These layers were characterized by a sub-critical Richardson number and concomitant increased turbulence. Turbulent mixing is likely to lead to local supersaturation of possible precursor gases which are essential for new particle formation. Observed peaks in the number concentrations of ultrafine particles at ground level are connected to the new particle formation in the residual layer by boundary layer development and vertical mixing.
  • Item
    Dust events in Beijing, China (2004–2006): Comparison of ground-based measurements with columnar integrated observations
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Wu, Z.J.; Cheng, Y.F.; Hu, M.; Wehner, B.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Ambient particle number size distributions spanning three years were used to characterize the frequency and intensity of atmospheric dust events in the urban areas of Beijing, China in combination with AERONET sun/sky radiometer data. Dust events were classified into two types based on the differences in particle number and volume size distributions and local weather conditions. This categorization was confirmed by aerosol index images, columnar aerosol optical properties, and vertical potential temperature profiles. During the type-1 events, dust particles dominated the total particle volume concentration (<10 μm), with a relative share over 70%. Anthropogenic particles in the Aitken and accumulation mode played a subordinate role here because of high wind speeds (>4 m s−1). The type-2 events occurred in rather stagnant air masses and were characterized by a lower volume fraction of coarse mode particles (on average, 55%). Columnar optical properties showed that the superposition of dust and anthropogenic aerosols in type-2 events resulted in a much higher AOD (average: 1.51) than for the rather pure dust aerosols in type-1 events (average AOD: 0.36). A discrepancy was found between the ground-based and column integrated particle volume size distributions, especially for the coarse mode particles. This discrepancy likely originates from both the limited comparability of particle volume size distributions derived from Sun photometer and in situ number size distributions, and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of particles during dust events.
  • Item
    General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H.K.; Carslaw, K.S.; Pöschl, U.; Baltensperger, U.; Hov, Ø.; Brenquier, J.-L.; Pandis, S.N.; Facchini, M.C.; Hansson, H.-C.; Wiedensohler, A.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Boers, R.; Boucher, O.; de Leeuw, G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Feichter, J.; Krejci, R.; Laj, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Lohmann, U.; McFiggans, G.; Mentel, T.; Pilinis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Schulz, M.; Stohl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Vignati, E.; Alves, C.; Amann, M.; Ammann, M.; Arabas, S.; Artaxo, P.; Baars, H.; Beddows, D.C.S.; Bergström, R.; Beukes, J.P.; Bilde, M.; Burkhart, J.F.; Canonaco, F.; Clegg, S.L.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; D'Anna, B.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Fischer, M.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Fountoukis, C.; George, C.; Gomes, L.; Halloran, P.; Hamburger, T.; Harrison, R.M.; Herrmann, H.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoose, C.; Hu, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Iinuma, Y.; Iversen, T.; Josipovic, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kiss, G.; Klimont, Z.; Kolmonen, P.; Komppula, M.; Kristjánsson, J.-E.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Labonnote, L.; Lanz, V.A.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Rizzo, L.V.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H.E.; McMeeking, G.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Mirme, S.; Morgan, W.T.; Nemitz, E.; O'Donnell, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Pawlowska, H.; Petzold, A.; Pienaar, J.J.; Pio, C.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Pryor, S.; Reddington, C.L.; Roberts, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Schwarz, J.; Seland, Ø.; Sellegri, K.; Shen, X.J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Siebert, H.; Sierau, B.; Simpson, D.; Sun, J.Y.; Topping, D.; Tunved, P.; Vaattovaara, P.; Vakkari, V.; Veefkind, J.P.; Visschedijk, A.; Vuollekoski, H.; Vuolo, R.; Wehner, B.; Wildt, J.; Woodward, S.; Worsnop, D.R.; van Zadelhoff, G.-J.; Zardini, A.A.; Zhang, K.; van Zyl, P.G.; Kerminen, V.-M.
    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.
  • Item
    First long-term study of particle number size distributions and new particle formation events of regional aerosol in the North China Plain
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Shen, X.J.; Sun, J.Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Wehner, B.; Nowak, A.; Tuch, T.; Zhang, X.C.; Wang, T.T.; Zhou, H.G.; Zhang, X.L.; Dong, F.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.
    Atmospheric particle number size distributions (size range 0.003–10 μm) were measured between March 2008 and August 2009 at Shangdianzi (SDZ), a rural research station in the North China Plain. These measurements were made in an attempt to better characterize the tropospheric background aerosol in Northern China. The mean particle number concentrations of the total particle, as well as the nucleation, Aitken, accumulation and coarse mode were determined to be 1.2 ± 0.9 × 104, 3.6 ± 7.9 × 103, 4.4 ± 3.4 × 103, 3.5 ± 2.8 × 103 and 2 ± 3 cm−3, respectively. A general finding was that the particle number concentration was higher during spring compared to the other seasons. The air mass origin had an important effect on the particle number concentration and new particle formation events. Air masses from northwest (i.e. inner Asia) favored the new particle formation events, while air masses from southeast showed the highest particle mass concentration. Significant diurnal variations in particle number were observed, which could be linked to new particle formation events, i.e. gas-to-particle conversion. During particle formation events, the number concentration of the nucleation mode rose up to maximum value of 104 cm−3. New particle formation events were observed on 36% of the effective measurement days. The formation rate ranged from 0.7 to 72.7 cm−3 s−1, with a mean value of 8.0 cm−3 s−1. The value of the nucleation mode growth rate was in the range of 0.3–14.5 nm h−1, with a mean value of 4.3 nm h−1. It was an essential observation that on many occasions the nucleation mode was able to grow into the size of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within a matter of several hours. Furthermore, the new particle formation was regularly followed by a measurable increase in particle mass concentration and extinction coefficient, indicative of a high abundance of condensable vapors in the atmosphere under study.
  • Item
    Particle size distributions in the Eastern Mediterranean troposphere
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2008) Kalivitis, N.; Birmili, W.; Stock, M.; Wehner, B.; Massling, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Mihalopoulos, N.
    Atmospheric particle size distributions were measured on Crete island, Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean during an intensive field campaign between 28 August and 20 October, 2005. Our instrumentation combined a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and measured number size distributions in the size range 0.018 μm–10 μm. Four time periods with distinct aerosol characteristics were discriminated, two corresponding to marine and polluted air masses, respectively. In marine air, the sub-μm size distributions showed two particle modes centered at 67 nm and 195 nm having total number concentrations between 900 and 2000 cm−3. In polluted air masses, the size distributions were mainly unimodal with a mode typically centered at 140 nm, with number concentrations varying between 1800 and 2900 cm−3. Super-μm particles showed number concentrations in the range from 0.01 to 2.5 cm−3 without any clear relation to air mass origin. A small number of short-lived particle nucleation events were recorded, where the calculated particle formation rates ranged between 1.1–1.7 cm−3 s−1. However, no particle nucleation and growth events comparable to those typical for the continental boundary layer were observed. Particles concentrations (Diameter <50 nm) were low compared to continental boundary layer conditions with an average concentration of 300 cm−3. The production of sulfuric acid and its subsequently condensation on preexisting particles was examined with the use of a simplistic box model. These calculations suggested that the day-time evolution of the Aitken particle population was governed mainly by coagulation and that particle formation was absent during most days.
  • Item
    A case of extreme particulate matter concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2008) Birmili, W.; Schepanski, K.; Ansmann, A.; Spindler, G.; Tegen, I.; Wehner, B.; Nowak, A.; Reimer, E.; Mattis, I.; Müller, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Althausen, D.; Schladitz, A.; Tuch, T.; Löschau, G.
    On 24 March 2007, an extraordinary dust plume was observed in the Central European troposphere. Satellite observations revealed its origins in a dust storm in Southern Ukraine, where large amounts of soil were resuspended from dried-out farmlands at wind gusts up to 30 m s−1. Along the pathway of the plume, maximum particulate matter (PM10) mass concentrations between 200 and 1400 μg m−3 occurred in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Germany. Over Germany, the dust plume was characterised by a volume extinction coefficient up to 400 Mm−1 and a particle optical depth of 0.71 at wavelength 0.532 μm. In-situ size distribution measurements as well as the wavelength dependence of light extinction from lidar and Sun photometer measurements confirmed the presence of a coarse particle mode with diameters around 2–3 μm. Chemical particle analyses suggested a fraction of 75% crustal material in daily average PM10 and up to 85% in the coarser fraction PM10–2.5. Based on the particle characteristics as well as a lack of increased CO and CO2 levels, a significant impact of biomass burning was ruled out. The reasons for the high particle concentrations in the dust plume were twofold: First, dust was transported very rapidly into Central Europe in a boundary layer jet under dry conditions. Second, the dust plume was confined to a relatively stable boundary layer of 1.4–1.8 km height, and could therefore neither expand nor dilute efficiently. Our findings illustrate the capacity of combined in situ and remote sensing measurements to characterise large-scale dust plumes with a variety of aerosol parameters. Although such plumes from Southern Eurasia seem to occur rather infrequently in Central Europe, its unexpected features highlights the need to improve the description of dust emission, transport and transformation processes needs, particularly when facing the possible effects of further anthropogenic desertification and climate change.
  • Item
    Characterisation of a new Fast CPC and its application for atmospheric particle measurements
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Wehner, B.; Siebert, H.; Hermann, M.; Ditas, F.; Wiedensohler, A.
    A new Fast CPC (FCPC) using butanol as working fluid has been built based on the setup described by Wang et al. (2002). In this study, we describe the new instrument. The functionality and stable operation of the FCPC in the laboratory, as well as under atmospheric conditions, is demonstrated. The counting efficiency was measured for three temperature differences between FCPC saturator and condenser, 25, 27, and 29 K, subsequently resulting in a lower detection limit between 6.1 and 8.5 nm. Above 25 nm the FCPC reached 98–100% counting efficiency compared to an electrometer used as the reference instrument. The FCPC demonstrated its ability to perform continuous measurements over a few hours in the laboratory with respect to the total particle counting. The instrument has been implemented into the airborne measurement platform ACTOS to perform measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. Therefore, a stable operation over two hours is required. The mixing time of the new FCPC was estimated in two ways using a time series with highly fluctuating particle number concentrations. The analysis of a sharp ramp due to a concentration change results in a mixing time of 5 ms while a spectral analysis of atmospheric data demonstrates that for frequencies up to 10 Hz coherent structures can be resolved before sampling noise dominates.
  • Item
    Spatio-temporal variability and principal components of the particle number size distribution in an urban atmosphere
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Costabile, F.; Birmili, W.; Klose, S.; Tuch, T.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Franck, U.; König, K.; Sonntag, A.
    A correct description of fine (diameter <1 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) aerosol particles in urban areas is of interest for particle exposure assessment but also basic atmospheric research. We examined the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol particles (size range 3–800 nm) using concurrent number size distribution measurements at a maximum of eight observation sites in and around Leipzig, a city in Central Europe. Two main experiments were conducted with different time span and number of observation sites (2 years at 3 sites; 1 month at 8 sites). A general observation was that the particle number size distribution varied in time and space in a complex fashion as a result of interaction between local and far-range sources, and the meteorological conditions. To identify statistically independent factors in the urban aerosol, different runs of principal component (PC) analysis were conducted encompassing aerosol, gas phase, and meteorological parameters from the multiple sites. Several of the resulting PCs, outstanding with respect to their temporal persistence and spatial coverage, could be associated with aerosol particle modes: a first accumulation mode ("droplet mode", 300–800 nm), considered to be the result of liquid phase processes and far-range transport; a second accumulation mode (centered around diameters 90–250 nm), considered to result from primary emissions as well as aging through condensation and coagulation; an Aitken mode (30–200 nm) linked to urban traffic emissions in addition to an urban and a rural Aitken mode; a nucleation mode (5–20 nm) linked to urban traffic emissions; nucleation modes (3–20 nm) linked to photochemically induced particle formation; an aged nucleation mode (10–50 nm). Additional PCs represented only local sources at a single site, or infrequent phenomena. In summary, the analysis of size distributions of high time and size resolution yielded a surprising wealth of statistical aerosol components occurring in the urban atmosphere over one single city. A paradigm on the behaviour of sub-μm urban aerosol particles is proposed, with recommendations how to efficiently monitor individual sub-fractions across an entire city.
  • Item
    Mobility particle size spectrometers: Harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Wiedensohler, A.; Birmili, W.; Nowak, A.; Sonntag, A.; Weinhold, K.; Merkel, M.; Wehner, B.; Tuch, T.; Pfeifer, S.; Fiebig, M.; Fjäraa, A.M.; Asmi, E.; Sellegri, K.; Depuy, R.; Venzac, H.; Villani, P.; Laj, P.; Aalto, P.; Ogren, J.A.; Swietlick, E.; Williams, P.; Roldin, P.; Quincey, P.; Hüglin, C.; Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Riccobono, F.; Santos, S.; Grüning, C.; Faloon, K.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R.; Monahan, C.; Jennings, S.G.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Marinoni, A.; Horn, H.-G.; Keck, L.; Jiang, J.; Scheckman, J.; McMurry, P.H.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, C.S.; Moerman, M.; Henzing, B.; de Leeuw, G.; Löschau, G.; Bastian, S.
    Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers) or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers) have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer. We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data. Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research) and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the peak particle number concentration when all settings were done carefully. The consistency of these reference instruments to the total particle number concentration was demonstrated to be less than 5%. Additionally, a new data structure for particle number size distributions was introduced to store and disseminate the data at EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Program). This structure contains three levels: raw data, processed data, and final particle size distributions. Importantly, we recommend reporting raw measurements including all relevant instrument parameters as well as a complete documentation on all data transformation and correction steps. These technical and data structure standards aim to enhance the quality of long-term size distribution measurements, their comparability between different networks and sites, and their transparency and traceability back to raw data.