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    Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Groß, Silke; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Geiß, Alexander; Schladitz, Alexander; Toledano, Carlos; Kandler, Konrad; Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Measurements with two Raman-depolarization lidars of the Meteorological Institute of the Ludwig-Maximilians- Universit¨at, M¨unchen, Germany, performed during SAMUM-2, were used to characterize the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over Praia, Cape Verde. A novel approach was used to determine the volume fraction of dust υd in the PBL. This approach primarily relies on accurate measurements of the linear depolarization ratio. Comparisons with independent in situ measurements showed the reliability of this approach. Based on our retrievals, two different phases could be distinguished within the measurement period of almost one month. The first (22–31 January 2008) was characterized by high aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the PBL and large υd > 95%. During the second phase, the AOD in the PBL was considerably lower and υd less than ∼40%. These findings were in very good agreement with ground based in situ measurements, when ambient volume fractions are considered that were calculated from the actual measurements of the dry volume fraction. Only in cases when dust was not the dominating aerosol component (second phase), effects due to hygroscopic growth became important.
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    Properties of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the trade wind marine boundary layer of the western North Atlantic
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Kristensen, Thomas B.; Müller, Thomas; Kandler, Konrad; Benker, Nathalie; Hartmann, Markus; Prospero, Joseph M.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank
    Cloud optical properties in the trade winds over the eastern Caribbean Sea have been shown to be sensitive to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the CCN properties in the marine boundary layer (MBL) in the tropical western North Atlantic, in order to assess the respective roles of inorganic sulfate, organic species, long-range transported mineral dust and sea-salt particles. Measurements were carried out in June–July 2013, on the east coast of Barbados, and included CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and offline analysis of sampled particulate matter (PM) and sampled accumulation mode particles for an investigation of composition and mixing state with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). During most of the campaign, significant mass concentrations of long-range transported mineral dust was present in the PM, and influence from local island sources can be ruled out. The CCN and particle number concentrations were similar to what can be expected in pristine marine environments. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was inferred, and values in the range 0.2–0.5 were found during most of the campaign, with similar values for the Aitken and the accumulation mode. The accumulation mode particles studied with TEM were dominated by non-refractory material, and concentrations of mineral dust, sea salt and soot were too small to influence the CCN properties. It is highly likely that the CCN were dominated by a mixture of sulfate species and organic compounds.