Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
  • Item
    Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Zieger, Paul; Fierz-Schmidhauser, Rahel; Poulain, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Spindler, Gerald; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest
    The influence of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering was examined at the regional continental research site Melpitz, Germany. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH), defined as the aerosol particle scattering coefficient at a certain relative humidity (RH) divided by its dry value, was measured using a humidified nephelometer. The chemical composition and other microphysical properties were measured in parallel. f(RH) showed a strong variation, e.g. with values between 1.2 and 3.6 at RH85% and l550 nm. The chemical composition was found to be the main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH), since the magnitude of f(RH) clearly correlated with the inorganic mass fraction measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Hysteresis within the recorded humidograms was observed and explained by long-range transported sea salt. A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the measured parameters.
  • Item
    Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Esselborn, Michael; Kandler, Konrad; Knippertz, Peter; Müller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Tesche, Matthias; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Laurent, Benoit; Massling, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Petzold, Andreas; Schepanski, Kerstin; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The regional dust model system LM-MUSCAT-DES was developed in the framework of the SAMUM project. Using the unique comprehensive data set of near-source dust properties during the 2006SAMUMfield campaign, the performance of the model system is evaluated for two time periods in May and June 2006. Dust optical thicknesses, number size distributions and the position of the maximum dust extinction in the vertical profiles agree well with the observations. However, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust plumes is not always reproduced due to inaccuracies in the dust source placement by the model. While simulated winds and dust distributions are well matched for dust events caused by dry synoptic-scale dynamics, they are often misrepresented when dust emissions are caused by moist convection or influenced by small-scale topography that is not resolved by the model. In contrast to long-range dust transport, in the vicinity of source regions the model performance strongly depends on the correct prediction of the exact location of sources. Insufficiently resolved vertical grid spacing causes the absence of inversions in the model vertical profiles and likely explains the absence of the observed sharply defined dust layers.
  • Item
    Aerosol Particle and Black Carbon Emission Factors of Vehicular Fleet in Manila, Philippines
    (Basel, Switzerland : MDPI AG, 2019) Madueño, Leizel; Kecorius, Simonas; Birmili, Wolfram; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James; Vallar, Edgar; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Cayetano, Mylene; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Poor air quality has been identified as one of the main risks to human health, especially in developing regions, where the information on physical chemical properties of air pollutants is lacking. To bridge this gap, we conducted an intensive measurement campaign in Manila, Philippines to determine the emission factors (EFs) of particle number (PN) and equivalent black carbon (BC). The focus was on public utility jeepneys (PUJ), equipped with old technology diesel engines, widely used for public transportation. The EFs were determined by aerosol physical measurements, fleet information, and modeled dilution using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The results show that average vehicle EFs of PN and BC in Manila is up to two orders of magnitude higher than European emission standards. Furthermore, a PUJ emits up to seven times more than a light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and contribute to more than 60% of BC emission in Manila. Unfortunately, traffic restrictions for heavy-duty vehicles do not apply to PUJs. The results presented in this work provide a framework to help support targeted traffic interventions to improve urban air quality not only in Manila, but also in other countries with a similar fleet composed of old-technology vehicles. © 2019 by the authors.
  • Item
    In situ aerosol characterization at Cape Verde, Part 1: Particle number size distributions, hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of the marine and Saharan dust aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, Alexander; Müller, Thomas; Nowak, Andreas; Kandler, Konrad; Lieke, Kirsten; Massling, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties of marine and Saharan dust aerosol were investigated during the SAMUM-2 field study at Cape Verde in winter 2008. Aitken and accumulation mode particles were mainly assigned to the marine aerosol, whereas coarse mode particles were composed of sea-salt and a variable fraction of Saharan mineral dust. A new methodical approach was used to derive hygroscopic growth and state of mixing for a particle size range (volume equivalent) from dpve = 26 nm to 10 μm. For hygroscopic particles with dpve < 100 nm, the median hygroscopicity parameter κ is 0.35. From 100 nm < dpve < 350 nm, κ increases to 0.65. For larger particles, κ at dpve = 350 nm was used. For nearly hydrophobic particles, κ is between 0 and 0.1 for dpve < 250 nm and decreases to 0 for dpve > 250 nm. The mixing state of Saharan dust in terms of the number fraction of nearly hydrophobic particles showed the highest variation and ranges from 0.3 to almost 1. This study was used to perform a successful mass closure at ambient conditions and demonstrates the important role of hygroscopic growth of large sea-salt particles.
  • Item
    In situ aerosol characterization at Cape Verde, Part 2: Parametrization of relative humidity- and wavelength-dependent aerosol optical properties
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, Alexander; Müller, Thomas; Nordmann, Stephan; Tesche, Matthias; Silke Groß, Silke Groß; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gasteiger, Josef; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    An observation-based numerical study of humidity-dependent aerosol optical properties of mixed marine and Saharan mineral dust aerosol is presented. An aerosol model was developed based on measured optical and microphysical properties to describe the marine and Saharan dust aerosol at Cape Verde. A wavelength-dependent optical equivalent imaginary part of the refractive index and a scattering non-sphericity factor for Saharan dustwere derived. Simulations of humidity effects on optical properties by the aerosol model were validated with relative measurements of the extinction coefficient at ambient conditions. Parametrizations were derived to describe the humidity dependence of the extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients as well as the asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo. For wavelengths (300–950 nm) and dry dust volume fractions (0–1), aerosol optical properties as a function of relative humidity (RH = 0–90%) can be calculated from tabulated parameters. For instance, at a wavelength of 550 nm, a volume fraction of 0.5 of dust on the total particle volume (dry conditions) and a RH of 90%, the enhancements for the scattering, extinction and absorption coefficients are 2.55, 2.46 and 1.04, respectively, while the enhancements for the asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo are 1.11 and 1.04.
  • Item
    Regional modelling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke, Part I: Model description and evaluation
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Schepanski, Kerstin; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke; Kandler, Konrad; Knippertz, Peter; Müller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Toledano, Carlos; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Müller, Thomas; Petzold, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The spatio-temporal evolution of the Saharan dust and biomass-burning plume during the SAMUM-2 field campaign in January and February 2008 is simulated at 28 km horizontal resolution with the regional model-system COSMOMUSCAT. The model performance is thoroughly tested using routine ground-based and space-borne remote sensing and local field measurements. Good agreement with the observations is found in many cases regarding transport patterns, aerosol optical thicknesses and the ratio of dust to smoke aerosol. The model also captures major features of the complex aerosol layering. Nevertheless, discrepancies in the modelled aerosol distribution occur, which are analysed in detail. The dry synoptic dynamics controlling dust uplift and transport during the dry season are well described by the model, but surface wind peaks associated with the breakdown of nocturnal low-level jets are not always reproduced. Thus, a strong dust outbreak is underestimated. While dust emission modelling is a priori more challenging, since strength and placement of dust sources depend on on-line computed winds, considerable inaccuracies also arise in observation-based estimates of biomass-burning emissions. They are caused by cloud and spatial errors of satellite fire products and uncertainties in fire emission parameters, and can lead to unrealistic model results of smoke transport.
  • Item
    Respiratory tract deposition of inhaled roadside ultrafine refractory particles in a polluted megacity of South-East Asia
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Löndahl, Jakob; Vallar, Edgar; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Idolor, Luisito F.; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Recent studies demonstrate that Black Carbon (BC) pollution in economically developing megacities remain higher than the values, which the World Health Organization considers to be safe. Despite the scientific evidence of the degrees of BC exposure, there is still a lack of understanding on how the severe levels of BC pollution affect human health in these regions. We consider information on the respiratory tract deposition dose (DD) of BC to be essential in understanding the link between personal exposure to air pollutants and corresponding health effects. In this work, we combine data on fine and ultrafine refractory particle number concentrations (BC proxy), and activity patterns to derive the respiratory tract deposited amounts of BC particles for the population of the highly polluted metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. We calculated the total DD of refractory particles based on three metrics: refractory particle number, surface area, and mass concentrations. The calculated DD of total refractory particle number in Metro Manila was found to be 1.6 to 17 times higher than average values reported from Europe and the U.S. In the case of Manila, ultrafine particles smaller than 100 nm accounted for more than 90% of the total deposited refractory particle dose in terms of particle number. This work is a first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the DD of refractory particles and raise awareness in assessing pollution-related health effects in developing megacities. We demonstrate that the majority of the population may be highly affected by BC pollution, which is known to have negative health outcomes if no actions are taken to mitigate its emission. For the governments of such metropolitan areas, we suggest to revise currently existing environmental legislation, raise public awareness, and to establish supplementary monitoring of black carbon in parallel to already existing PM 10 and PM 2.5 measures. © 2019
  • Item
    Intercomparison and characterization of 23 Aethalometers under laboratory and ambient air conditions: procedures and unit-to-unit variabilities
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Cuesta-Mosquera, Andrea; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Müller, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sascha; Minguillón, María Cruz; Briel, Björn; Buckley, Paul; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Fernández-García, Javier; Fernández-Amado, María; Ferreira De Brito, Joel; Riffault, Veronique; Flentje, Harald; Heffernan, Eimear; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Keernik, Hannes; Marmureanu, Luminita; Luoma, Krista; Marinoni, Angela; Pikridas, Michael; Schauer, Gerhard; Serfozo, Norbert; Servomaa, Henri; Titos, Gloria; Yus-Díez, Jesús; Zioła, Natalia; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Aerosolized black carbon is monitored worldwide to quantify its impact on air quality and climate. Given its importance, measurements of black carbon mass concentrations must be conducted with instruments operating in qualitychecked and ensured conditions to generate data which are reliable and comparable temporally and geographically. In this study, we report the results from the largest characterization and intercomparison of filter-based absorption photometers, the Aethalometer model AE33, belonging to several European monitoring networks. Under controlled laboratory conditions, a total of 23 instruments measured mass concentrations of black carbon from three wellcharacterized aerosol sources: synthetic soot, nigrosin particles, and ambient air from the urban background of Leipzig, Germany. The objective was to investigate the individual performance of the instruments and their comparability; we analyzed the response of the instruments to the different aerosol sources and the impact caused by the use of obsolete filter materials and the application of maintenance activities. Differences in the instrument-to-instrument variabilities from equivalent black carbon (eBC) concentrations reported at 880 nm were determined before maintenance activities (for soot measurements, average deviation from total least square regression was-2.0% and the range-16% to 7 %; for nigrosin measurements, average deviation was 0.4% and the range-15% to 17 %), and after they were carried out (for soot measurements, average deviation was-1.0% and the range-14% to 8 %; for nigrosin measurements, the average deviation was 0.5%and the range-12%to 15 %). The deviations are in most of the cases explained by the type of filter material employed by the instruments, the total particle load on the filter, and the flow calibration. The results of this intercomparison activity show that relatively small unit-to-unit variability of AE33-based particle light absorbing measurements is possible with wellmaintained instruments. It is crucial to follow the guidelines for maintenance activities and the use of the proper filter tape in the AE33 to ensure high quality and comparable black carbon (BC) measurements among international observational networks. © 2021 Author(s). This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • Item
    Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): Uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; dos Santos, Sebastiao Martins; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5–3 µm is needed.
  • Item
    Importance of size representation and morphology in modelling optical properties of black carbon: comparison between laboratory measurements and model simulations
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2022) Romshoo, Baseerat; Pöhlker, Mira; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Pfeifer, Sascha; Saturno, Jorge; Nowak, Andreas; Ciupek, Krzysztof; Quincey, Paul; Vasilatou, Konstantina; Ess, Michaela N.; Gini, Maria; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Robins, Chris; Gaie-Levrel, François; Müller, Thomas
    Black carbon (BC) from incomplete combustion of biomass or fossil fuels is the strongest absorbing aerosol component in the atmosphere. Optical properties of BC are essential in climate models for quantification of their impact on radiative forcing. The global climate models, however, consider BC to be spherical particles, which causes uncertainties in their optical properties. Based on this, an increasing number of model-based studies provide databases and parameterization schemes for the optical properties of BC, using more realistic fractal aggregate morphologies. In this study, the reliability of the different modelling techniques of BC was investigated by comparing them to laboratory measurements. The modelling techniques were examined for bare BC particles in the first step and for BC particles with organic material in the second step. A total of six morphological representations of BC particles were compared, three each for spherical and fractal aggregate morphologies. In general, the aggregate representation performed well for modelling the particle light absorption coefficient σabs, single-scattering albedo SSA, and mass absorption cross-section MACBC for laboratory-generated BC particles with volume mean mobility diameters dp,V larger than 100nm. However, for modelling Ångström absorption exponent AAE, it was difficult to suggest a method due to size dependence, although the spherical assumption was in better agreement in some cases. The BC fractal aggregates are usually modelled using monodispersed particles, since their optical simulations are computationally expensive. In such studies, the modelled optical properties showed a 25% uncertainty in using the monodisperse size method. It is shown that using the polydisperse size distribution in combination with fractal aggregate morphology reduces the uncertainty in measured σabs to 10% for particles with dp,V between 60-160nm. Furthermore, the sensitivities of the BC optical properties to the various model input parameters such as the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index (mre and mim), the fractal dimension (Df), and the primary particle radius (app) of an aggregate were investigated. When the BC particle is small and rather fresh, the change in the Df had relatively little effect on the optical properties. There was, however, a significant relationship between app and the particle light scattering, which increased by a factor of up to 6 with increasing total particle size. The modelled optical properties of BC are well aligned with laboratory-measured values when the following assumptions are used in the fractal aggregate representation: mre between 1.6 and 2, mim between 0.50 and 1, Df from 1.7 to 1.9, and app between 10 and 14nm. Overall, this study provides experimental support for emphasizing the importance of an appropriate size representation (polydisperse size method) and an appropriate morphological representation for optical modelling and parameterization scheme development of BC.