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    Source apportionment of the organic aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean from 53° N to 53° S: Significant contributions from marine emissions and long-range transport
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Huang, Shan; Wu, Zhijun; Poulain, Laurent; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Merkel, Maik; Assmann, Denise; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Marine aerosol particles are an important part of the natural aerosol systems and might have a significant impact on the global climate and biological cycle. It is widely accepted that truly pristine marine conditions are difficult to find over the ocean. However, the influence of continental and anthropogenic emissions on the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol is still less understood and non-quantitative, causing uncertainties in the estimation of the climate effect of marine aerosols. This study presents a detailed chemical characterization of the MBL aerosol as well as the source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) composition. The data set covers the Atlantic Ocean from 53∘ N to 53∘ S, based on four open-ocean cruises in 2011 and 2012. The aerosol particle composition was measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which indicated that sub-micrometer aerosol particles over the Atlantic Ocean are mainly composed of sulfates (50 % of the particle mass concentration), organics (21 %) and sea salt (12 %). OA has been apportioned into five factors, including three factors linked to marine sources and two with continental and/or anthropogenic origins. The marine oxygenated OA (MOOA, 16 % of the total OA mass) and marine nitrogen-containing OA (MNOA, 16 %) are identified as marine secondary products with gaseous biogenic precursors dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or amines. Marine hydrocarbon-like OA (MHOA, 19 %) was attributed to the primary emissions from the Atlantic Ocean. The factor for the anthropogenic oxygenated OA (Anth-OOA, 19 %) is related to continental long-range transport. Represented by the combustion oxygenated OA (Comb-OOA), aged combustion emissions from maritime traffic and wild fires in Africa contributed, on average, a large fraction to the total OA mass (30 %). This study provides the important finding that long-range transport was found to contribute averagely 49 % of the submicron OA mass over the Atlantic Ocean. This is almost equal to that from marine sources (51 %). Furthermore, a detailed latitudinal distribution of OA source contributions showed that DMS oxidation contributed markedly to the OA over the South Atlantic during spring, while continental-related long-range transport largely influenced the marine atmosphere near Europe and western and central Africa (15∘ N to 15∘ S). In addition, supported by a solid correlation between marine tracer methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and the DMS-oxidation OA (MOOA, R2>0.85), this study suggests that the DMS-related secondary organic aerosol (SOA) over the Atlantic Ocean could be estimated by MSA and a scaling factor of 1.79, especially in spring.
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    Source apportionment and impact of long-range transport on carbonaceous aerosol particles in central Germany during HCCT-2010
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2021) Poulain, Laurent; Fahlbusch, Benjamin; Spindler, Gerald; Mueller, Konrad; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Wu, Zhijun; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Herrmann, Hartmut
    The identification of different sources of the carbonaceous aerosol (organics and black carbon) was investigated at a mountain forest site located in central Germany from September to October 2010 to characterize incoming air masses during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010) experiment. The near-PM1 chemical composition, as measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), was dominated by organic aerosol (OA; 41 %) followed by sulfate (19 %) and nitrate (18 %). Source apportionment of the OA fraction was performed using the multilinear engine (ME-2) approach, resulting in the identification of the following five factors: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 3 % of OA mass), biomass burning OA (BBOA; 13 %), semi-volatile-like OA (SV-OOA; 19 %), and two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors. The more oxidized OOA (MO-OOA, 28 %) was interpreted as being influenced by aged, polluted continental air masses, whereas the less oxidized OOA (LO-OOA, 37 %) was found to be more linked to aged biogenic sources. Equivalent black carbon (eBC), measured by a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) represented 10 % of the total particulate matter (PM). The eBC was clearly associated with HOA, BBOA, and MO-OOA factors (all together R2=0.83). Therefore, eBC's contribution to each factor was achieved using a multi-linear regression model. More than half of the eBC (52 %) was associated with long-range transport (i.e., MO-OOA), whereas liquid fuel eBC (35 %) and biomass burning eBC (13 %) were associated with local emissions, leading to a complete apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol. The separation between local and transported eBC was well supported by the mass size distribution of elemental carbon (EC) from Berner impactor samples. Air masses with the strongest marine influence, based on back trajectory analysis, corresponded with a low particle mass concentration (6.4–7.5 µg m−3) and organic fraction (≈30 %). However, they also had the largest contribution of primary OA (HOA ≈ 4 % and BBOA 15 %–20 %), which was associated with local emissions. Continental air masses had the highest mass concentration (11.4–12.6 µg m−3), and a larger fraction of oxygenated OA (≈45 %) indicated highly processed OA. The present results emphasize the key role played by long-range transport processes not only in the OA fraction but also in the eBC mass concentration and the importance of improving our knowledge on the identification of eBC sources.
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    Simulation of atmospheric organic aerosol using its volatility-oxygen-content distribution during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Karnezi, Eleni; Murphy, Benjamin N.; Poulain, Laurent; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Rubach, Florian; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas F.; Pandis, Spyros N.
    A lot of effort has been made to understand and constrain the atmospheric aging of the organic aerosol (OA). Different parameterizations of the organic aerosol formation and evolution in the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework are evaluated using ground and airborne measurements collected in the 2012 Pan-European Gas AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) field campaign in the Po Valley (Italy). A number of chemical aging schemes are examined, taking into account various functionalization and fragmentation pathways for biogenic and anthropogenic OA components. Model predictions and measurements, both at the ground and aloft, indicate a relatively oxidized OA with little average diurnal variation. Total OA concentration and O: C ratios are reproduced within experimental error by a number of chemical aging schemes. Anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) is predicted to contribute 15-25% of the total OA, while SOA from intermediate volatility compound oxidation contributes another 20-35%. Biogenic SOA (bSOA) contributions varied from 15 to 45% depending on the modeling scheme. Primary OA contributed around 5% for all schemes and was comparable to the hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) concentrations derived from the positive matrix factorization of the aerosol mass spectrometer (PMF-AMS) ground measurements. The average OA and O: C diurnal variation and their vertical profiles showed a surprisingly modest sensitivity to the assumed vaporization enthalpy for all aging schemes. This can be explained by the interplay between the partitioning of the semi-volatile compounds and their gas-phase chemical aging reactions.
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    The impact of biomass burning and aqueous-phase processing on air quality: A multi-year source apportionment study in the Po Valley, Italy
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Paglione, Marco; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; Zanca, Nicola; Sandrini, Silvia; Giulianelli, Lara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Poulain, Laurent; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S.H.; Massoli, Paola; Carbone, Claudio; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro
    The Po Valley (Italy) is a well-known air quality hotspot characterized by particulate matter (PM) levels well above the limit set by the European Air Quality Directive and by the World Health Organization, especially during the colder season. In the framework of Emilia-Romagna regional project "Supersito", the southern Po Valley submicron aerosol chemical composition was characterized by means of high-resolution aerosol mass spectroscopy (HR-AMS) with the specific aim of organic aerosol (OA) characterization and source apportionment. Eight intensive observation periods (IOPs) were carried out over 4 years (from 2011 to 2014) at two different sites (Bologna, BO, urban background, and San Pietro Capofiume, SPC, rural background), to characterize the spatial variability and seasonality of the OA sources, with a special focus on the cold season. On the multi-year basis of the study, the AMS observations show that OA accounts for averages of 45 ± 8 % (ranging from 33 % to 58 %) and 46 ± 7 % (ranging from 36 % to 50 %) of the total non-refractory submicron particle mass (PM1-NR) at the urban and rural sites, respectively. Primary organic aerosol (POA) comprises biomass burning (23±13 % of OA) and fossil fuel (12±7 %) contributions with a marked seasonality in concentration. As expected, the biomass burning contribution to POA is more significant at the rural site (urban / rural concentration ratio of 0.67), but it is also an important source of POA at the urban site during the cold season, with contributions ranging from 14 % to 38 % of the total OA mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes to OA mass to a much larger extent than POA at both sites throughout the year (69 ± 16 % and 83 ± 16 % at the urban and rural sites, respectively), with important implications for public health. Within the secondary fraction of OA, the measurements highlight the importance of biomass burning aging products during the cold season, even at the urban background site. This biomass burning SOA fraction represents 14 %-44 % of the total OA mass in the cold season, indicating that in this region a major contribution of combustion sources to PM mass is mediated by environmental conditions and atmospheric reactivity. © 2020 Author(s).
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    Air quality in the German–Czech border region: A focus on harmful fractions of PM and ultrafine particles
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2015) Schladitz, Alexander; Leníček, Jan; Beneš, Ivan; Kováč, Martin; Skorkovský, Jiří; Soukup, Aleš; Jandlová, Jana; Poulain, Laurent; Plachá, Helena; Löschau, Gunter; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    A comprehensive air quality study has been carried out at two urban background sites in Annaberg-Buchholz (Germany) and Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic) in the German–Czech border region between January 2012 and June 2014. Special attention was paid to quantify harmful fractions of particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particle number concentration (UFP) from solid fuel combustion and vehicular traffic. Source type contributions of UFP were quantified by using the daily concentration courses of UFP and nitrogen oxide. Two different source apportionment techniques were used to quantify relative and absolute mass contributions: positive matrix factorization for total PM2.5 and elemental carbon in PM2.5 and chemical mass balance for total PM1 and organic carbon in PM1. Contributions from solid fuel combustion strongly differed between the non-heating period (April–September) and the heating period (October–March). Major sources of solid fuel combustion in this study were wood and domestic coal combustion, while the proportion of industrial coal combustion was low (<3%). In Ústí nad Labem combustion of domestic brown coal was the most important source of organic carbon ranging from 34% to 43%. Wood combustion was an important source of organic carbon in Annaberg-Buchholz throughout the year. Heavy metals and less volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the accumulation mode were related to solid fuel combustion with enhanced concentrations during the heating period. In contrast, vehicular PAH emissions were allocated to the Aitken mode. Only in Ústí nad Labem a significant contribution of photochemical new particle formation (e.g. from sulfur dioxide) to UFP of almost 50% was observed during noontime. UFPs from traffic emissions (nucleation particles) and primary emitted soot particles dominated at both sites during the rest of the day. The methodology of a combined source apportionment of UFP and PM can be adapted to other regions of the world with similar problems of atmospheric pollution to calculate the relative risk in epidemiological health studies for different sub-fractions of PM and UFP. This will enhance the meaningfulness of published relative risks in health studies based on total PM and UFP number concentrations..
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    Multi-year ACSM measurements at the central European research station Melpitz (Germany)-Part 1: Instrument robustness, quality assurance, and impact of upper size cutoff diameter
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Poulain, Laurent; Spindler, Gerald; Grüner, Achim; Tuch, Thomas; Stieger, Bastian; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) is nowadays widely used to identify and quantify the main components of fine particles in ambient air. As such, its deployment at observatory platforms is fully incorporated within the European Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS). Regular intercomparisons are organized at the Aerosol Chemical Monitoring Calibration Center (ACMCC; part of the European Center for Aerosol Calibration, Paris, France) to ensure the consistency of the dataset, as well as instrumental performance and variability. However, in situ quality assurance remains a fundamental aspect of the instrument's stability. Here, we present and discuss the main outputs of long-term quality assurance efforts achieved for ACSM measurements at the research station Melpitz (Germany) since 2012 onwards. In order to validate the ACSM measurements over the years and to characterize seasonal variations, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic, and particle mass concentrations were systematically compared against the collocated measurements of daily offline high-volume PM1 and PM2:5 filter samples and particle number size distribution (PNSD) measurements. Mass closure analysis was made by comparing the total particle mass (PM) concentration obtained by adding the mass concentration of equivalent black carbon (eBC) from the multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to the ACSM chemical composition, to that of PM1 and PM2:5 during filter weighing, as well as to the derived mass concentration of PNSD. A combination of PM1 and PM2:5 filter samples helped identifying the critical importance of the upper size cutoff of the ACSM during such exercises. The ACSM-MAAP-derived mass concentrations systematically deviated from the PM1 mass when the mass concentration of the latter represented less than 60% of PM2:5, which was linked to the transmission efficiency of the aerodynamic lenses of the ACSM. The best correlations are obtained for sulfate (slopeD 0:96; R2 D 0:77) and total PM (slopeD 1:02; R2 D 0:90). Although, sulfate did not exhibit a seasonal dependency, total PM mass concentration revealed a small seasonal variability linked to the increase in non-water-soluble fractions. The nitrate suffers from a loss of ammonium nitrate during filter collection, and the contribution of organo-nitrate compounds to the ACSM nitrate signal make it difficult to directly compare the two methods. The contribution of m=z 44 (f44) to the total organic mass concentration was used to convert the ACSM organic mass (OM) to organic carbon (OC) by using a similar approach as for the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). The resulting estimated OCACSM was compared with the measured OCPM1 (slopeD 0:74; R2 D 0:77), indicating that the f44 signal was relatively free of interferences during this period. The PM2:5 filter samples use for the ACSM data quality might suffer from a systematic bias due to a size truncation effect as well as to the presence of chemical species that cannot be detected by the ACSM in coarse mode (e.g., sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate). This may lead to a systematic underestimation of the ACSM particle mass concentration and/or a positive artifact that artificially decreases the discrepancies between the two methods. Consequently, ACSM data validation using PM2:5 filters has to be interpreted with extreme care. The particle mass closure with the PNSD was satisfying (slopeD 0:77; R2 D 0:90 over the entire period), with a slight overestimation of the mobility particle size spectrometer (MPSS)-derived mass concentration in winter. This seasonal variability was related to a change on the PNSD and a larger contribution of the supermicrometer particles in winter. This long-term analysis between the ACSM and other collocated instruments confirms the robustness of the ACSM and its suitability for long-term measurements. Particle mass closure with the PNSD is strongly recommended to ensure the stability of the ACSM. A near-real-time mass closure procedure within the entire ACTRIS-ACSM network certainly represents an optimal quality control and assurance of both warranting the quality assurance of the ACSM measurements as well as identifying cross-instrumental biases. © Author(s) 2020.
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    Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition
    (London : Nature Publ. Group, 2017) Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Kristensson, Adam; Iwamoto, Yoko; Pringle, Kirsty; Reddington, Carly; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Baltensperger, Urs; Bialek, Jakub; Birmili, Wolfram; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Fiebig, Markus; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Furuya, Masaki; Hammer, Emanuel; Heikkinen, Liine; Herrmann, Erik; Holzinger, Rupert; Hyono, Hiroyuki; Kanakidou, Maria; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kinouchi, Kento; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Motos, Ghislain; Nenes, Athanasios; O’Dowd, Colin; Paramonov, Mikhail; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Slowik, Jay; Sonntag, Andre; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wittbom, Cerina; Ogren, John A.; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Carslaw, Ken; Stratmann, Frank; Gysel, Martin
    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other international sites over multiple years. Here, harmonized data records from 11 observatories are summarized, spanning 98,677 instrument hours for CCN data, 157,880 for particle number size distributions, and 70,817 for chemical composition data. The observatories represent nine different environments, e.g., Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Mediterranean maritime, boreal forest, or high alpine atmospheric conditions. This is a unique collection of aerosol particle properties most relevant for studying aerosol-cloud interactions which constitute the largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate. The dataset is appropriate for comprehensive aerosol characterization (e.g., closure studies of CCN), model-measurement intercomparison and satellite retrieval method evaluation, among others. Data have been acquired and processed following international recommendations for quality assurance and have undergone multiple stages of quality assessment.
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    Aerosol activation characteristics and prediction at the central European ACTRIS research station of Melpitz, Germany
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Wang, Yuan; Henning, Silvia; Poulain, Laurent; Lu, Chunsong; Stratmann, Frank; Wang, Yuying; Niu, Shengjie; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Understanding aerosol particle activation is essential for evaluating aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) on climate. Long-term measurements of aerosol particle activation help to understand the AIEs and narrow down the uncertainties of AIEs simulation. However, they are still scarce. In this study, more than 4 years of comprehensive aerosol measurements were utilized at the central European research station of Melpitz, Germany, to gain insight into the aerosol particle activation and provide recommendations on improving the prediction of number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, NCCN). (1) The overall CCN activation characteristics at Melpitz are provided. As supersaturation (SS) increases from 0.1% to 0.7%, the median NCCN increases from 399 to 2144cm-3, which represents 10% to 48% of the total particle number concentration with a diameter range of 10-800nm, while the median hygroscopicity factor (κ) and critical diameter (Dc) decrease from 0.27 to 0.19 and from 176 to 54nm, respectively. (2) Aerosol particle activation is highly variable across seasons, especially at low-SS conditions. At SSCombining double low line0.1%, the median NCCN and activation ratio (AR) in winter are 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than the summer values, respectively. (3) Both κ and the mixing state are size-dependent. As the particle diameter (Dp) increases, κ increases at Dp of 1/440 to 100nm and almost stays constant at Dp of 100 to 200nm, whereas the degree of the external mixture keeps decreasing at Dp of 1/440 to 200nm. The relationships of κ vs. Dp and degree of mixing vs. Dp were both fitted well by a power-law function. (4) Size-resolved κ improves the NCCN prediction. We recommend applying the κ-Dp power-law fit for NCCN prediction at Melpitz, which performs better than using the constant κ of 0.3 and the κ derived from particle chemical compositions and much better than using the NCCN (AR) vs. SS relationships. The κ-Dp power-law fit measured at Melpitz could be applied to predict NCCN for other rural regions. For the purpose of improving the prediction of NCCN, long-term monodisperse CCN measurements are still needed to obtain the κ-Dp relationships for different regions and their seasonal variations.
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    Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Zieger, Paul; Fierz-Schmidhauser, Rahel; Poulain, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Spindler, Gerald; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest
    The influence of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering was examined at the regional continental research site Melpitz, Germany. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH), defined as the aerosol particle scattering coefficient at a certain relative humidity (RH) divided by its dry value, was measured using a humidified nephelometer. The chemical composition and other microphysical properties were measured in parallel. f(RH) showed a strong variation, e.g. with values between 1.2 and 3.6 at RH85% and l550 nm. The chemical composition was found to be the main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH), since the magnitude of f(RH) clearly correlated with the inorganic mass fraction measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Hysteresis within the recorded humidograms was observed and explained by long-range transported sea salt. A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the measured parameters.
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    Helicopter-borne observations of the continental background aerosol in combination with remote sensing and ground-based measurements
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Düsing, Sebastian; Wehner, Birgit; Seifert, Patric; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Ditas, Florian; Henning, Silvia; Ma, Nan; Poulain, Laurent; Siebert, Holger; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Macke, Andreas
    This paper examines the representativeness of ground-based in situ measurements for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and conducts a closure study between airborne in situ and ground-based lidar measurements up to an altitude of 2300 m. The related measurements were carried out in a field campaign within the framework of the High-Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in September 2013 in a rural background area of central Europe. The helicopter-borne probe ACTOS (Airborne Cloud and Turbulence Observation System) provided measurements of the aerosol particle number size distribution (PNSD), the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC), the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-NC), and meteorological atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature and relative humidity). These measurements were supported by the ground-based 3+2 wavelength polarization lidar system PollyXT, which provided profiles of the particle backscatter coefficient (σbsc) for three wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm). Particle extinction coefficient (σext) profiles were obtained by using a fixed backscatter-to-extinction ratio (also lidar ratio, LR). A new approach was used to determine profiles of CCN-NC for continental aerosol. The results of this new approach were consistent with the airborne in situ measurements within the uncertainties. In terms of representativeness, the PNSD measurements on the ground showed a good agreement with the measurements provided with ACTOS for lower altitudes. The ground-based measurements of PNC and CCN-NC are representative of the PBL when the PBL is well mixed. Locally isolated new particle formation events on the ground or at the top of the PBL led to vertical variability in the cases presented here and ground-based measurements are not entirely representative of the PBL. Based on Mie theory (Mie, 1908), optical aerosol properties under ambient conditions for different altitudes were determined using the airborne in situ measurements and were compared with the lidar measurements. The investigation of the optical properties shows that on average the airborne-based particle light backscatter coefficient is 50.1 % smaller for 1064 nm, 27.4 % smaller for 532 nm, and 29.5 % smaller for 355 nm than the measurements of the lidar system. These results are quite promising, since in situ measurement-based Mie calculations of the particle light backscattering are scarce and the modeling is quite challenging. In contrast, for the particle light extinction coefficient we found a good agreement. The airborne-based particle light extinction coefficient was just 8.2 % larger for 532 nm and 3 % smaller for 355 nm, for an assumed LR of 55 sr. The particle light extinction coefficient for 1064 nm was derived with a LR of 30 sr. For this wavelength, the airborne-based particle light extinction coefficient is 5.2 % smaller than the lidar measurements. For the first time, the lidar ratio of 30 sr for 1064 nm was determined on the basis of in situ measurements and the LR of 55 sr for 355 and 532 nm wavelength was reproduced for European continental aerosol on the basis of this comparison. Lidar observations and the in situ based aerosol optical properties agree within the uncertainties. However, our observations indicate that a determination of the PNSD for a large size range is important for a reliable modeling of aerosol particle backscattering.