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    A new method to measure real-world respiratory tract deposition of inhaled ambient black carbon
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Madueño, Leizel; Kecorius, Simonas; Löndahl, Jakob; Müller, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sascha; Haudek, Andrea; Mardoñez, Valeria; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    In this study, we present the development of a mobile system to measure real-world total respiratory tract deposition of inhaled ambient black carbon (BC). Such information can be used to supplement the existing knowledge on air pollution-related health effects, especially in the regions where the use of standard methods and intricate instrumentation is limited. The study is divided in two parts. Firstly, we present the design of portable system and methodology to evaluate the exhaled air BC content. We demonstrate that under real-world conditions, the proposed system exhibit negligible particle losses, and can additionally be used to determine the minute ventilation. Secondly, exemplary experimental data from the system is presented. A feasibility study was conducted in the city of La Paz, Bolivia. In a pilot experiment, we found that the cumulative total respiratory tract deposition dose over 1-h commuting trip would result in approximately 2.6 μg of BC. This is up to 5 times lower than the values obtained from conjectural approach (e.g. using physical parameters from previously reported worksheets). Measured total respiratory tract deposited BC fraction varied from 39% to 48% during walking and commuting inside a micro-bus, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, no studies focusing on experimental determination of real-world deposition dose of BC have been performed in developing regions. This can be especially important because the BC mass concentration is significant and determines a large fraction of particle mass concentration. In this work, we propose a potential method, recommendations, as well as the limitations in establishing an easy and relatively cheap way to estimate the respiratory tract deposition of BC. In this study we present a novel method to measure real-world respiratory tract deposition dose of Black Carbon. Results from a pilot study in La Paz, Bolivia, are presented. © 2019 The Authors
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    The Association Between Particulate Air Pollution and Respiratory Mortality in Beijing Before, During, and After the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2021) Breitner, Susanne; Su, Chang; Franck, Ulrich; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cyrys, Josef; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, Annette
    To improve ambient air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the Chinese Government and Beijing’s municipal government implemented comprehensive emission control policies in Beijing and its neighboring regions before and during this period. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between particulate air pollution and cause-specific respiratory mortality before, during and after the period of the Olympic Games. Further, we wanted to assess whether changes in pollutant concentrations were linked to changes in respiratory mortality. We obtained daily data on mortality due to respiratory diseases (coded as J00-J99 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision [ICD10]) and pneumonia (ICD10: J12–18), meteorology, particulate matter less than 10 µm or 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5) and particle number size distribution from official monitoring networks and sites located on the Peking University campus between May 20 and December 1, 2008. We assessed the effects of particulate air pollution on daily respiratory mortality using confounder-adjusted Quasi-Poisson regression models. Furthermore, we estimated air pollution effects for three periods—before (May 20 to July 20, 2008), during (August 1 to September 20, 2008) and after (October 1 to December 1, 2008)—by including interaction terms in the models. We found associations between different particle metrics and respiratory and pneumonia mortality, with more pronounced effects in smaller particle size ranges. For example, an interquartile range increase of 7,958 particles/cm3 in ultrafine particles (particles <100 nm in diameter) led to a 16.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3%; 26.5%) increase in respiratory mortality with a delay of seven days. When investigating the sub-periods, results indicate that a reduction in air pollution during the Olympics resulted in reduced (cause-specific) respiratory mortality. This reduction was especially pronounced for pneumonia mortality. The findings suggest that even a short-term reduction in pollution concentrations may lead to health benefits and that smaller particles in the ultrafine size range may be particularly important for respiratory health.
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    From Transfer to Knowledge Co-Production: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Reduce Black Carbon Emissions in Metro Manila, Philippines
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020) Tõnisson, Liina; Kunz, Yvonne; Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Casanova, Dang Marviluz; Zhao, Qi; Schikowski, Tamara; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Macke, Andreas
    Air pollution, which kills an estimated 7 million people every year, is one of the greatest environmental health risks of our times. Finding solutions to this threat poses challenges to practitioners and policymakers alike. Increasing awareness on the benefits of transdisciplinary research in solution-oriented sustainable development projects has led to the establishment of the research project “A Transdisciplinary Approach to Mitigate Emissions of Black Carbon” (TAME-BC). This paper introduces the TAME-BC research setup that took place with Metro Manila, Philippines, case study. The approach integrates BC measurements with technological, socio-political, and health aspects to improve the scientific state of the art, policymaking, transport sector planning, and clinical studies related to air pollution health effects. The first pillar in the setup presents an (1) air quality assessment through aerosol measurements and instrumentation, complemented by a (2) description and assessment of the current policies, technologies, and practices of the transport sector that is responsible for pollution levels in the Philippines, as well as a (3) BC exposure and associated health impacts assessment. The fourth pillar is intercrossing, fostering (4) knowledge co-creation through stakeholder involvement across scales. We argue that this transdisciplinary approach is useful for research endeavors aiming for emission mitigation in rapidly urbanizing regions beyond Metro Manila.