Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 107
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    Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2013) Cusack, Michael; Pérez, NoemÍ; Pey, Jorge; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Alastuey, Andrés
    This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY) regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm3) and the nucleation mode (246 cm3). Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non-polluted boundary layer air, and brief changes in the air mass being sampled gave rise to unusual particle number size distributions, with specific cases of such behaviour discussed at length.
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    Significant increase of aerosol number concentrations in air masses crossing a densely trafficked sea area
    (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2015) Kecorius, Simonas; Kivekäs, Niku; Kristensson, Adam; Tuch, Thomas; Covert, David S.; Birmili, Wolfram; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Martinsson, Johan; Sporre, Moa K.; Swietlicki, Erik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ulevicius, Vidmantas
    In this study, we evaluated 10 months data (September 2009 to June 2010) of atmospheric aerosol particle number size distribution at three atmospheric observation stations along the Baltic Sea coast: Vavihill (upwind, Sweden), Utö (upwind, Finland), and Preila (downwind, Lithuania). Differences in aerosol particle number size distributions between the upwind and downwind stations during situations of connected atmospheric flow, when the air passed each station, were used to assess the contribution of ship emissions to the aerosol number concentration (diameter interval 50–400 nm) in the Lithuanian background coastal environment. A clear increase in particle number concentration could be noticed, by a factor of 1.9 from Utö to Preila (the average total number concentration at Utö was 791 cm−3), and by a factor of 1.6 from Vavihill to Preila (the average total number concentration at Vavihill was 998 cm−3). The simultaneous measurements of absorption Ångström exponents close to unity at Preila supported our conclusion that ship emissions in the Baltic Sea contributed to the increase in particle number concentration at Preila.
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    Occurrence of an ultrafine particle mode less than 20 nm in diameter in the marine boundary layer during Arctic summer and autumn
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Wiedensohler, Alfred; Covert, David S.; Swietlicki, Erik; Aalto, Pasi; Heintzenberg, Jost; Leck, Caroline
    The International Arctic Ocean Expedition 1991 (IAOE-91) provided a platform to study the occurrence and size distributions of ultrafine particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during Arctic summer and autumn. Measurements of both aerosol physics, and gas/particulate chemistry were taken aboard the Swedish icebreaker Oden. Three separate submicron aerosol modes were found: an ultrafine mode (Dp < 20 nm), the Aitken mode (20 < Dp < 100 nm), and the accumulation mode (Dp > 100 nm). We evaluated correlations between ultrafine particle number concentrations and mean diameter with the entire measured physical, chemical, and meteorological data set. Multivariate statistical methods were then used to make these comparisons. A principal component (PC) analysis indicated that the observed variation in the data could be explained by the influence from several types of air masses. These were characterised by contributions from the open sea or sources from the surrounding continents and islands. A partial least square (PLS) regression of the ultrafine particle concentration was also used. These results implied that the ultrafine particles were produced above or in upper layers of the MBL and mixed downwards. There were also indications that the open sea acted as a source of the precursors for ultrafine particle production. No anti-correlation was found between the ultrafine and accumulation particle number concentrations, thus indicating that the sources were in separate air masses.
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    Preventing airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals and nursing homes
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Ahlawat, Ajit; Mishra, Sumit Kumar; Birks, John W.; Costabile, Francesca; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    [No abstract available]
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    Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Zieger, Paul; Fierz-Schmidhauser, Rahel; Poulain, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Spindler, Gerald; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest
    The influence of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering was examined at the regional continental research site Melpitz, Germany. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH), defined as the aerosol particle scattering coefficient at a certain relative humidity (RH) divided by its dry value, was measured using a humidified nephelometer. The chemical composition and other microphysical properties were measured in parallel. f(RH) showed a strong variation, e.g. with values between 1.2 and 3.6 at RH85% and l550 nm. The chemical composition was found to be the main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH), since the magnitude of f(RH) clearly correlated with the inorganic mass fraction measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Hysteresis within the recorded humidograms was observed and explained by long-range transported sea salt. A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the measured parameters.
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    The Association Between Particulate Air Pollution and Respiratory Mortality in Beijing Before, During, and After the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2021) Breitner, Susanne; Su, Chang; Franck, Ulrich; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cyrys, Josef; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, Annette
    To improve ambient air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the Chinese Government and Beijing’s municipal government implemented comprehensive emission control policies in Beijing and its neighboring regions before and during this period. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between particulate air pollution and cause-specific respiratory mortality before, during and after the period of the Olympic Games. Further, we wanted to assess whether changes in pollutant concentrations were linked to changes in respiratory mortality. We obtained daily data on mortality due to respiratory diseases (coded as J00-J99 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision [ICD10]) and pneumonia (ICD10: J12–18), meteorology, particulate matter less than 10 µm or 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5) and particle number size distribution from official monitoring networks and sites located on the Peking University campus between May 20 and December 1, 2008. We assessed the effects of particulate air pollution on daily respiratory mortality using confounder-adjusted Quasi-Poisson regression models. Furthermore, we estimated air pollution effects for three periods—before (May 20 to July 20, 2008), during (August 1 to September 20, 2008) and after (October 1 to December 1, 2008)—by including interaction terms in the models. We found associations between different particle metrics and respiratory and pneumonia mortality, with more pronounced effects in smaller particle size ranges. For example, an interquartile range increase of 7,958 particles/cm3 in ultrafine particles (particles <100 nm in diameter) led to a 16.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3%; 26.5%) increase in respiratory mortality with a delay of seven days. When investigating the sub-periods, results indicate that a reduction in air pollution during the Olympics resulted in reduced (cause-specific) respiratory mortality. This reduction was especially pronounced for pneumonia mortality. The findings suggest that even a short-term reduction in pollution concentrations may lead to health benefits and that smaller particles in the ultrafine size range may be particularly important for respiratory health.
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    Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Groß, Silke; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Geiß, Alexander; Schladitz, Alexander; Toledano, Carlos; Kandler, Konrad; Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Measurements with two Raman-depolarization lidars of the Meteorological Institute of the Ludwig-Maximilians- Universit¨at, M¨unchen, Germany, performed during SAMUM-2, were used to characterize the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over Praia, Cape Verde. A novel approach was used to determine the volume fraction of dust υd in the PBL. This approach primarily relies on accurate measurements of the linear depolarization ratio. Comparisons with independent in situ measurements showed the reliability of this approach. Based on our retrievals, two different phases could be distinguished within the measurement period of almost one month. The first (22–31 January 2008) was characterized by high aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the PBL and large υd > 95%. During the second phase, the AOD in the PBL was considerably lower and υd less than ∼40%. These findings were in very good agreement with ground based in situ measurements, when ambient volume fractions are considered that were calculated from the actual measurements of the dry volume fraction. Only in cases when dust was not the dominating aerosol component (second phase), effects due to hygroscopic growth became important.
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    Pedestrian exposure to black carbon and PM2.5 emissions in urban hot spots: new findings using mobile measurement techniques and flexible Bayesian regression models
    (Basingstoke : Nature Publ. Group, 2021) Alas, Honey Dawn; Stöcker, Almond; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Senaweera, Oshada; Pfeifer, Sascha; Greven, Sonja; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Background Data from extensive mobile measurements (MM) of air pollutants provide spatially resolved information on pedestrians’ exposure to particulate matter (black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 mass concentrations). Objective We present a distributional regression model in a Bayesian framework that estimates the effects of spatiotemporal factors on the pollutant concentrations influencing pedestrian exposure. Methods We modeled the mean and variance of the pollutant concentrations obtained from MM in two cities and extended commonly used lognormal models with a lognormal-normal convolution (logNNC) extension for BC to account for instrument measurement error. Results The logNNC extension significantly improved the BC model. From these model results, we found local sources and, hence, local mitigation efforts to improve air quality, have more impact on the ambient levels of BC mass concentrations than on the regulated PM2.5. Significance Firstly, this model (logNNC in bamlss package available in R) could be used for the statistical analysis of MM data from various study areas and pollutants with the potential for predicting pollutant concentrations in urban areas. Secondly, with respect to pedestrian exposure, it is crucial for BC mass concentration to be monitored and regulated in areas dominated by traffic-related air pollution.
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    A simple non-linear analytical relationship between aerosol accumulation number and sub-micron volume, explaining their observed ratio in the clean and polluted marine boundary layer
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2016) Van Dingenen, Rita; Virkkula, Aki O.; Raes, Frank; Bates, Timothy S.; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    We propose an analytical expression for the relation between aerosol accumulation number and sub-micron volume over the marine boundary layer (MBL), based on a simple balance equation. By providing appropriate source and sink terms which account for entrainment, coagulation, in-cloud scavenging and condensational growth, the model is able to reproduce the observed ratio between MBL particles larger than 80 nm diameter (as a proxy for accumulation mode number) and submicron aerosol volume, from freshly polluted to background conditions. Entrainment and coagulation are essential in predicting the observed ratio. Budget and lifetime calculations show that, due to relatively low source rates of oceanic non-sea-salt-sulfate and sea-salt, the anthropogenic signature in aerosol volume remains significant even after 8 days of MBL transport.
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    Cloud condensation nuclei spectra derived from size distributions and hygroscopic properties of the aerosol in coastal south-west Portugal during ACE-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2016) Dusek, Ulrike; Covert, David S.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Neusüss, Christian; Weise, Diana; Cantrell, Will
    In this work we propose and test a method to calculate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra basedon aerosol number size distributions and hygroscopic growth factors. Sensitivity studies show thatthis method can be used in a wide variety of conditions except when the aerosol consist mainly oforganic compounds. One crucial step in the calculations, estimating soluble ions in an aerosol particlebased on hygroscopic growth factors, is tested in an internal hygroscopic consistency study. The resultsshow that during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) the number concentrationof inorganic ions analyzed in impactor samples could be reproduced from measured growth factorswithin the measurement uncertainties at the measurement site in Sagres, Portugal. CCN spectra were calculated based on data from the ACE-2 field experiment at the Sagres site.The calculations overestimate measured CCN spectra on average by approximately 30%, which iscomparable to the uncertainties in measurements and calculations at supersaturations below 0.5%. Thecalculated CCN spectra were averaged over time periods when Sagres received clean air masses and airmasses influenced by aged and recent pollution. Pollution outbreaks enhance the CCN concentrationsat supersaturations near 0.2% by a factor of 3 (aged pollution) to 5 (recent pollution) compared to theclean marine background concentrations. In polluted air masses, the shape of the CCN spectra changes.The clean spectra can be approximated by a power function, whereas the polluted spectra are betterapproximated by an error function.